• Past research
• Briefly discuss the original study
• Explain the present study
• Dams-O'Connor et al. (2007): Assessed the relationship between
perceived alcohol use among peers and personal alcohol use in a
sample of collegiate athletes.
• Results indicated that during both the off- and in-season, athletes
estimated that the other college students (athletes & non-athletes) drank
more than they did, and perceptions of these social norms predicted
personal alcohol use.
• Ford (2007): Examined alcohol use among college
students, focusing on variation in binge drinking based on
involvement in athletics.
• Results:Athletes report more extreme styles of alcohol
consumption, binge drink at higher rates, are more likely to binge when
they drink, and drink to intoxication more often.
• Rintaugu et al. (2012):The purpose was to establish the
determinants of alcohol consumption among university student-
• Top 5 motives for student-athletes consuming alcohol are
relaxation, followed by overcoming shyness and tension, manage
boredom, and conform to peer pressure.
• Yusko (2008): Sought to identify risk and protective factors
associated with student-athlete drinking and determine if
student-athlete risk factors differed from those of non-athletes.
• Athletes compared to non-athletes admitted to more frequent amounts of
heavy drinking, even during their competitive season.
Past Research continued
• Brennan (2010) conducted a study comparing
alcohol use between collegiate
student-athletes and collegiate non-athletes
by administering a Student Alcohol
Questionnaire and a Alcohol Fact
• Found that male athletes consumed
the most alcohol, but had the least
knowledge about alcohol
• The purpose of this study is to determine whether or
not gender and athletic status of the participant effect
their decision on the punishment in four separate case
• This study examines the attitudes towards underage
alcohol consumption at a small Division II university.
• How do college athletes and college non-athletes view
alcohol consumption by underage student athletes and
• Does gender and/or athletic status effect the
• Does the gender and/or athletic status of the offender
• 240 students at a Division II university in Ohio
• Gender ratio of the subjects was equal: 120 males and
• Athletic ratio of the subjects was also equal: 120 athletes
and 120 non-athletes
• More specifically, the study is broken down into 60 male athletes, 60
male non-athletes, 60 female athletes, and 60 female non-athletes.
• Gender = male or female
• Athletic status = athlete or non-athlete
• “athlete” is considered a current student playing a
Division II sport in college
• “sport” as defined by the NCAA:
Men’s: Baseball, Basketball, X Country,Track & Field, Football,
Golf, Soccer,Tennis, andWrestling
Women’s: Basketball, X Country,Track & Field, Golf, Lacrosse,
Soccer, Softball,Tennis, andVolleyball
• Punishment (ranging from no punishment to
• Attitudes towards underage alcohol
consumption, which is measured by 6 Likert-scale
• Gender of the subject (male or female)
• Athletic status of the subject (athlete or non-
• Gender of the fictitious character in the case
scenario (male or female)
• [Athletic status of the fictitious character in the
case scenario (male or female)]
• Case scenarios
• Male athlete
• Male non-athlete
• Female athlete
• Female non-athlete
• 6 Likert scale items
• Subject asked to decide on a punishment, if deemed necessary:
• No punishment
• $50 fine
• $100 fine, probation for 1 year, diversion program*
• $200 fine, 1 night in jail, and probation for 1 year
• $400 fine, 1 night in jail, probation for 1 year, and community service
• $1,000 fine
*diversion program involves 2 weekends at an off campus location
learning about the effects and consequences of underage consumption
• 6 Likert scale items
• Asked to read the following statements below and circle the number
that best represents your opinion: Strongly Disagree, Somewhat
Disagree, Neutral, Somewhat Agree, and Strongly Agree
1. Underage college students who drink alcohol have less to lose than college
athletes who drink alcohol.
2. Police should not punish underage college students for drinking alcohol.
3. College athletes and non-athletes who drink alcohol under the age of 21
should be punished equally.
4. College athletes have more responsibilities than college non-athletes.
5. Underage male athletes should be penalized more than underage male non-
6. Underage female athletes should be penalized less than underage female
• Larger sample size (n=240)
• Tests for the effect of independent variables on all of
the dependent variables.
MultivariateAnalysis ofVariance (MANOVA)
• Results are consistent with past research on alcohol use and
attitudes towards consumption
• Further analysis will be conducted regarding the athletic
status of the fictitious character in the case scenario
• Future research – The frequency and attitudes towards
underage alcohol consumption is known, so identifying
reasons why college athletes drink alcohol in excess is the
next step toward determining a possible solution for college
• Likert item 1 failed to specify underage “…college
athletes who drink alcohol” as the last part of the
• Likert items 4-6 did not explicitly mention alcohol
• Need to mention whether or not the case scenario was
a first time offense or if it was the second or third
• Do athletes feel a sense of entitlement? If so, how can that quantifiably
• Why do college students and college athletes have such a lenient attitude
towards underage drinking?
• Would the punishment be different if this was the offender’s second or
• Do coaches realize how relaxed athletes’ attitudes are towards underage
• Do coaches condone underage drinking as a means of team bonding?
• How would criminal justice majors punish the offender?
New Empirical Questions for Future
• Prevention and intervention programs need to be
developed to reduce high-risk alcohol use among
• Sport psychologists, counselors, and physicians need to
• Athletic trainers and/or coaches need to sensitize the
student athletes to the following consequences of
alcohol consumption: physical, mental, and legal issues
Dams-O'Connor, K. Martin, J., & Martens, M. (2007). Social norms and alcohol
consumption among intercollegiate athletes:The role of athlete and
nonathlete reference groups. Addictive Behaviors 32, 2657–2666.
Ford, J. (2007). Alcohol use among college students: A comparison of athletes and
nonathletes. Substance Use & Misuse, 42:1367–1377.
Lewis,T. (2008). An explanatory model of student-athlete drinking:The role of team
leadership, social norms, perceptions of risk, and coaches’ attitudes toward
alcohol consumption. College Student Journal, 42(3), 818-831.
Rintaugu, E., Andanje, M., & Amusa, L. (2012). Socio-demographic correlates of alcohol
consumption among university athletes. African Journal for Physical, Health
Education, Recreation and Dance (AJPHERD)Volume 18, No.
4(2), (December), 2012, pp. 939-954.
Serrao, H., Martens, M., Martin, J., & Rocha, T. (2008). Competitiveness and alcohol use
among recreational and elite collegiate athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport
Psychology, 2, 205-215.
Yusko, D., Buckman, J., White, J. , & Pandina, R. (2008). Alcohol, tobacco, illicit
drugs, and performance enhancers: A comparison of use by college student
athletes and nonathletes. Journal of American College Health, Vol. 57, No. 3.