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  2. 2. Introduction to HAN Human Area Networking is a technology that safely turns the surface of the human body into a data transmission path at speeds up to 10 Mbps between Any two points on the body. Human body is surrounded by a minute electric field Data travels across the body’s natural electric field A circuit is created when a person touches a object
  3. 3. History of HAN •  The concept of intra-body communication was first proposed by IBM in 1996. •  This communication mechanism was later evaluated and reported by several research groups around the world. • All those reported technologies had two limitations
  4. 4. Limitations… <ul><li>1. The operating range through the body was limited to a few tens of centimeters. </li></ul><ul><li>2.  The top communication speed was only 40 bit/s. </li></ul><ul><li>  These limitations were overcome by NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation) located in Tokyo, Japan by using photonic electric field sensors and finally came up with a human area networking technology called ‘ RED TACTON’. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Electro-optic sensor <ul><li>The electro-optic sensor has three key features: </li></ul><ul><li>It can measure electric fields from a device under test (DUT) without contacting it, which minimizes measurement disturbance. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra wide-band measurement is possible. </li></ul><ul><li>It supports one-point contact measurement that is independent of the ground, which is the most significant feature in the present context. </li></ul><ul><li>NTT utilized this third feature to fabricate an intra body communication receiver for its human area networking technology, which is called RedTacton . </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is Red Tacton ? TACTON “touch-act-on” Meaning “action triggered by touching”. RED It is an auspicious color according to Japanese culture
  7. 7. <ul><li>  Red Tacton is a new Human Area Networking technology that turns the surface of the human body as a safe, high speed network transmission path. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is possible using any body surfaces, such as the hands, fingers, arms, feet, face, legs or toes. </li></ul><ul><li>Red Tacton works through shoes and clothing as well.   </li></ul><ul><li>Red Tacton uses the minute electric field emitted </li></ul><ul><li>on the surface of the human body for data transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>NTT developed super sensitive photonic electric field sensor for detecting minute electric field emitted on the surface of the human body. </li></ul>
  8. 8. RedTacton transceiver Above figure shows a photograph of the RedTacton transceiver connected to a PDA and block diagram shows the RedTacton transceiver developed by NTT.
  9. 9. RedTacton transceiver  <ul><li>  The transmitter consists of a transmitter circuit that induces electric fields toward the body and a data sense circuit, which distinguishes transmitting and receiving modes by detecting both transmission and reception data and outputs control signals corresponding to the two modes to enable two-way communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of receive-first half-duplex communication scheme that sends only after checking to make sure that there is no data to receive in order to avoid packet collisions </li></ul><ul><li>  RedTacton takes advantage of the long-overlooked electric field that surrounds the human body. </li></ul>
  10. 10. How RedTacton works?
  11. 11. <ul><li>The RedTacton transmitter induces a weak electric field on the surface of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The RedTacton receiver senses changes in the weak electric field on the surface of the body caused by the transmitter. </li></ul><ul><li>RedTacton relies upon the principle that the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal can vary according to the changes of a weak electric field. </li></ul><ul><li>RedTacton detects changes in the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal using a laser and converts the result to an electrical signal in a optical receiver circuit. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mechanism of Communication   The naturally occurring electric field induced on the surface of the human body dissipates into the earth.  Therefore, this electric field is exceptionally faint and unstable. The photonic electric field sensor developed by NTT enables weak electric fields to be measured by detecting changes in the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal with laser beam.
  13. 13. Functional Features
  14. 14. Features <ul><li>Touch: Communication with just a touch or step </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband & Interactive: Duplex, interactive communication is possible at a maximum speed of 10Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Any-Media: In addition to the human body, various conductors and dielectrics can be used as transmission media. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Touch Touching, gripping, sitting, walking, stepping and other human movements can be the triggers for unlocking or locking, starting or stopping equipment, or obtaining data
  16. 16. Broadband & Interactive Communication speed can deteriorate in crowded spaces due to a lack of bandwidth in the case of Wireless LAN but in RedTacton, device drivers can be downloaded instantly and executable programs can be quickly sent.
  17. 17. Any Media <ul><li>Conductors: Signal travel along the surface of the materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Dielectrics: Signals pass through materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Conductors + Dielectrics: Combinations of traveling along and passing through materials. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Applicable fields of RedTacton <ul><li>One-to-one services </li></ul><ul><li>Intuitive operation </li></ul><ul><li>Personalization </li></ul><ul><li>New behavior patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Security applications </li></ul>
  19. 19.      One-to-One services Uses Touch feature <ul><li>An alarm sounds automatically to avoid accidental medicine ingestion. </li></ul><ul><li>Touching advertising and receive information </li></ul>
  20. 20.      Intuitive operation of personal information devices Uses Touch and Broadband & Interactive feature <ul><li>Touch a printer to print </li></ul><ul><li>Instantaneous private network via personal handshake </li></ul>
  21. 21. Device personalization Uses Touch and Broadband & Interactive feature <ul><li>Just sitting in the seat triggers the car to load all its presets as the way you like. </li></ul><ul><li>Just touching a phone makes it your own. </li></ul>
  22. 22. New behavior patterns Uses Broadband & Interactive and Any media feature <ul><li>Connect to the network just by putting a lap-top on a table </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless headset </li></ul>
  23. 23. Security applications Uses Touch, Broadband & Interactive and Any media feature <ul><li>User verification and unlocking with just a touch </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic access log for confidential document storage </li></ul>
  24. 24. Evaluation criteria Wireless LAN Infrared RedTacton   Transfer speed (Can DVD-quality images be sent?) E P E Performance deterioration during periods of congestion (Simultaneous use by many people in small spaces) P E E Duplex data transfer (Interactive processing) E E E
  25. 25. CONCLUSION & FUTURE DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>This technology definitely stands out with perfection, when transfer of data is fast, feasible and more importantly reliable. So, in few years from now everything is going to fall under this super technology. NTT says it is committed to “moving RedTacton out of the laboratory and into commercial production quickly as possible by orgnizn”. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>NTT is also trying to shrink the RedTacton transceiver down to the size of a compact flash card or smaller so it can be slotted into cellphones, PDAs, and digital cameras. In theory, this would let you upload a spreadsheet from the PDA in your pocket to a friend’s smart phone by touching hands. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  27. 27. THANK YOU