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Remediation of Volatile Organics in Groundwater Using In Situ Carbon (ISC) Injection Technologies

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Presented at this year's Battelle Conference by Jack Sheldon, this presentation includes information comparing various forms of groundwater remediation tactics using In Situ Carbon (ISC) injections.

Published in: Environment
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Remediation of Volatile Organics in Groundwater Using In Situ Carbon (ISC) Injection Technologies

  1. 1. Remediation of Volatile Organics in Groundwater Using In Situ Carbon (ISC) Injection Technologies A Comparative Analysis Jack Sheldon Battelle Conference Palm Springs, CA April 11, 2018
  2. 2. The Technologies Performance Summaries Case Studies
  3. 3. The Chemistry 2 TRAP & TREAT® BOS 200®
  4. 4. TRAP & TREAT® BOS 200® 3 BOS 200 Trap & Treat® In Situ carbon injection system produced by Remediation Products, Inc. (RPI) • Designed to accelerate biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons • Comprise an activated carbon platform with terminal electron acceptors, micronutrients and facultative microorganisms intermixed • Injections are completed into the saturated zone under pressure (typically 400 – 600 psi) using direct push technologies BOS 200® particle Hydrocarbon fuels
  5. 5. The Chemistry 4 1. Fine particle activated carbon (1-2 microns) 2. Combined with unique polymer for distribution enhancement 3. Binds to aquifer solids. Establishes biodegradation site 4. Regeneration occurs
  6. 6. 5 → Best suited to low to moderate mass scenarios → Can be combined with a wide range of amendments → Best when applied in barrier or focused grid configurations
  7. 7. The Technologies Performance Summaries Case Studies
  8. 8. 7 BOS 200 Applications - Overview Injections were performed at 9 former and active gasoline service stations in the northeastern US (NY, NJ and PA) between 2015 and 2017 35 impacted monitoring wells located across the 9 sites were used to evaluate injection success across the sites Evaluation was completed by calculating mean annual benzene and total BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and total xylenes) concentrations prior to and after injection events Injection point density, contaminant and carbon mass loadings were estimated across the impact zones of each site to evaluate how these variables affected results
  9. 9. 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 1 to 25 25 to 50 50 to 75 75 to 99 100 SiteCount % Contaminant Removal Across Site Total BTEX Benzene BOS 200 Application Results - Site Wide 8
  10. 10. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 1 to 25 25 to 50 50 to 75 75 to 99 100 WellCount % Contaminant Removal 1 Year Post Injection Total BTEX Benzene % Removal of Benzene and Total BTEX by Monitoring Well BOS 200 Application Results - All Study Wells 9
  11. 11. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 Cubicfeetofimpactzone/injectionpoint % Removal - Total BTEX 1 Year Post Injection Scatter Plot: Injection Point Density vs % Removal Total BTEX 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 LbCarbon/ft3impactzone % Removal - Total BTEX 1 Year Post Injection Carbon Loading vs % Removal Total BTEX Impact of Carbon Loading and Injection Point Density on BTEX Removal 10
  12. 12. WASHINGTON STATE UTAH CONFIDENTIAL SOUTHEAST CONFIDENTIAL SOUTHEAST LASVEGAS WASHINGTON STATE ERIE,PA DESCRIPTION Direct push injection of PS and ORC-A® into gas station planter. Goal was to reduce benzene in two closely spaced monitoring wells. Site geology was sandy silt across 10 ft. vertical zone at 30 ft. bgs. Direct push injection of PS and ORC-A® or sulfate into hot spot areas around pipeline during pilot test. Goal was to reduce benzene and TPHg/TPHd at two monitoring wells adjacent to a pipeline. Site geology was sandy silt. Direct push injection of PS and HRC® into barrier application downgradient of source area. Goal was to reduce TCE and Freon 113. Site geology was sandy silt. Injection of PS and nitrate through wells into barrier application pilot test at property boundary mass flux zone. Goal was to reduce benzene, chlorobenzene, and TPH. Site geology was sand at depth of 85 ft. bgs Injection of PS and ORC-A® through wells. Goal was to reduce benzene in three monitoring wells. Site geology was sandy across 10 ft. vertical zone at 40 ft. bgs. Injection of PS and ORC-A® through wells. Goal was to reduce benzene in two monitoring wells. Site geology was fine across 10 ft. vertical zone at 35 ft. bgs. adjacent to sensitive receptor. Direct push injection of PS and ORC-A® at gas station. Goal was to reduce benzene in one monitoring well at property boundary. Site geology was silty clay across 10 ft. vertical zone at 25 ft. bgs. OBSERVATIONS Benzene reduced from 2 mg/L in both wells to ND within 120 days post-injection. No impact to plants in the planter. Concentrations remained ND for one additional year of post-injection monitoring. Benzene reduced from 1 mg/L to 20 µg/L within 120 days. TPHg/TPHd reduced by 75% and 65%, respectively. Both oxygen and sulfate supported biodegradation. Property may be available for development sooner than anticipated. Target COCs reduced from 3 mg/L to 10 µg/L within 180 days. Remained low 18 months post- injection. Robust anaerobic conditions documented biodegradation. >80% reduction in 1,4 dioxane concentrations; mechanism under investigation. Preferential sorption observed. Benzene mass flux reduced by >50% in 180 days. Potential for nitrate/sulfate combination at full scale. Benzene reduced from 800 µg/L to 50 µg/L within 120 days. TPHg reduced by 70%. Oxygen supported biodegradation. Pilot test result may be sufficient to close site. Benzene reduced from 4 mg/L in both wells to ND within 180 days post-injection. No surface water impacts observed from PS or COC migration. Concentrations remained ND for one additional year of post-injection monitoring. Benzene reduced from 2 mg/L in both wells to ND within 120 days post-injection. No impact to plants in the planter. Concentrations remained ND for one additional year of post-injection monitoring. PlumeStop® Project Summaries
  13. 13. The Technologies Performance Summaries Case Studies
  14. 14. A B C D E F Total Impact Zone Vol (ft3) 24500 24500 15000 7000 3000 8500 82500.0 No Injection Pts 44 45 30 12 6 15 152.0 No Injections 264 270 180 72 36 90 912.0 Contaminant Load (lb/ft3) 3.71E-05 7.00E-05 6.18E-05 2.78E-06 1.55E-06 1.03E-05 NA BOS 200 Load (lb/ft3) 0.413061 0.321633 0.315333 0.154286 0.11 0.211765 0.3 Total BOS 200 (lb) 10120 7880 4730 1080 330 1800 25940.0 Treatment Zone Benzene Mass Removal (%) Mass Removal (%) A 66 67 B 71 57 C 91 94 D 88 98 E 99 99 F 94 99 Former Gasoline Service Station, Long Island INJECTION DETAILS RESULTS
  15. 15. 76 Station, Daly City, CA
  16. 16. 15 ~12 ft. to 37-38 ft. bgs: poorly sorted primarily sand (SP) with some interbedded silt and clay 38 ft. to 45 ft. bgs: continuous clay layer (aquitard) found in all borings south of most downgradient well~ Site Geology
  17. 17. Groundwater Data
  18. 18. Groundwater Flow Direction
  19. 19. Pilot Test Monitoring Wells - MW-24/14 18
  20. 20. • Direct push PlumeStop® at MW-14 and MW-24 • Direct push ORC-A® to enhance biodegradation 30 days later • Three injection points per well per amendment • Monitor every two weeks for MTBE/TBA and secondary parameters – geochem/field parameters/microbial (RNA vs DNA) • Remedial goal – 1 mg/L MTBE Pilot Test Approach 19
  21. 21. Injection Highlights 20
  22. 22. The Results – MW-14 50 100 150 200 250 300 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 8/14/2013 3/2/2014 9/18/2014 4/6/2015 10/23/2015 5/10/2016 11/26/2016 6/14/2017 12/31/2017 Concentration(TBAug/L) Concentration(MTBE,µg/L) Date MW-14 MTBE, TBA, versus Time Former 76 Service Station 11202 Daly City, California MTBE (ug/L) Plume Stop Injection ORC-A Injection Plume Stop Injection TBA (ug/L) 9.43 µg/L 21
  23. 23. The Results – MW-24 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 4/30/2016 8/8/2016 11/16/2016 2/24/2017 6/4/2017 9/12/2017 12/21/2017 Concentration(TBA,ug/L) Concentration(MTBE,µg/L) Date MW-24 MTBE, TBA versus Time Former 76 Service Station 11202 Daly City, California MTBE (ug/L) Plume Stop Injection ORC-A Injection TBA (ug/L) 114 µg/L 22
  24. 24. 23 • Direct push injection into sand is not always what it appears • A bioamendment can be an important addition to the carbon- based amendment, but natural conditions can still support biodegradation • With the right microbiology and conditions, substantial reduction in MTBE/TBA concentrations is possible • 5 points per day is reasonable production rate Lessons Learned
  25. 25. Acknowledgements: Gordon Hinshalwood, PhD Antea Group (Hartford, CT) RPI Products, Inc. Regenesis Bioremediation Products Thank You/Q&A AnteaGroup @AnteaGroup Jack Sheldon US Toll Free 800.477.7411 Mobile +1 515. 971.8329 5910 Rice Creek Parkway, Suite 100 Shoreview, MN 55126 jack.sheldon@anteagroup.com
  26. 26. B E T T E R B U S I N E S S , B E T T E R W O R L D℠ Antea Group Offices USA Headquarters 5910 Rice Creek Parkway, Suite 100 St. Paul, MN 55126, USA USA Toll Free: +1 800 477 7411 International: +1 651 639 9443 Belgium Roderveldlaan 1 2600 Antwerpen Colombia Calle 35 No. 7-25, Piso 12 Bogota, DC France 29 avenue Aristide Briand - CS 10006 94117 Arcueil Cedex Netherlands Monitorweg 29 1322 BK Almere www.anteagroup.com

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