CHILDREN’S RIGHTS iiTimeline1832 In the United States, the New England Association of Farmers, Mechanics, and OtherWorking-men condemn child labor.1869 In one of the first such court rulings in the United States, the parents of Samuel Fletcher arefined $300 for child abuse.1881 First national convention of the American Federation of Labor passes a resolution callingon U.S. to ban children under age 14 from employment.1899 Illinois Juvenile Court Act establishes the first juvenile court system in the world in theUnited States, in Chicago.1903 U.S. reformer "Mother" Jones organizes children working in mills and mines in the"Childrens Crusade," a march from Pennsylvania to New York.1904 National Child Labor Committee forms to abolish all child labor in the United States.Lewis Hine produces photographs of children at work for the organization.1909 Former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt convenes the White House Conference onChildren to "consider the care of children."1912 U.S. Childrens Bureau is established as the first federal agency in the world to educatepeople about general child care and development.1916 First U.S. child labor law prohibits interstate movement of goods made by children. Thelaw was declared unconstitutional too years later by the U.S. Supreme Court (Hammerv.Dagenhart).1918 Laws in every state in the United States require children to attend elementary school.1919 Newly formed League of Nations establishes the Committee for the Protection of Children.1924 Declaration of the Rights of the Child (part of the Geneva Convention) is adopted by theLeague of Nations and establishes first international childrens rights.1938 Fair Labor Standards Act establishes a minimum age for employment for children in theUnited States.1944 U.S. Supreme Court holds in Prince v. Massachusetts that the government has authority toregulate the actions and treatment of children.
CHILDREN’S RIGHTS iii1946 UNICEF is created by the United Nations as the International Childrens Emergency Fund.1948United Nations General Assembly passes the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,which refers in Article 25 to children as "entitled to special care and assistance."1959 Declaration of the Rights of the Child is unanimously endorsed by the United NationsGeneral Assembly. The document builds upon provisions already outlined in the 1924declaration.1962 The first child abuse reporting statutes for the United States are discussed by the U.S.Departments of Health, and Education, and the U.S. Childrens Bureau.1966United Nations General Assembly adopts International Covenants on Civil and PoliticalRights, and Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.1967 U.S. Supreme Court decides that juveniles in the juvenile court system have the same legalrights as adults under fee 14th Amendment to the Constitution.1969 U.S. Supreme Court rules in Tinker v. Des Moines that children have First Amendmentrights to freedom of speech and expression at school.1973 Minimum Age Convention attempts to establish an international minimum age foremployment with the goal of abolishing child labor.1974 Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act is passed by Congress- mandating theappointment of guardian ad litem in child abuse and neglect cases.1979United Nations declares the Year of the Child in honor of the 20th anniversary of the 1959Declaration of the Rights of the Child.1982 The National Court Appointed Special Advocate Associated (National CASA) was created.1989United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child becomes the most comprehensivelegal document protecting the rights of children.1990 World leaders sign the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection, and Development ofChildren, a plan to improve child survival, health, nutrition, and education.1995 Madeleine Albright, acting as the U.S. Delegate to the United Nations, signs theConvention on the Rights of the Child following Congressional ratification discussions.
CHILDREN’S RIGHTS iv1999 International Labor Organization adopts Convention No. 182 concerning the prohibition ofthe worst forms of child labor2000United Nations General Assembly adopts optional protocols to the Convention on theRights of the Child, prohibiting child prostitution and sex trafficking, and the use of childsoldiers.2002 United States ratifies both of the United Nations optional protocols.2005 United States Supreme Court declares in Roper v. Simmons that it is unconstitutional toimpose the death penalty for crimes committed before age 15.2010 Somalia and the United States remain the only countries eligible to ratify the Conventionon the Rights of the Child that have not yet done so.