Session 2b - Starr and Kruger - Measuring women's empowerment

402 views

Published on

Presentation by Laurie Starr (TANGO) and Elizabeth Kruger (CARE) at "A Learning Event for the Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index," held November 21, 2013 in Washington DC.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
402
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
26
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Objective 1: To increase the productive engagement of 52,000 poor women in sustainable agriculture, and contribute to their empowerment;Objective 2: To enhance the scale of high-quality, women-responsive agriculture programming; Objective 3: To contribute to the global discourse that surrounds women and agriculture.These are complex, inter-related relationships that we are learning more about and testing our theory of change.Notes: Mention the fact that we work across a range of smallholders – a range of incomes, some with land and some without; some socially marginalized, others less so; some labor constrained, and others notAnticipated OutcomesImproved knowledge, skills, relationships, self-confidence, convictionImproved access to productive resources, assets, markets, and appropriate and reliable services and inputsImprovements in yield and income through the adoption of sustainable agriculture and engaging in value addition for marketsWomen farmers increased contribution to, and influence over household decision making and incomeMore positive and enabling attitudes, behaviors, social norms, policies and institutions
  • Anticipated OutcomesImproved knowledge, skills, relationships, self-confidence, convictionImproved access to productive resources, assets, markets, and appropriate and reliable services and inputsImprovements in yield and income through the adoption of sustainable agriculture and engaging in value addition for marketsWomen farmers increased contribution to, and influence over household decision making and incomeMore positive and enabling attitudes, behaviors, social norms, policies and institutions
  • Fieldwork was July – November of 2012
  • Agnes Q. and Laurie S. also part of panel discussion.
  • 1. Comprehensive and detailed information across domains which lead to strategic conversations and inform programming 2. Staff and partners reflect on why things are happening the way they are (awareness) and provide platform for discussions around gender and power issues3. Internal dialogue at CARE for common multi-dimensional systems for measuring empowerment in different sectors4. “Know what we are shooting for”
  • Interpreting index results in a meaningful and actionable way is challenging and value in calculating index score difficult so far.Need to reallocate resources and time programming in critical areas, implications on workplans. Should you do WEAI during program design?
  • Session 2b - Starr and Kruger - Measuring women's empowerment

    1. 1. Women’s Empowerment Measurement November 21, 2013 Laurie Starr, TANGO International Elizabeth Kruger, CARE
    2. 2. Pathways: Women in Agriculture Program The goal of Pathways is to increase poor women smallholder farmers’ productivity and empowerment in more equitable agriculture systems at scale. 2
    3. 3. 3 December 16, 2013
    4. 4. Pathways Baseline - 2012 Malawi Tanzania Ghana Mali Bangladesh India Total # of households surveyed 763 849 175 785 454 923 3949 # of focus groups 36 36 12 40 48 208 36 • Quantitative household surveys with both women and men • Qualitative research • Female, male, and mixed focus groups (200 + total) • Participatory tools • Seasonal calendars • 24-hour time allocation analysis • Decision-making matrices • Venn diagrams • Key informant interviews (as many as 50 per country) 4 December 16, 2013
    5. 5. Rationale for using WEAI • Need for tested measurement tool to capture domains that are part of program design • WEAI closely aligned with program focus, theory of change levers, and indicators of interest • Learning opportunity to test WEAI across multiple countries and contexts and inform MLE systems • But…knew it would require some adaptations for use for Pathways program 5 December 16, 2013
    6. 6. Domain PRODUCTION Indicator Weight Input in productive decisions 1/10 Sole or joint ownership of assets 1/15 Decision-making control over assets 1/15 Control over household income and expenditures 1/5 Group participation 1/20 Satisfaction with time available for leisure 1/15 (20%) RESOURCES (20%) INCOME (20%) LEADERSHIP & COMMUNITY (20%) TIME/ AUTONOMY (20%) Total 100%
    7. 7. Domain PRODUCTION (20%) RESOURCES (20%) INCOME (20%) LEADERSHIP & COMMUNITY Indicator Weight Input in productive decisions 1/10 Autonomy in production domains 1/10 Sole or joint ownership of assets 1/15 Decision-making control over assets 1/15 Access to and decisions on credit 1/15 Control over household income and expenditures 1/5 Group participation 1/20 Speaking in public 1/20 Satisfaction with time available for leisure 1/15 (20%) TIME/ AUTONOMY (20%) Total 100%
    8. 8. Domain Indicator Weight Input in productive decisions 1/10 Autonomy in production domains 1/10 Sole or joint ownership of assets 1/15 Decision-making control over assets 1/15 Access to and decisions on credit 1/15 Control over household income and expenditures 1/5 Group participation 1/20 Speaking in public 1/20 (20%) Self-confidence Political participation 1/20 1/20 TIME/ Satisfaction with time available for leisure 1/15 Mobility 1/15 Attitudes that support gender equitable roles in HH 1/15 PRODUCTION (20%) RESOURCES (20%) INCOME (20%) LEADERSHIP & COMMUNITY AUTONOMY (20%) Total 100%
    9. 9. Analysis with original thresholds Extremely high rates of baseline achievement > 80% of women considered to be empowered > 90% achievement for individual indicators What does this mean for project focus?
    10. 10. Adjusting indicator thresholds- Malawi Indicator: Sole or joint control over purchase or sale of assets Original threshold Woman has sole or joint control for at least one type of asset.* Adjusted threshold # of asset types* for which women have sole or joint control ____________________________________ # of assets types reported by household Must be > .75 Result – 93% achieve Result – 62% achieve *except if only poultry or non-mechanized equipment
    11. 11. Comparing aggregate index value Domain Indicator With decision-making input for HH productive PRODUCTION decision domains With autonomy in HH production domains With sole or joint ownership of household assets With sole or joint control over purchase or sale of household assets With access to and decisions on credit With control over household income and INCOME expenditures in HH decision-making domains Participating in formal and informal groups Confident speaking about gender and other LEADERSHIP & community issues at the local level COMMUNITY Demonstrating political participation RESOURCES Who express self-confidence AUTONOMY Satisfied with the amount of time available for leisure activities Achieving a mobility score of 16 or greater Expressing attitudes that support gender equitable roles in family life Bangla desh India 5 of 5 2 of 5 1 of 5 3 of 5 1 of 5 1 of 5 1 of 5 1 of 5 1 of 5 ≥ 75% ≥ 75% ≥ 75% ≥ 50% ≥ 50% ≥ 50% ≥ 75% ≥ 75% ≥ 75% ≥ 50% ≥ 50% ≥ 80% N/A N/A ≥ 60% ≥ 60% N/A N/A N/A 3 of 4 3 of 4 3 of 4 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 5 of 7 5 of 7 5 of 7 5 of 7 -- 5 of 7 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Malawi Tanzania Mali 5 of 5 5 of 5 1 of 5 N/A Ghana N/A N/A N/A ≥ 60% ≥ 50% ≥ 60% ≥ 70% N/A N/A 2 of 4 2 of 3 N/A 3 of 4
    12. 12. Results- Empowerment Index Score Malawi % of women achieving empowerment Ghana Mali Bangladesh India .66 .58 .47 .32 .29 .46 23.2* Empowerment index score Tanzania 13.1* 1.7* 2.2* 0.0 4.4* 763 819 173 776 454 924 (score of .80 or greater) n *Significantly different between male- and female-headed households within individual countries at p < .05/ India (p < .10) Empowerment index score = aggregate value of the weighted average of the 13 indicators
    13. 13. Field and Analysis Lessons Length of survey – Separate measurement activities? Field teams – if budget allows, follow IFPRI guidance! Female/male enumerators & concurrent administration of survey Measuring joint decision-making – Response codes for “input to productive decisions” may offer more precise measurement Standardizing empowerment
    14. 14. Highlighting Country Experience and Expertise Dr. Pranati Mohanraj, CARE India, presents on measuring women’s empowerment for Pathways at the American Evaluation Association Conference October 17, 2013.
    15. 15. Reflections and Challenges - India • Seemingly high achievement of empowerment with index • In reality, it’s not that high and more nuanced • Gendered rules and norms taken for granted • Women have no or very little leisure “personal” time (<1 hour), in spite of this“90% of women were satisfied with leisure time • Women’s internalization of social status of persons of lesser value - questions came as a surprise to women: • Have you ever met with an agricultural extension worker? • Who makes decisions on crops that are grown/household expenditures? Taking out loans? 15 December 16, 2013
    16. 16. Implications for CARE 1. Multi-dimensional comparisons enable more strategic discussions and planning 2. Data are making gender issues real for staff/partners 3. Contribute to CARE-wide discussions on WE measurement 4. Benchmarks give a common vision 5. Inform program monitoring systems: • • 16 December 16, 2013 Refining decision-making response options not just “jointly” or “both” Land access and acquisition
    17. 17. Challenges on the Road Ahead 1. Value of calculating index score remains unclear 2. Results can lead to highly unanticipated program design and change demands 17 December 16, 2013
    18. 18. Key Takeaways • Complimentary qualitative inquiry is a must! • Context-specific thresholds • Benefits outweigh the loss of identical metrics across countries • Consider critical gaps in domains and methodology 18 December 16, 2013

    ×