Technological expertise helps to Understand enzyme recovery in pelleted feed


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Feed compounders have to ensure feed safety, which requires more heat treatment than before, especially to control salmonella. But they also have to handle pelleting parameters in order to guarantee the stability of additives, particularly enzymes, pelleting being the critical phase with a major risk of loss of activity.

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Technological expertise helps to Understand enzyme recovery in pelleted feed

  1. 1. Digital Re-print - July | August 2012 Technological expertise helps toUnderstand enzyme recovery in pelleted feed Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872
  2. 2. FEATURE Understand EXPERTISE HELPS TO enzyme TECHNOLOGICAL recovery in pelleted feed by Jérôme Lamoine1, expert in Product Application Technologies, Adisseo, FranceF eed compounders have to ensure peratures ranging from 80°C to 98°C. The The role of conditioning feed safety, which requires more heat tests were conducted on commercial feed Literature shows that, due to steam addi- treatment than before, especially to compounds in Europe and Asia including tion, the conditioning temperature has a directcontrol salmonella. But they also have to NSP enzyme with a xylanase activity target impact on enzyme recovery after pelleting3.handle pelleting parameters in order to of 1100 u/kg. Furthermore, because of the coating effect act-guarantee the stability of additives, particular- As shown in Table 1, in most cases, the ing like a ‘fuse’, the enzyme inactivation is notly enzymes, pelleting being the critical phase xylanase activity reached the target value. always linear. Trials show that coated xylanasewith a major risk of loss of activity. But, even if the same kind of equipment can resist higher temperatures, but only up were used, the results differed according to to a certain level (On Graph 1 for example, Adisseo carried out trials2 comparing numerous processing parameters such as the the coated xylanase is stable up to 85°C, butvarious equipment: single or double clas- length of conditioning, the pelleting equip- loses 35 percent of activity at 95°C; the ‘fusesical conditioners, thermic and mechanical ment characteristics, the feed output and threshold’ is exceeded).treatment equipment such as compactors the cooling. The following explanations are The duration of conditioning also affectsor expanders, with different operating taken from literature and Adisseo’s technical enzyme stability. Trials performed on a pilotparameters: duration, energy, and tem- expertise. pellet mill4 show that increasing the conditioning Table 1: Effect of different conditioning equipments and pelleting settings on NSP enzyme activity in feed Trial conditions: Line 1 Line 2 Line 3 Line 4 Line 5 Line 6 Line 7 Type of conditioner Single Double Compactor Expander Feed output (tons/h) not reported 10.0 14.9 11.2 12.0 12.0 9.0 Temperature after 90°C 80°C 80°C 80°C 75°C 80°C 73°C conditioner Temperature before 90°C 80°C 80°C 80°C 89°C 98°C 85°C pellet mill Xylanase activity: Target = 1100 units/kg (100.0%)After conditioner 1368 1200 1186 1079 1100 700 no sample After pellet mill 1205 1260 1205 325 678 0 no sample 904 After cooler: units/kg 1048 1052 284 542 0 1124 (82.2%)(recovery vs target %) (95.3%) (95.6%) (25.8%) (49.3%) (0.0%) (102.2%) Wear and settings of die Moderate and rolls impact, High mechanical Bad cooling High mechanical mechanical Comments: Results on target + lower output and heat effect treatment and heat of the line = treatment treatment higher pelleting specific energy26 | July - august 2012 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
  3. 3. “The  more  you  increase  the  duration  of  conditioning  the  more  you  lose  enzyme  activity,” example, the coated xylanase is stable up to 85°C, but loses 35% of activity at 95°C; the “fuse threshold” is exceeded).  says Jérôme Lamoine.  FEATUREGraph 1: Effect of conditioning temperature on different xylanases recovery after pelleting.  Graph 2 : Effect of conditioning time at different temperatures, on β‐glucanase recovery after pelleting.  100% 90% 100% 80% 70% 100% % of activity in mash feed 60% 90% 80% 68% %  of activity vs m ash 50% 70% 40% 60% 100% 42% 30% 50% 20% 40% 30% 10% 41% 13% 30 sec 20% 26% 0% 10% 7% 15 min 65°C 75°C 85°C 95°C 0% Processing temperature Mash 75°C 85°C 95°C Coated xylanase Xylanase 1 Xylanase 2 Xylanase 3 Processing temperature     The same feed has been kept at different temperatures during 30 seconds or 15 minutes. At each  Graph 1: Effect of conditioning temperature onUncoated xylanases 1, 2, and 3 are destroyed at low temperature levels, when coated xylanase can resist up  Graph 2 : Effect of conditioning time at different temperatures, temperature, the enzyme has lost 60% of its activity at 15 minutes compared to 30 seconds. to 85°C. But at 95°C, its coating is less protective.  different xylanases recovery after pelleting. on βglucanase recovery after pelleting.   Uncoated xylanases 1, 2, and 3 are destroyed at low temperature levels, when coated xylanase The same feed has been kept at different temperatures during 30 Coated enzymes can also resist to specific heat and mechanical treatments (like compactors  can resist up to 85°C. But at 95°C, its coating is or expanders), but again, only up to a certain level (lines 5 to 7 in Table 1).  has lost seconds or 15 minutes. At each temperature, the enzyme less protective. 60 percent of its activity at 15 minutes compared to 30 seconds. The characteristics of pelleting equipments also have an impact on enzyme recovery in feed.  For  example,  an  increase  of  the  compression  ratio  (ratio  between  channel  length  and  Filip_Anzeige_130x180mm_GB_c_Filip_Anzeige_117x191mm_US_c 16.11.11 17:33 Seite 1 diameter of the die, L/d), improves the pellet quality, increases the final temperature of the  time from 30 seconds to 15 pellets,  but  results  in  higher  losses  of  enzymes.  Compression  ratio  and  also  production  minutes leads to a 60 percent output (tons per hour) of the line have an impact on the retention time of feed inside the  increase of enzyme loss of activity pellet  die.  Tecaliman  has  shown  that  extending the  duration  of  retention  in  the  pellet  mill  at any temperature from 75°C Always in motion for you! die increases the pellet temperature and decreases the enterobacteria content5. So Jérôme  to 95°C (see Graph 2). “The Lamoine  wonders  what  happened  to  the  enzymes.  His  trials,  achieved  at  a  customer  more you increase the dura- feedmill, prove that when using two identical pelleting lines, with the same equipment, the  tion of conditioning the more • sieve cleaning brushes same product and the same temperature, xylanase recovery drops from 79% to 21% (lines 3  you lose enzyme activity,” says • sieve cleaners with studs and 4 in  Table 1). The main difference between the two lines was the feed flows (14.9t/h vs  Jérôme Lamoine. • bottom cleaners • roller mill brushes Pelleting equipment Coated enzymes can also resist specific heat and mechanical treatments (like Need more efficiency from your sieves? compactors or expanders), but again, only up to a cer- tain level (lines 5 to 7 in Switch to FILIP’s Table 1). Double Cleaner with The characteristics of pel- leting equipment also have tongue for sifter sieves an impact on enzyme recov- ery in feed. For example, an without backwire! increase of the compression ratio (ratio between channel Dynamic movement and effective cleaning length and diameter of the die, L/d), improves the pel- 1 is achieved by combining the ideal shape, size let quality, increases the final temperature of the pellets, and weight 3 Slider knob, tongue and but results in higher losses of corner scrapers work enzymes. Compression ratio together to provide and also production output effective pan cleaning (tons per hour) of the line have an impact on the reten- Studs or bristles tion time of feed inside the pellet die. 2 arranged around the entire perimeter produce exceptional Feed output sieve cleaning Tecaliman has shown that extending the duration of retention in the pellet mill die increases the pellet FILIP GmbH Mill brush manufacturer Tel: + 49 (0)52 41 - 2 93 30 temperature and decreases Johann - Sewerin-Str. 8 Fax: + 49 (0)52 41 - 2 03 21 the enterobacteria content5. D - 33330 Guetersloh E-Mail: So Jérôme Lamoine won- Outside Germany: We will be glad to name our local representative! dered what happened to the enzymes. His trials, achieved at a customer feed mill, prove For more details please visit our website : Grain &feed millinG technoloGy July - august 2012 | 27
  4. 4. FEATURE that when using two identical pel- enzyme recovery, with losses of activity by leting lines, with the same equip- 13 percent to 28 percent on Lines 1 and 2 ment, the same product and for example. the same temperature, xylanase He concludes that, among all the recovery drops from 79 percent pelleting parameters influencing enzyme to 21 percent (lines 3 and 4 in stability, two key indicators should be Table 1). The main difference highlighted: the feed temperature before between the two lines was the pelleting which is a good indicator for feed flows (14.9t/h vs11.2t/h) characterizing heat resistance, and the that due to die wear and rolls specific energy of pelleting (kWh/t) gap settings, lead to a high differ- “which is relevant to characterise losses ence in specific pelleting energy during pelleting”. applied to feed. He points that this kind of study first requires the preparation of a strict Cooling parameters protocol for each trial, and the methodi- Finally, cooling parameters also cal collection of representative samples affect enzymatic activity. Jérôme (following the recommendations of the Lamoine shows that the cooler regulation6). He also points that, when the design (vertical or counter flow) powder form of enzymes has reached its and its settings (air speed linked limits in the feed mill, the liquid form can to the duration of cooling) affect be a safe alternative. References 1 Lamoine, J., 2011. Technological expertise for guaranteed performances. Conference during the Rovabio® Expertise Tour in Brugge, Belgium. 2 Lamoine, J., and Y. Laitem, 2011. Pelleting parameters influencing The world´s top event for animal production enzymes stability. Adisseo trials. 3 Beardsworth, P., 2004. Coating helps to keep enzyme « cold ». Feed Tech 8.6 4 Inborr, J. et al, 1994. Stability of feed enzymes to steam pelleting during feed processing. Animal Feed Science Technology 46. 5 Tecaliman, 2007. Etablissement des barèmes de décontamination par un procédé de granulation sur les aliments porc, pondeuse, poulet et dinde. Fiche Technique n°68. 6 Commission Regulation (EC) No 152/2009 of 27 January 2009, laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of feed. Annex I Methods of sampling. Your Business Driven by Innovations Hanover / Germany 13 – 16 November 2012 Tel.: +49 69/24788-265, E-Mail: About the author Jérôme Lamoine1, expert in Product Application including Technologies, Adisseo including More InforMatIon: www.adisseo.com28 | July - august 2012 RZ_130x180_Anzeige_ET_JP EN.indd 1 09.07.12 15:23 &feed millinG technoloGy Grain
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  6. 6. This digital Re-print is part of the July | August 2012 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full LINKS online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on July - August 2012 • See the full issue • Nutritional impact of pellet binders • Visit the GFMT website • Contact the GFMT Team • A fresh perspective on UK milling wheat In this issue: • Generating added value by extrusion • Health • Technological & safety in • Subscribe to GFMT expertise the working Understand enzyme recovery environment in pelleted feed • Powder Containment A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edi- tion please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link adove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE Article reprints All Grain & Feed Milling Tecchnology feature articles can be re-printed as a 4 or 8 page booklets (these have been used as point of sale materials, promotional materials for shows and exhibitions etc). If you are interested in getting this article re-printed please contact the GFMT team for more informa- tion on - Tel: +44 1242 267707 - Email: or visit