Comparing the self-employed and
     employees on payroll

Marjan Gorgievski a, Arnold Bakker a,
        Wilmar Schaufelib...
What predicts good work performance?

  Personality (e.g., Rauch & Frese, 2007; Zhao &
  Seibert, 2006)?
  Competencies (e...
Work engagement (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2003)
 Vigor
 Dedication
 Absorption


Workaholism (Schaufeli, Taris & Bakker,
2006)
...
Warning from cultural psychology:

  Are our measures equivalent across cultures?




                                    ...
scalar                metric     Equal variance

I get carried away
when I’m working


I am immersed in               Work...
Work engagement
 Full metric invariance
 Partial scalar invariance (3 items different of 9)

Working compulsively
 Full me...
Raw sd        Raw mean sd    Raw          Estimated
               mean          Employee       difference   corrected
   ...
Intra role performance
 Full metric invariance
 Equal variances


Extra role perforance
 Full metric invariance
 Equal var...
Working                   In‐Role 
             excessively               Performance
                            .44

   ...
Working                   In‐Role 
             excessively               Performance
                            .44

   ...
Working                   In‐Role 
             excessively               Performance
                            .44

   ...
Working                 In‐Role 
             excessively
                                   Performance
                 ...
Measurement equivalence may be an issue when
comparing sub-cultures
The self employed have more work engagement
and work m...
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Workaholism, work engagement and performance of the self-employed

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Workaholism, Work Engagement, and Performance: Comparison of the Self-Employed versus Employees on Pay-Role. Presented at the 14th European Congress on Work and Organizational Psychology, May 13-16, 2009, Santiago de Compostella.

Published in: Business, Economy & Finance

Workaholism, work engagement and performance of the self-employed

  1. 1. Comparing the self-employed and employees on payroll Marjan Gorgievski a, Arnold Bakker a, Wilmar Schaufelib A Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands B Utrecht University, The Netherlands 1
  2. 2. What predicts good work performance? Personality (e.g., Rauch & Frese, 2007; Zhao & Seibert, 2006)? Competencies (e.g. Markman, 2007)? Selfish passion for work (e.g., Shane, Locke & Collins, 2003)? 2
  3. 3. Work engagement (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2003) Vigor Dedication Absorption Workaholism (Schaufeli, Taris & Bakker, 2006) Excessive working Compulsive working 3
  4. 4. Warning from cultural psychology: Are our measures equivalent across cultures? 4
  5. 5. scalar metric Equal variance I get carried away when I’m working I am immersed in Work engagement my work (absorption) I feel happy when I am working intensely 5
  6. 6. Work engagement Full metric invariance Partial scalar invariance (3 items different of 9) Working compulsively Full metric invariance Partial scalar invariance (4 items different of 8) Working excessively Full metric invariance Partial scalar invariance (3 items different of 9) 6
  7. 7. Raw sd Raw mean sd Raw Estimated mean Employee difference corrected SE s difference Work 4.08 1.12 3.71 1.16 .37 .43 (SE = .09) engagement Working 2.36 .55 2.24 .52 .12 .07 (SE = .03) excessively Working 2.07 .61 2.04 .57 .03 Ns compulsively Corrected difference is only slightly different from raw difference. 7
  8. 8. Intra role performance Full metric invariance Equal variances Extra role perforance Full metric invariance Equal variances Innovativeness Partial metric invariance (1 item different from 6) Equal variances 8
  9. 9. Working  In‐Role  excessively Performance .44 .78 .32 .63 .33 Working  -.47 Extra ‐Role .25 Compulsively Performance .18 .05 .53 -.40 Work  Innovativeness Engagement .24 9
  10. 10. Working  In‐Role  excessively Performance .44 .78 .32 .63 .33 Working  -.47 Extra ‐Role .25 Compulsively Performance .18 .05 .53 -.40 Work  Innovativeness Engagement .24 10
  11. 11. Working  In‐Role  excessively Performance .44 .78 .32 .63 .33 Working  -.47 Extra ‐Role .25 Compulsively Performance .18 .05 .53 -.40 Work  Innovativeness Engagement .24 11
  12. 12. Working  In‐Role  excessively Performance .39 .72 .38 .33 Working  .21 Extra  Role .26 Compulsively ‐ Performance .42 .23 .04 .39 -.13 Work  Innovativeness Engagement .33 12
  13. 13. Measurement equivalence may be an issue when comparing sub-cultures The self employed have more work engagement and work more excessively, but not more compulsively than salaried employees Working compulsively suppressed the positive effect of working excessively This pattern more visible among the self- emloyed, This effect stronger for innovation and extra role behavior 13

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