Beacon Presentation EPA NARPM Annual Training
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Beacon Presentation EPA NARPM Annual Training



Presentation at EPA National Association of Remedial Project Managers -- Nov. 2012

Presentation at EPA National Association of Remedial Project Managers -- Nov. 2012



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Beacon Presentation EPA NARPM Annual Training Beacon Presentation EPA NARPM Annual Training Presentation Transcript

  • High Resolution Site Characterization and Indoor Air Sampling Techniques for VOCs/SVOCs Presented by: Harry O’Neill President Beacon Environmental Services, Inc.National Association of Remedial Project Managers Annual Training Program 30 November 2012 1
  • Road Map• Beacon Environmental: Background, Experience, and Certifications• Sorbent samplers• Passive Soil Gas (PSG) Surveys – High Resolution Site Characterization• PSG Survey Case Study – DoD Facility• Sorbent samplers to measure VOC concentrations• Passive Diffusion Samplers Case Study – 14 Day Sampling Period at DoD Facility• Conclusions 2
  • Experience -- The Company and the People• Beacon Environmental uses sorbent-based techniques to identify VOCs and SVOCs in soil vapor and indoor/ambient air• Beacon provides easy-to-use test kits for clients to collect samples• Analyses of the samples are performed at Beacon’s laboratory, which is DoD ELAP and ISO 17025 accredited for the analysis of soil gas and air samples• Beacon’s staff has managed soil gas investigations for more than 20 years working on DOD and DOE federal facilities within the USA and internationally, as well as on federal superfund sites. 3
  • Laboratory AccreditationBeacon is a specialized laboratory focused on providing highly accurate soil gas and air data Accredited in accordance with: U.S. DoD Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program (ELAP) ISO/IEC 17025:2005 Accredited Analytical Methods: U.S. EPA Methods 8260C, TO-17, and TO-15 Beacon’s Quality System ensures consistent and reliable results 4
  • Only EPA Method TO-17 DoD ELAP Accredited Lab 5
  • Only EPA Method 8260C DoD ELAP Accredited Lab -- Air 6
  • Field Sampling AccreditationBeacon provides our services through easy to use field kits, but also has trained personnel to collect soil gas or air samples Accredited in accordance with:TNI National Environmental Field Activities Program (NEFAP ) Accredited for Environmental Field Sampling (Air and Emissions) Accredited for the collection of soil gas and air samples. Passive and Active sampling methods. *First and only company in the nation to receive NEFAP accreditation.* 7
  • Sorbent Samplers – Passive and Active Sorbent samplers can target VOCs and SVOCsUsed for soil gas, indoor air, and ambient air applications Compact and easy-to-use Able to achieve very low detection limits 8
  • High Resolution Site Characterization – PSG Surveys High Resolution Site Characterization (HRSC) Passive soil gas surveys allow for the use of best management practices (BMP) to better characterize site PSG is a tool that collects “effective data” – data that meets the project objectives and is cost-effective1BEACON PSG Sampler High Quality Screening Data = Effective Data(1) Crumbling, D.M., C. Groenjes, B. Lesnik, K. Lynch, J. Shockley, J. van Ee, R.A. Howe, L.H. Keith, and J. McKenna. 2001.Managing Uncertainty in Environmental Decisions: Applying the Concept of Effective Data at Contaminated Sites Could ReduceCosts and Improve Cleanups. Environmental Science & Technology 35:9, pp. 404A-409A 9
  • What is high resolution?Sampling Grid with 90 Foot Spacing 10
  • High Resolution – Now you got the pictureHRSC Sampling Grid with 30 Foot Spacing 11
  • BEACON PSG Sampler Two types of Two pairs foradsorbents to duplicate ortarget a broad confirmatory range of analysis compounds ASTM Standards D5314 and D7758 CompliantThe sorbents need to be hydrophobic and the housing of the PSG Samplers should not contain sorptive materials (e.g., PDMS or other membranes) that may compete with the sorbents and bias results 12
  • Passive Soil Gas Sample Collection KitPassive Soil Gas Technologies are typically provided through sample collection kits and only require hand tools for sample collection. 13
  • Sampling Options Surface Placed: Static Flux Chambers Subsurface: Samplers installed in Completely non-intrusiveholes as shallow as 10 cm Sites with UXO or CWA concernsTypically installed in 3 cm diam. holes advanced to 14 30 cm to 1 m depth
  • Sustainable Technology Green CharacterizationTM IN THE FIELD No waste from soil cuttings are generated when sampling.Only hand tools required to collect samples -- no DPT or drill rigs.In-situ sample collection onto adsorbents that are reused, no waste. IN THE LABSamples analyzed using thermal desorption-gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) instrumentation. No solvents are used for sample extraction. A green site investigation relies on information gained from a thorough preliminary assessment that identifies target areas and site conditions through minimally intrusive techniques. -- USEPA OSWER Dec. 2009 15
  • Benefits of HRSC High Resolution Site Characterization (HRSC)High Density, Low Cost Low Density, High Cost 16
  • Routine TargetsHalogenated compounds Complex mixtures • PCE • Stoddard solvent • TCE • Paint thinners • DCEs Petroleum Blends • Vinyl chloride • Gasoline • TCA • Carbon tetrachloride • Fuel oil • Chloroform • Diesel • Freons • Jet Fuel • Chlorobenzene BTEX, MTBE and PAHs • Dichlorobenzenes • Naphthalene • Trichlorobenzenes • 2-Methylnaphthalene 17
  • Additional TargetsHeavier PAHs • Acenaphthalene, Fluorene, PyreneKetonesAlcoholsExplosives Total Nitrotoluenes & DNTs • Nitrotoluenes, Dinitrotoluenes, NitrobenzenesPesticidesChemical Warfare Agent (CWA) and Breakdown Products • Mustard, GB, VX, 1,4-Thioxane, 1,4-Dithiane, ThiodiglycolMercury (Hg) 18
  • HRSC Case Study: Source Area IdentificationObjectives:Identify sources ofcontamination in gwChallenges:Legacy contaminationremains fromundocumentedactivitiesHeavily wooded areaArea receivessignificant rainfall 19
  • HRSC Case Study: Source Area IdentificationSampling Plan:Basic grid with 10meter spacing, as wellas 20 and 40 m spacingin areas of less concernFocused in area whereoperations werepreviously conductedat the siteSoils: Silty, sands with clay lensesGW: Not known, but ~4 m64 Passive Soil GasSample Locations 20
  • HRSC Case Study: Source Area IdentificationPSG SurveyFindings:Chlorinatedcompounds werepresent at significantmeasurements oneastern side of siteResults forTrichloroethene (TCE) 21
  • HRSC Case Study: Source Area IdentificationFindings:Results forTetrachloroethene(PCE) 22
  • HRSC Case Study: Source Area IdentificationPSG SurveyFindings:Results for 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane(R-130) 23
  • HRSC Case Study: Source Area IdentificationPSG SurveyFindings:Results for Total VOCs 24
  • HRSC Case Study: Source Area IdentificationSoil Sampling:Soil samples werecollected at locationsreporting highestmeasurements in thePSG survey, as well asat contaminantboundary areas andareas reporting non-detects.Contamination wasexpected to be foundcloser to where siteactivities occurred. 25
  • HRSC Case Study: Source Area IdentificationSoil SamplingResults:Samples collected at 1to 1.5 m depth atmultiple intervals ofsoil column using TerraCore samplerStrategy was to sampleat “hot spots” andconfirm the non-detects from thepassive soil gas survey 26
  • HRSC Case Study: Source Area IdentificationPSG and SoilResults:Soil samples confirmedthe results of the PSGsurvey and identified asignificant source area.An additional sourcearea is expected to bepresent where thesecond highest soilsample was collected.The next phaseincludes collectingadditional samples toidentify the exactlocation of this more 27discrete release.
  • HRSC Case Study: Source Area IdentificationPSG and SoilResults:Soil sampling alonelikely would not haveidentified source areas,as evident at locationreporting low soilconcentrations.The PSG survey just asimportantly indicatedwhere no additionalsampling is required aswas confirmed with thesoil sampling.Two GW wells are being 28installed at “hot spots.”
  • Reported Data in Units of Mass… Not Concentration PSG data should not be reported in units of conc. Reliable relative values in mass between sample locations are importantAll soil gas guidance documents clearly state data not to beused for determining concentrationNo agencies or regulators accepting PSG data converted toconcentration, but Beacon can provide “rule of thumb”estimates based on empirical dataHowever, reporting data in units of mass (ng or ug) meetsproject objectives to characterize sites and guide where tocollect a limited number of soil, gw, or active soil gas samples 29
  • EPA Method TO-17 Provides Concentration Data Tubes: Method TO-17 with pump Passive Diffusion Samplers PDS NoMethod pumpsTO-17 required Useslow-flow pumps 30
  • EPA Method TO-15 – Summa CanistersNo technique is perfect, but something to consider:In two Method TO-15 interlaboratory comparisonsadministered by ERA the acceptance range for PCEresults were:−33% to 168% (July -Sept 2009 study)−56% to 131% (October – November 2007 study)In a 2007 TO-14/TO-15 study conducted by ScottSpecialty Gasses the reported values for toluenereported by 12 labs varied from 51%-290% Source: Short-term Variability, Radon Tracer, and Longterm Passive Sampler Performance in the Field Presented at AEHS 2012 by Christopher Lutes, Brian Cosky, Robert Uppencamp, and Lilian Abreu (ARCADIS) Brian Schumacher and John Zimmerman (US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory), Robert Truesdale and Shu-yi Lin (RTI International), Heidi Hayes (Air Toxics Ltd.), Blayne Hartman (Hartman Environmental Geosciences) 31
  • Active Soil Gas Sampling – EPA Method TO-17Pictures courtesy of AMS, Inc. Syringe and Sorbent Tube Sampling Pump and Sorbent Tube 32
  • Indoor Air Sampling with Sorbents – Active and Passive Active Sampling Passive Sampling Calculate concentration: ug/m3 = mass/(uptake rate x time) Calculate concentration: ug/m3 = mass/(flow rate x time) mass = nanograms uptake rate = ml/min mass = nanograms time = minutes flow rate = ml/min (e.g., 1000 x ng/ml = ug/m3) time = minutes(e.g., 1000 x ng/ml = ng/L = ug/m3) 33
  • Passive Sampling – 14 day Sampling PeriodsVapor Intrusion Study – June 2012Industrial Building –Naval FacilityBuilding is slab on grade and totalarea is approximately 56,700 ft2Sampled in office spaces and kitchenwith 8-ft ceilings, as well as outsidePrior subslab soil vapor samplesrecorded PCE and TCE rangingfrom 200 to 120,000 ug/m324-Hour Summa canister sampleswere compared to samples collectedwith passive sorbent tubes over a 14-day periodProject Management: CH2M Hill 34
  • Passive Sampling – 14 day Sampling PeriodsTwo SorbentTubes at eachlocationSumma canister 35
  • Passive Sampling – 14 day Sampling Periods Comparison Data Sample Location Indoor #1 Indoor #2 Indoor #3 Indoor #4 Outdoor #1 TO‐17  TO‐17  TO‐17  TO‐17  TO‐17  TO‐15 TO‐15 TO‐15 TO‐15 TO‐15Compound (14 day) (14 day) (14 day) (14 day) (14 day)Tetrachloroethene 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.6 0.45 J 0.43 J 0.82 J 0.73 J 0.11 U 0.62 UTrichloroethene 1.3 1.2 1.8 1.3 0.11 U 0.46 U 16 13 0.11 U 0.49 U1,1,1‐Trichloroethane 0.12 U 0.46 U 0.12 U 0.47 U 0.12 U 0.46 U 0.12 U 0.43 U 0.12 U 0.50 Ucis‐1,2‐Dichloroethene 2.3 4.8 3.9 5.1 0.40 U 0.19 J 0.59 J 1.1 0.40 U 0.36 Utrans‐1,2‐Dichloroethene 1.5 3.8 2.8 3.9 0.40 U 0.26 J 0.40 U 0.94 0.40 U 0.36 U1,1‐Dichlorothene 0.40 U 0.33 U 0.40 U 0.34 U 0.40 U 0.34 U 0.40 U 0.31 U 0.40 U 0.36 UVinyl Chloride 0.32 U 0.21 U 0.32 U 0.22 U 0.32 U 0.22 U 0.32 U 0.20 U 0.32 U 0.23 USamples collected in June 2012Units in micrograms/cubic meter (ug/m3)Note:No established uptake rates for cis- and trans-1,2-DCEBeacon used uptake rates that were approximated from the rates forsimilar compounds with the sorbent usedUptake rate studies for 1,2-DCE compounds are needed 36
  • Passive Sampling – 14 day Sampling Periods Comparison Data Sample Location Indoor #1 Indoor #2 Indoor #3 Indoor #4 TO‐17  TO‐17  TO‐17  TO‐17  TO‐15 RPD TO‐15 RPD TO‐15 RPD TO‐15 RPDCompound (14 day) (14 day) (14 day) (14 day)Tetrachloroethene 3.4 3.4 0% 3.6 3.6 0% 0.45 J 0.43 J 5% 0.82 J 0.73 J 12%Trichloroethene 1.3 1.2 8% 1.8 1.3 32% 0.11 U 0.46 U NA 16 13 21%Samples collected in June 2012Units in micrograms/cubic meter (ug/m3) Strong correlation between passive diffusion sorbent tubes and summa canister data for the two primary compounds of concern (PCE and TCE) considering different sampling durations and sampling methods. Both compounds have established uptake rates for the sorbent tubes used ISO 16017-2: Indoor, ambient and workplace air -- Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds by sorbent tube/thermal desorption/capillary gas chromatography -- Part 2: Diffusive sampling 37
  • Conclusions• Sorbent technologies can be used to target a broad range of VOCs and SVOCs employing easy-to-use techniques for time integrated measurements• Passive soil gas methods allow for the rapid collection of data to produce high resolution data sets to collect “effective data”• High resolution site characterization allows you to better delineate contamination and refine the conceptual site model (CSM)• PSG surveys allow you to reduce the number of required soil, soil gas, and groundwater samples, which reduces the overall project costs.• Based on the described study and other prior sampling, passive diffusion samplers allow you to sample over several days or weeks to measure organic compounds in indoor and ambient air providing a sample that may be more representative of average concentrations 38
  • Any Questions? 39
  • Thank youPlease contact us if you have any questions, to discuss project applications, or schedule training at your regional office: Beacon Environmental Services, Inc. Harry O’Neill Bel Air, MD USA 1-410-838-8780 Thank you! 40