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New Ballast Technology Regulations

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The speakers on the panel will provide different perspectives on how ballast water regulation and technology has created the current state of invasive species in the Great Lakes. This workshop will …

The speakers on the panel will provide different perspectives on how ballast water regulation and technology has created the current state of invasive species in the Great Lakes. This workshop will also enable participants to understand the regulatory challenges facing ballast water today while fully appreciating the current state of technology that is rising to the challenge of invaders. This presentation was given by Craig Middlebrook, Deputy Administrator, U.S. Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation.


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  • 1. New  Ballast  Technology  Regula3ons  –     The  U.S.  Seaway’s  Perspec3ve   September  11,  2013   Craig H. Middlebrook, Deputy Administrator Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation 1
  • 2.   Na$onwide/Interna$onal  Regulatory  Regime     •  EPA  2013  Vessel  General  Permit   –  U.S.  Lakers  and  some  Canadian  Lakers  excluded   –  Addi$onal  rules  for  Great  Lakes  entry  (BWE/Saltwater  Flushing  +   Treatment)   –  Phased  implementa9on  (2013  –  2016+)   •  USCG  Final  Rule   –  U.S.  and  Canadian  lakers  exempt   –  Phases  out  BWE  en9rely   –  Phased  implementa9on  (2013  –  2016+)   Both EPA and USCG adopt the IMO D-2 technology-based numeric standard for discharges. 2
  • 3.   How  we  arrived  at  this  Regulatory  Regime     •  An  unusual  situa9on  to  have  shared  regulatory  authority  over   such  an  important  ac9vity  (ballast  water  discharge).   •  EPA  Permit  and  USCG  Final  Rule  were  years  in  the  making  and   incorporated  the  latest  scien9fic  informa9on  and  public  input.   •  Significantly,  both  are  based  on  enforceable  standards  that  can   be  measured  and  verified.   •  Extensive  tes9ng  protocols  were  collabora9vely  developed  to   ensure  technology  used  is  safe,  effec9ve  and  measurable.   3
  • 4.   The  importance  of  measurable  and  enforceable   standards     •  Dr.  Henry  Lee,  et  al.  2009  (Density  MaWers)  paraphrase:  Strong   enforcement  with  a  less  stringent  standard  is  more  effec9ve  than   a  stringent  standard  that  cannot  be  enforced.     •  Said  another  way:        “A  good  plan  violently  executed  now          is  beCer  than  a  perfect  plan          executed  next  week.”   4
  • 5. The  States  came  to  this  understanding  as  well:     2009   State   Regula$on   Exis$ng   Oceangoing   New  Oceangoing   Exis$ng   Laker   New  Laker   IL   401  Cer9fica9on     IMO  by  2016   IMO  2012  &  a]er   IMO  by  2016   IMO  a]er  2012   IN   401  Cer9fica9on     IMO  by  2016     IMO  2012  &  a]er   None   None   OH   401  Cer9fica9on   IMO  by  2016   IMO  2012  &  a]er   None   IMO  2016  &   a]er   MN   State  Permit   401  Cer9fica9on   IMO  by  2016   IMO  2012  &  a]er   IMO  by  2016   IMO  2012  &   a]er   MI   State  Permit     401  Cer9fica9on   MI-­‐approved   treatment   MI-­‐approved   treatment   None   PA   401  Cer9fica9on     IMO  by  2016     1000  x  IMO    in   2012  &  a]er   IMO  by  2016   1000  x  IMO  in   2012  &  a]er   NY   401  Cer9fica9on     100  x  IMO  by     2012   1000  x  IMO  in   2013  &  a]er   100  x  IMO   by    2012   WI   State  Permit   100x  IMO  by   2014   100x  IMO  2012  &   BMP  plan     a]er   None   1000  x  IMO  in   2013  &  a]er   BMP  plan      
  • 6. The  States  came  to  this  understanding  as  well:     2013   State   Regula$on   Exis$ng   Oceangoing   New  Oceangoing   Exis$ng   Laker   New  Laker   IL   401  Cer9fica9on     VGP   Requirement   VGP   Requirement   VGP   VGP   Requirement   Requirement   IN   401  Cer9fica9on     VGP   Requirement   VGP   Requirement   VGP   VGP   Requirement   Requirement   OH   401  Cer9fica9on   VGP   Requirement   VGP   Requirement   VGP   VGP   Requirement   Requirement   MN   State  Permit   401  Cer9fica9on   IMO  by  1/1/2016   IMO   IMO  by  2016   IMO  2012  &   &  BMP   BMP   MI   State  Permit     401  Cer9fica9on   MI-­‐approved   treatment   MI-­‐approved   treatment   VGP   VGP   Requirement   Requirement   PA   401  Cer9fica9on     VGP   Requirement   VGP   Requirement   VGP   VGP   Requirement   Requirement   NY   401  Cer9fica9on     VGP   Requirement   VGP   Requirement   BMP   BMP   WI   State  Permit   401  Cer9fica9on   VGP   Requirement   VGP   Requirement   BMP   BMP      
  • 7.   Current    Great  Lakes  St.  Lawrence  Seaway   Regulatory  Regime   •    is  unique:   The  Seaway  Inspec$on  Program   –  Vessels  entering  the  lakes  are  coming  from  a  saltwater  environment   and  entering  extremely  fresh  waters.   –  100%  of  ballast  tanks  are  targeted  for  inspec9on     •  Effec$veness  of  program  confirmed  by  scien$fic  analysis.   –   Gray  et  al.  2007:  Efficacy  of  open-­‐ocean  ballast  water  exchange  as  a   means  of  preven>ng  invertebrate  invasions  between  freshwater  ports.   –  Bailey  et  al.  2011:  Evalua>ng  Efficacy  of  an  Environmental  Policy  to   Prevent  Biological  Invasions.   7
  • 8. The  Seaway  is  the   Luxembourg  of   Ballast  Water  Regula$on     USCG EPA SEAWAY 8
  • 9. Seaway  =  Gatekeeper  to  the  Great  Lakes   9
  • 10. .   •  Great  Lakes  Aqua$c  Nonindigenous  Species  Informa$on  System   –  Database  of  species  introduced  by  a  number  of  pathways  including   shipping.     •  There  have  been  no  detec9ons  of  new  invaders  introduced  via   shipping  since  2006.     •  This  is  a  tenta9ve  indica9on  that  the  current  regulatory  regime  is   working  to  protect  the  Great  Lakes  from  new  aqua9c  invaders  via   the  shipping  vector.   10
  • 11.   Availability  of  Technology       •  The  USCG  Type  Approval  process  is  proceeding  ahead,  albeit   slowly.   •  The  importance  of  establishing  (finally)  scien9fically  sound   tes9ng  protocols  and  Independent  Laboratories.   •  Number  of  systems  in  the   Alternate  Management  System     program:  15   •  Number  of  USCG  Type  Approved  Systems:    0   •  The  availability  of  USCG  Type  Approved  systems  will  drive  the   ul9mate  adop9on  of  BWTS  (this  is  due  to  liability  issues).   11
  • 12.   Availability  of  Technology  for  the  Great  Lakes     •  Not  surprisingly,  the  Great  lakes  Seaway  System  presents  special   challenges  to  the  adop9on  of  BWTS.   •  Given  the  ecosystem  of  the  Great  Lakes  (very  cold  and  very   fresh),  and  the  limited  size  of  the  Great  Lakes  fleets,  there  are   simply  no  treatment  systems  currently  designed  or  available  to   operate  in  the  Great  Lakes  Seaway  System.   •  “Hybrid”  systems  are  being  researched  and  tested.   •  Research  con9nues  to  assess  the  risk  of  spread  by  vessels   confined  to  the  Great  Lakes.   12
  • 13.   When  will  BWTS  arrive  on  vessels  opera$ng  in  the   Great  Lakes?   •   is  unclear  at  this  point  if  the  newly   Progress  is  being  made,  but  it   established  deadlines  can  be  met.   •  In  the  mean9me,  a  scien9fically  based  regulatory  and  inspec9on   regime  is  in  place  to  ensure  that  best  prac9ces  con9nue  to  be   implemented.     Take-Home Message Effective, well-functioning BWTS are still years away for the Great Lakes, yet current regulations are being rigorously enforced and providing effective protection against the introduction of additional aquatic invasive species via shipping. 13
  • 14. Thank  You  !   Many  of  the  reports  and  other  data  sources   men$oned  in  this  presenta$on  can  be  found  on  the   Seaway’s  website  or  via  Facebook:   www.greatlakes-­‐seaway.com   www.facebook.com/usdotslsdc       Craig  Middlebrook   Saint  Lawrence  Seaway  Development  Corpora$on   U.S.  Department  of  Transporta$on 14