PV orchard aerial view 03
TRAINING AND PRUNING     FRUIT TREES      Michael G. Janik     ISA Certified Arboristwww.michaelsapples.com
Training vs. Pruning
My Favorite Pruning Books
Right toolfor the right     job Loppers Pruners  Saws  Clean Sanitized  Sharp
Anvil vs. Bypass Shears
PruningThe Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
Firewood pruning ‘03
Firewood Pruning ‘04
Firewood Tree ‘05
Firewood Tree ‘08
Firewood Tree     2010
Shade AppleOpen to allowsunlight and   airflow
Starling Special    Dwarfing   RootstocksGenetic Miniatures
Upright growthAcute limb angles     Spring  Bare root treesHorizontal Scaffold      Limbs
Scaffold limbs, fruiting shoots
HUH???  Need low,  horizontalscaffold limbsDo not planton easements
Garden,Orchard  or Yard?
Topping x 3
NaturalTargetPruning
Proper pruning cut, before
Proper pruning cut, after
Well-sealed pruning scar
Cut back to a branch or bud
Open to infection
Natural Target Pruning II• Always cut back to a bud or branch• Always angle the cut away from the bud• Choose growth direc...
Angle cut away from bud
Select bud growth direction
Cut to a Branch, Bud, or Fruiting Spur
Apical Dominance• Apical dominance is a tree’s response to  a pruning cut• All pruning cuts cause the same  reaction in a ...
Apical Dominance
Size control using rootstocks• Standard—25 ft and up• Semi-Dwarf or half-standard  – 8 to18 ft apples, pears  – 15 to 20+ ...
Standard   Semi-Dwarf
Dwarf Apple Tree (must be supported)
Easy access to harvest
PruningForms  for Fruit Trees
Training a Horizontal Espalier•   Suitable for apples and pears•   Recommend 24-16-16-16 inches•   Opens tree to sunlight ...
Pear espalier on south-facing wall
Training Anything’s Possible
1st Year Horizontal      Espalier
Summer
Winter beforepruning
Winter after pruning
2nd Year Horizontal     Espalier
Water sprouts and fruiting shoots
Water Sprouts After Pruning
Before
After
3rd Year Espalier
Apple Espaliers Third year
Mature Horizontal    Espalier
Espalier Pear Ohio
Mature Horizontal espalier
End of Row
Apple Espalier early summer
PV Orchard 2005
Informal or Fan Espalier
Candelabra
Training a Fan Espalier• Suitable for all fruits• Locate against a south facing wall or as a  hedge or fence• Easy to prun...
1st Year Fan  Espalier
2nd Year Fan  Espalier
Mature Fan Espalier
Plum Espalier
Renewing a plum espalier, before
Renewing a plum espalier, after
Training A Central Leader                Tree•   Apples, Pears, plums, and cherries•   Dwarf Pyramid or Pyramid•   French ...
1st Year
Training Horizontal Limb Growth
Training using Clothespins 1st year
2 year, etc; before nd
2nd year, etc; after
2nd Year
2yr dwarf pyramid  pear
3rd and Subsequent Years
Cut out vigorous growth
Vigorous growth removed
RegrowthNext Summer
Always removeone of any split    shoots
Split Trunk
Thin forked branch growth
Mature dwarf  pyramid
Centralleader pear in bloom
Semi-dwarf Central  Leader
SupportedFrench Axe
Central Leader Pears Oregon
Central Leader Pears
Summary  Training aCentral Leader
Training an Open Center Tree• Stone fruits, esp. peaches, nectarines• Lowest limb 12-18 inches• 3-5 limbs at low angle for...
Training anOpen Center   Tree
1yr Open Center Cherry
2yr Open Center Cherry
Open Centeroriental pear
Open center peach
Texas peach orchard
Texas peach tree
Peach tree at Monticello
Winter vs. Summer Pruning• Winter (Dormant) Pruning  – Promotes vegetative growth in the spring  – Use to train young tree...
Restoring a Neglected Fruit Tree
Rejuvenating Neglected Trees• Always  – Remove dead, diseased, and damaged    wood  – Remove crossing/rubbing branches  – ...
Arroyo 2004
Arroyo 2008
Arroyo Before After
90 yr old Delicious
Quincy, CA apple treeHeading Back, Apple Tree, Quincy, CA
Standard pear
Apple
Before   After
After       After 2nd year    3rd year
Semi dwarf, before
Semi dwarf, after
Red Del 09 Before
Apple, before
Apple, after
Pruning for Fruit• Apples and Pears  – Spur bearing  – Tip Bearing• Plums and Cherries• Nectarines and Peaches
Pear flower buds on spurs
Peach flower on last year’s growth
Pruning for spur fruit
Fruiting spurs on mature tree
Renewal Pruning of Spurs
Pruning for Peaches & Nectarines
Peach flower and leaf buds
New and old growth on peach
Summary•   Apical Dominance•   Cut to a branch or bud•   Choose bud/growth direction•   Training vs. Pruning• References, ...
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2012: Training and Pruning Fruit Trees
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2012: Training and Pruning Fruit Trees
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2012: Training and Pruning Fruit Trees
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2012: Training and Pruning Fruit Trees
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2012: Training and Pruning Fruit Trees
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2012: Training and Pruning Fruit Trees
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2012: Training and Pruning Fruit Trees
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Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2012: Training and Pruning Fruit Trees

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  • Make cuts on branch bard ridge so collar heals over itself. Do not paint or seal cuts. Make proper top cuts. Do not top trees ; control height with variety and rootstocks. Control growth direction; generally, prune to downward facing buds for horizontal limb growth. Prune to buds or branches. Do not leave stubs. Prune roots as you would and should a limb or branch.
  • Plant a whip and orient the buds! Cut back to about 18” above the ground. When branches begin to emerge, rub off buds oriented perpendicular to the plane of the fan. When branches are about a foot long, select two and prune all others to the trunk. When branches are about 18-24 in long, prune to a downward pointing bud. Select branches growing in the espalier plane to keep, prune others to about 6 buds.
  • Dormant Pruning: Do in Jan/Feb apples; at pink tip for stone fruits. Prune to a bud going in the direction you want the limb to go.
  • Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2012: Training and Pruning Fruit Trees

    1. 1. PV orchard aerial view 03
    2. 2. TRAINING AND PRUNING FRUIT TREES Michael G. Janik ISA Certified Arboristwww.michaelsapples.com
    3. 3. Training vs. Pruning
    4. 4. My Favorite Pruning Books
    5. 5. Right toolfor the right job Loppers Pruners Saws Clean Sanitized Sharp
    6. 6. Anvil vs. Bypass Shears
    7. 7. PruningThe Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
    8. 8. Firewood pruning ‘03
    9. 9. Firewood Pruning ‘04
    10. 10. Firewood Tree ‘05
    11. 11. Firewood Tree ‘08
    12. 12. Firewood Tree 2010
    13. 13. Shade AppleOpen to allowsunlight and airflow
    14. 14. Starling Special Dwarfing RootstocksGenetic Miniatures
    15. 15. Upright growthAcute limb angles Spring Bare root treesHorizontal Scaffold Limbs
    16. 16. Scaffold limbs, fruiting shoots
    17. 17. HUH??? Need low, horizontalscaffold limbsDo not planton easements
    18. 18. Garden,Orchard or Yard?
    19. 19. Topping x 3
    20. 20. NaturalTargetPruning
    21. 21. Proper pruning cut, before
    22. 22. Proper pruning cut, after
    23. 23. Well-sealed pruning scar
    24. 24. Cut back to a branch or bud
    25. 25. Open to infection
    26. 26. Natural Target Pruning II• Always cut back to a bud or branch• Always angle the cut away from the bud• Choose growth direction
    27. 27. Angle cut away from bud
    28. 28. Select bud growth direction
    29. 29. Cut to a Branch, Bud, or Fruiting Spur
    30. 30. Apical Dominance• Apical dominance is a tree’s response to a pruning cut• All pruning cuts cause the same reaction in a tree• Proper pruning uses apical dominance to shape trees
    31. 31. Apical Dominance
    32. 32. Size control using rootstocks• Standard—25 ft and up• Semi-Dwarf or half-standard – 8 to18 ft apples, pears – 15 to 20+ ft stone fruits (cherries, plums, etc• Genetic Dwarf/Miniatures—5-8 ft• Varietal vigor
    33. 33. Standard Semi-Dwarf
    34. 34. Dwarf Apple Tree (must be supported)
    35. 35. Easy access to harvest
    36. 36. PruningForms for Fruit Trees
    37. 37. Training a Horizontal Espalier• Suitable for apples and pears• Recommend 24-16-16-16 inches• Opens tree to sunlight and air flow• Easy to prune• Easy access to spray, thin, and pick• Easily covered with bird netting• Aesthetically attractive
    38. 38. Pear espalier on south-facing wall
    39. 39. Training Anything’s Possible
    40. 40. 1st Year Horizontal Espalier
    41. 41. Summer
    42. 42. Winter beforepruning
    43. 43. Winter after pruning
    44. 44. 2nd Year Horizontal Espalier
    45. 45. Water sprouts and fruiting shoots
    46. 46. Water Sprouts After Pruning
    47. 47. Before
    48. 48. After
    49. 49. 3rd Year Espalier
    50. 50. Apple Espaliers Third year
    51. 51. Mature Horizontal Espalier
    52. 52. Espalier Pear Ohio
    53. 53. Mature Horizontal espalier
    54. 54. End of Row
    55. 55. Apple Espalier early summer
    56. 56. PV Orchard 2005
    57. 57. Informal or Fan Espalier
    58. 58. Candelabra
    59. 59. Training a Fan Espalier• Suitable for all fruits• Locate against a south facing wall or as a hedge or fence• Easy to prune, easy to care for• Aesthetically beautiful
    60. 60. 1st Year Fan Espalier
    61. 61. 2nd Year Fan Espalier
    62. 62. Mature Fan Espalier
    63. 63. Plum Espalier
    64. 64. Renewing a plum espalier, before
    65. 65. Renewing a plum espalier, after
    66. 66. Training A Central Leader Tree• Apples, Pears, plums, and cherries• Dwarf Pyramid or Pyramid• French Axe• Spindle Bush
    67. 67. 1st Year
    68. 68. Training Horizontal Limb Growth
    69. 69. Training using Clothespins 1st year
    70. 70. 2 year, etc; before nd
    71. 71. 2nd year, etc; after
    72. 72. 2nd Year
    73. 73. 2yr dwarf pyramid pear
    74. 74. 3rd and Subsequent Years
    75. 75. Cut out vigorous growth
    76. 76. Vigorous growth removed
    77. 77. RegrowthNext Summer
    78. 78. Always removeone of any split shoots
    79. 79. Split Trunk
    80. 80. Thin forked branch growth
    81. 81. Mature dwarf pyramid
    82. 82. Centralleader pear in bloom
    83. 83. Semi-dwarf Central Leader
    84. 84. SupportedFrench Axe
    85. 85. Central Leader Pears Oregon
    86. 86. Central Leader Pears
    87. 87. Summary Training aCentral Leader
    88. 88. Training an Open Center Tree• Stone fruits, esp. peaches, nectarines• Lowest limb 12-18 inches• 3-5 limbs at low angle form a vase shape• Allows sunlight needed to ripen fruit
    89. 89. Training anOpen Center Tree
    90. 90. 1yr Open Center Cherry
    91. 91. 2yr Open Center Cherry
    92. 92. Open Centeroriental pear
    93. 93. Open center peach
    94. 94. Texas peach orchard
    95. 95. Texas peach tree
    96. 96. Peach tree at Monticello
    97. 97. Winter vs. Summer Pruning• Winter (Dormant) Pruning – Promotes vegetative growth in the spring – Use to train young trees• (Late) Summer and Fall pruning – Reduces food storage in roots and hence reduces tree growth in spring – Use on older, overgrown trees to open and rejuvenate the tree. – Use to establish fruiting spurs
    98. 98. Restoring a Neglected Fruit Tree
    99. 99. Rejuvenating Neglected Trees• Always – Remove dead, diseased, and damaged wood – Remove crossing/rubbing branches – Remove water sprouts at limb junction – Remove suckers at the root junction• Never – Remove more than 20% green wood each year – Never fertilize
    100. 100. Arroyo 2004
    101. 101. Arroyo 2008
    102. 102. Arroyo Before After
    103. 103. 90 yr old Delicious
    104. 104. Quincy, CA apple treeHeading Back, Apple Tree, Quincy, CA
    105. 105. Standard pear
    106. 106. Apple
    107. 107. Before After
    108. 108. After After 2nd year 3rd year
    109. 109. Semi dwarf, before
    110. 110. Semi dwarf, after
    111. 111. Red Del 09 Before
    112. 112. Apple, before
    113. 113. Apple, after
    114. 114. Pruning for Fruit• Apples and Pears – Spur bearing – Tip Bearing• Plums and Cherries• Nectarines and Peaches
    115. 115. Pear flower buds on spurs
    116. 116. Peach flower on last year’s growth
    117. 117. Pruning for spur fruit
    118. 118. Fruiting spurs on mature tree
    119. 119. Renewal Pruning of Spurs
    120. 120. Pruning for Peaches & Nectarines
    121. 121. Peach flower and leaf buds
    122. 122. New and old growth on peach
    123. 123. Summary• Apical Dominance• Cut to a branch or bud• Choose bud/growth direction• Training vs. Pruning• References, Google It!• Buy a Pruning Book and Use It!
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