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Session 41 Mathias Magnusson


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Session 41 Mathias Magnusson

  1. 1. Transportforum 2012, January 11-12th Linköping NOx Abatement Technique for Marine Applications Improved SCR Systems Mathias Magnusson PhD Student Department of Shipping and Marine Technology Sustainable Ship Propulsion 1
  2. 2. Outline• Background• Paper I:The influence of sulfur dioxide and water on the performance of a marine SCR catalyst- Method- Results and Concluding Remarks• Paper II: A system perspective on practical experiences of marine SCR installations- Method- Results and Concluding Remarks• Final concluding remarks and Outlook 2
  3. 3. Background• Environmental implications of NOx?- Eutrophication- Acidification- Contribution to ground level ozone- Contribution to secondary particulate matter (PM)• NOx emissions from shipping?- Global level: suggested that approx. 15% of all global anthropogenic NOx emissions originates from vessels, with approx. 70% occurring within 400 km of land.- European level: NOx emission from international shipping (EU) is projected to increase by 67% between 2000 and 2020  exceeding the total of all land-based sources in EU-25 in 2020.- Regional level: NOx emission from vessels in the Baltic Sea during 2007 ~ 122 ktones of nitrogen  Sweden ~ 50 ktones of nitrogen.- Swedish level: In addition, EMEP 2011 suggests 20% by shipping 3
  4. 4. Background• Incentives and regulations for reduced NOx emission from shipping?- The Norwegian NOx fund and the Swedish environmentally differentiated fairway dues- IMO’s Revised MARPOL Annex VI – Reg. 13 Demand for NOx abatement technology! 4
  5. 5. Background• NOx abatement technologies- Primary (combustion); IEM, EGR, Water techniques, LNG…- Secondary (after-treatment); SCR• Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) 5
  6. 6. Method Paper I• The aim: investigate how sulfur, water and low temperatures affect an SCR- experimental flow reactor studies- commercial vanadia-based washcoated urea-SCR catalyst for marine applications ������������������������������������������������ ������������ ������������������ ������������������������ ������������ = ������������������������������������ ������������ ������������������ ������������������������������������������������ 6
  7. 7. Flow reactor studies on SCR-activity as a function of SO2-concentration 200 ppm SO2 ≈ 1 wt.% SFeed gas composition:500 ppm NO, 500 ppmNH3, 8% O2 and 100-1100 ppm SO2 (350oCand 12200 h-1) 7
  8. 8. Flow reactor studies on SCR-activity as a function of temperature (SO2 + H2O)Feed gas composition:500 ppm NO, 500 ppmNH3, 8 % O2, 500 ppmSO2 and 4 % H2O (SV6100 h-1 or 300oC) 8
  9. 9. Concluding Remarks Paper I• In general, the addition of SO2, in the absence of water, promotes NOx reduction and NH3 conversion along with increased formation of N2O Formation of new acid sites that improve NH3 adsorption?• In general, the addition of water, in the absence of SO2, decrease NOx reduction and NH3 conversion along with reduced formation of N2O Competitive adsorption on vanadia sites and reduced NH3 oxidation?• In general, in the presence of both SO2 and water, the activity for NOx reduction decreases at high concentrations of SO2 (>500 ppm) low temperatures (< 300oC) and high space velocities (> 12200 h-1) Complementary studies suggest formation of ammonium sulfates? 9
  10. 10. Method Paper II• The aim: identify important technical, human and organizational conditions necessary for safe, efficient and sustainable operations of SCR- Combination of focus group interviews (n=6+2) and individual interviews (n=5)- Theme: 1) Installation; newbuilding and retrofit, decision making, stakeholder communication 2) Operation, service and maintenance; usability, accessibility, manuals, support, outage 3) Knowledge and training; before and after installation, knowledge transfer 10
  11. 11. Practical experiences of marine SCR installation• Installation- Corporate environmental image and commercial benefits- Price is the prime consideration, and flexibility and adaptability second• Operation, service and maintenance- Urea quality and logistics- Technical design issues: operating temperature, the space requirements & dimensions, urea injection, high gas velocities and insufficient mixing of urea and exhaust gases- Risks to the crew and/or service personnel- No claims regarding SCR – the owners carry the cost 11
  12. 12. Practical experiences of marine SCR installation• Knowledge and training- SCR is complex, chemical reactions not well understood- SCR did not require any special training or knowledge, but some had arranged extra training for their crew. (Note: hundreds of systems and the SCR is not a safety-critical system!)- SCR suppliers are interested in improved training- Cargo owners supposed sufficient training – safe and efficient operation 12
  13. 13. Concluding Remarks Paper II• Clear and concise incentives are needed Regulations, customer demands or other commercial benefits?• Design and operational challenges Supply and quality of urea, urea-injection, exhaust gas composition due to various marine fuel and lubrication oils?• Lack of structure for training, development and transfer of knowledge of SCR (chemical and practical) Increased risk for occupational accidents and unnecessary harmful emissions to the environment? (Cost x 3) 13
  14. 14. Final Concluding Remarks and Outlook• SCR is a highly efficient NOx abatement technology, but…- …certain risks of deactivation, but may be avoided…(exhaust gas temperature, space velocity and sulfur concentrations)- …high overall efficiency requires appropriate and sufficient knowledge of how the system works and what the prerequisites are to achieve successful SCR operation• Outlook- Flow reactor experiments using different types of urea?- Flow reactor experiments with varying diesel exhaust gas compositions? 14
  15. 15. Thank you for the attention!Mathias MagnussonPhD StudentShipping and Marine TechnologySustainable Ship PropulsionChalmers University of TechnologyPhone: +46(0)31-772 36 15Mobile: +46(0)72-194 87 88E-mail: mathias.magnusson@chalmers.seWeb: 15