Prioritizing Emerging Contaminants and Control Strategies


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Emerging contaminants in the Great Lakes present a new threat to human and ecological health due to chal- lenges associated with tracking and understanding their impacts. The workshop presenters will discuss how large water and wastewater utilities approach the issue of emerging contaminants, highlight the challenges, and provide recommendations for future action. This presentation was given by Lon Couillard, Water Quality Manager, Milwaukee Water Works.

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Prioritizing Emerging Contaminants and Control Strategies

  1. 1. Milwaukee Water Works Chemicals of Emerging Concern in the Great Lakes HOW Conference September 2013 Lon A. Couillard Water Quality Manager
  2. 2. Milwaukee Water Works Ozonation Facilities and Treatment Established in 1998 Major Water Quality goals identified at that time: • Disinfection of pathogens (Cryptosporidium) • Disinfection by-products reduction • Taste & odor control • Oxidation of organics (Biological Filtration)
  3. 3. Milwaukee Water Works Much New information has come along since 1998 - Emerging Pollutants list continues to grow •  Endocrine disruptors •  Pharmaceuticals •  Brominated flame retardants •  Personal care products
  4. 4. What are the sources of these new emerging contaminants? •  Sewage treatment plant discharges •  Disposal of expired and unused consumer products, including prescription drugs •  Farm animal feed additives, veterinary drugs •  Consumer products including Over-the counter (OTCs) containing antimicrobials, fragrances, dyes, etc •  medical wastes from/used in diagnostic procedures
  5. 5. State and Federal Regulatory Agenda recognizes this emerging contaminant trend as well: UCMR (Unregulated contaminant monitoring rule) sampling & monitoring required of selected water utilities - UCMR- Phase 1 in 2005 UCMR- Phase 2 in 2008 UCMR- Phase 3 started in 2013
  6. 6. Milwaukee Water Works Early Monitoring Program In 2004, started the Endocrine Disruptor testing; two component groups •  Estrogenic compounds and hormones •  Phenolic endocrine disruptor compounds •  Total list of 18 specific parameters
  7. 7. Milwaukee Water Works Early Monitoring Program • Started Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products PPCPs in 2005 Acetaminophen Caffeine Carbamazepine Cotinine Tylosin DEET Ibuprofen Lincomycin Sulfadimethoxine Sulfamethazine Sulfamethoxazole Sulfamethoxazole Triclosan Trimethoprim 1, 7-Dimethylxanthine •  This list is 1/2 animal antibiotics
  8. 8. Milwaukee Water Works Environmental Monitoring Program is a Constantly Evolving Process •  Data and information gathering phase •  Locating labs that can perform tests •  Dealing with changing detection limits •  Media coverage •  Surge of information on the Internet
  9. 9. Milwaukee Water Works Important Notes: •  There is a knowledge gap between what we purchase and use as consumers, and what water utilities and environmental labs are able to monitor in the environment •  Case in point -
  10. 10. Top 60 Prescribed Prescription Drugs, 2010* 1. Hydrocodone/APAP 2. Amoxicillin 3. Hydrocodone/APAP 4. Lipitor 5. Levothyroxine Sodium 6. Lisinopril 7. Simvastatin 8. Plavix 9. Nexium 10. Singulair 11. Metoprolol Tartrate 12. Simvastatin 13. Lexapro 14. Synthroid 15. Azithromycin 16. Crestor 17. Levothyroxine Sodium 18. Proair HFA 19. Metformin HCl 20. Sertraline HCl 21. Ibuprofen (Rx) 22. Metoprolol Succinate 23. Azithromycin 24. Zolpidem Tartrate 25. Advair Diskus 26. Furosemid 27. Hydrochlorothiazide 28. Omeprazole (Rx) 29. Trazodone HCl 30. Lisinopril 31. Simvastatin 32. Diovan 33. Tramadol HCl 34. Oxycodone/APAP 35. Cymbalta 36. Warfarin Sodium 37. Amlodipine Besylate 38. Omeprazole (Rx) 39. Oxycodone/APAP 40. Amlodipine Besylate 41. Sulfamethoxazole/ Trimethoprim 42. Seroquel 43. Promethazine HCl 44. Ventolin HFA 45. Fluticasone Propionate 46. Alprazolam 47. Clonazepam 48. Amoxicillin Trihydrate/ Potassium Clavulanate 49. Hydrochlorothiazide 50. Warfarin Sodium 51. Diovan HCT 52. Actos Pravastatin Sodium 54. Oxycodone/APAP 55. Vitamin D (Rx) Fluoxetine HCl 57. Alprazolam 58. Lantus Atenolol 60. Fluconazole *Data Courtesy of 2012 53. 56. 59.
  11. 11. Milwaukee Water Works Our PPCP list – 2010 Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products Acetaminophen Antipyrine Atenolol Azithromycin Bacitracin Bezafibrate Caffeine Carbadox Carbamazepine Chloramphenicol Chlorotetracycline Ciprofloxacin Clofibric acid Cotinine DEET Diclofenac Dilantin Diazepam Diltiazem Doxycycline Enrofloxacin Erythromycin Fluoxetine (Prozac) Gemfibrozil Ibuprofen Iopromide Lasalocid Levothyroxine (Synthroid) Lincomycin Meprobamate Monensin Naproxen Narasin Nicotine Norfloxacin Oleandomycin Oxytetracycline Paraxanthine Penicillin-G Penicillin-V Prednisone Primidone Roxithromycin Salinomycin Simvastatin Sulfachloropyridazine Sulfadiazine Sulfadimethoxine Sulfamerazine Sulfamethazine Sulfamethizole Sulfamethoxazole Sulthiazole Tetracycline Theobromine Theophylline Triclosan Trimethoprim Tylosin Virginiamycin M1
  12. 12. Problems and Challenges of Current Analytical Methodologies* •  Certified methods not readily available •  Significant method variation in sensitivity, recoveries, and precision •  Significantly varied QC criteria from lab to lab •  Significant matrix effects •  Optimum sample preservation not established •  Lack of standardization on sample stability and hold time *Water Research Foundation Report # 4167, March 2012
  13. 13. Problems and Challenges of Current Analytical Methodologies* common, due to lab and water, data is suspect Mass Balance Figure published in Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 8:9 (2006) by Peck, A. and Hornbuckle, K. Environmental Sources, Occurrence, and Effects of Synthetic Musk Fragrances
  14. 14. Milwaukee Water Works Lessons Learned so far •  Expect the unexpected •  False-positives are common, due to lab and cross-contamination •  Ways to minimize surprise detects – collect in duplicate, require both a lab blank and a trip blank, collect at two points in treatment process •  If the contaminant is found in the finished water but not your source water, data is suspect
  15. 15. Ozone Oxidation of Endocrine Disruptors and Pharmaceuticals •  In recent study of drinking water treatment, the majority of target compounds (36) were removed by > 90% at ozone doses commonly used for disinfection* •  Only 6 of 36 compounds showed removals less than 50% in finished drinking waters Implementation of ozone for water treatment is likely The most cost effective measure for removing the majority of PPCPs * Data courtesy of WRF Report # 91188, Published 2007 Shane A. Snyder at al.
  16. 16. Treatability of Algal Toxins Using Ozone Oxidation Technologies •  Cyanobacteria and their toxins are an emerging water quality concern •  Studies conducted using Microcystis algal species have shown that Microcystis toxin (m-LR) is effectively destroyed by ozonation •  Ozone doses as low as 0.4 ppm achieved significant m-LR removals (>97 %) at or below pH 7* * data provided courtesy of WRF Report #2839 published July 2010
  17. 17. As the great philosopher POGO once said, We have met the enemy, and he is us In this case, we have met the polluter, and he is us. We as citizens and consumers purchase the products that end up in our environment
  18. 18. What can we do? As citizens and consumers? We can purchase more environmentally-friendly products • Buy fragrance-free and dye-free laundry detergent products • Purchase allergen-free lotion for hands and feet Often labeled as Hypoallergenic • Use less products containing syn musks – dryer sheets, hair and body sprays • Purchase biodegradable shampoos and body washes – better for our environment