Temperature Control                                     high precision thermoregulation                                   ...
Temperature ControlTemperature Controlfor Chemical Research and ProductionPrecise temperature control has a significant in...
Temperature ControlThe Unistat Principal                                     Key to good heat transfer is pump per-       ...
Temperature ControlPower according to DIN 12876DIN – Deutsches Institut für Normung, is                                   ...
Temperature ControlTrue Adaptive Control                            a multi-dimensional model of the process,             ...
Temperature ControlPractical featuresIn temperature control importance isplaced on the primary function of a systemsuch as...
Temperature Controlprovides additional ports for Ethernet and      Performance in the smallest space The Petite Fleur come...
Temperature Control                                              and digital interfaces for connection to                 ...
Temperature ControlProfessional Scale-up                         Roche requires that chillers are HCFC, HFC               ...
Temperature Control                                                                              Process Safety     Practi...
Temperature ControlCase Study:Unistat® 615wHeating & cooling a Buchi 250 litre glass linedstainless steel reactor through ...
Temperature Control                                                    Case Study:                                        ...
Temperature Control                                                                                           Case Study: ...
Temperature Control                                                  Case Study:                                          ...
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Temperature Control for Reactors - a Huber Whitepaper


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Ideal solutions for fast and precise temperature control of externally connected applications such as Bio-reactors, Chemical-reactors a.m.m. Learn mor about UNISTATs - innovative Temperature control systems for temperatures from -120° up to +425°

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Temperature Control for Reactors - a Huber Whitepaper

  1. 1. Temperature Control high precision thermoregulation Whitepaper Temperature Control for Chemical Research and ProductionPeter Huber Kältemaschinenbau GmbH Contents:Werner-von-Siemens-Strasse 1 Introduction to Temperature Control 277656 Offenburg / Germany Unistat Principal - Control and Heat Transfer 3-5Phone: +49 781 9603-0 Unistat Technology 6-7Fax: +49 781 57211 Unistat Hybrid for High Volume Reactors 8-9info@huber-online.com Practical Advantages 10www.huber-online.com Case Studies 11-14 -1-
  2. 2. Temperature ControlTemperature Controlfor Chemical Research and ProductionPrecise temperature control has a significant influence on performance and quality in chemicalprocess engineering. The Unistat range of temperature control systems ensure accurate temperaturesand stable process conditions in research laboratories, pilot plants and kilolabs worldwide. The newUnistat Hybrid technology, offers solutions for temperature control of large scale production reactors,enabling an affordable partial modernisation of existing central plant cooling/heating systems.When it comes to chemical reactions in production processes the Fig 1: Unistat temperature systems allow scale-up in small reactorsright temperature is critical and so accordingly, is the need for an used in process development,appropriate heating/cooling solution. For process engineers it is to production volumeessential to find a compromise between yield quality and produc-tivity. Over the years, and with the support of process engineersfrom the chemical and pharmaceutical industry, the Unistat rangehas been developed and refined. This collaboration has ensuredthat Unistats remain at the forefront of technology, making themsuitable for controlling the temperature of chemical and bioreac-tors, autoclaves, reaction blocks & calorimeters in mini, pilot anddistillation plants. As a result of their thermodynamic characteris-tics, Unistats offer cutting edge performance regardless of the ap-plication, excelling even under heavily changing system conditions.To demonstrate the performance of the Unistat range over 200 casestudies have been created to show the Unistats unique ability to ad-apt to process requirements, offering precise stability and control. -2-
  3. 3. Temperature ControlThe Unistat Principal Key to good heat transfer is pump per- Low Operating CostsReliable temperature control of a chemical formance. In order to achieve optimal cir- Compared to conventional heating andprocess, is critical to success and, is depen- culation, high flow rates, with low pump cooling circulators, Unistats achieve gre-dent on effective thermal transfer. With pressure are required. This allows heating ater efficiency and reduce resource con-traditional “Open bath” thermostats, limi- and cooling energy to be transported very sumption. Operating costs (electricity,tations occur with; the flash points of ther- effectively by the temperature control sys- cooling water, thermal fluids, etc.) are lessmal fluids at high temperatures, causing a tem so fast ramps are possible (Fig. 4). than other systems.narrow safe operating temperature range.Degridation of thermal fluid due to eva- For a comparison of thermal dynamics it isporation, water absorption and oxidation essential to take into account cooling po-which dramatically reduces the thermal wer density [W / l]. Cooling power densityconductivity of the fluid. The large volume is particularly important for applicationsof fluid required for the bath puts a con- with a continuously changing reactionstraint on performance and severely limit mass. Precise temperature control andthe dynamics of heating and cooling. process stability are crucial factors in ob- taining the desired temperature result andUnistat principle, (Fig. 2) unlike conventional the better the heat transfer the quicker thetechnology uses no internal bath. Instead a temperature change. When endothermiclow internal volume in conjunction with an or exothermic reactions occur, the Unistatsexpansion vessel is used to compensate for impressive ability to react to the process,volume change induced by heating and coo- quick temperature changes and intergra-ling. This principle reduces the mass of fluid ted process safety feature allows the reac-and as a result dramatically increases the rate tion to be kept under tight control without Figure 2: The Unistat principle com-of temperature change, achieving cooling ra- over or undershoot, resulting in higher pu- bines powerful thermodynamics and modern microelectronicstes of several hundred degrees per hour. rity levels, and better efficiency (Fig. 3). Temperature °CSelectivity Reaction Speed Optimum Temperature Temperature Interval Setpoint temperature Jacket temperature Process Temperature Temperature Time (min)Figure 3: Temperature control of a chemical reaction has a Figure 4: Regulation of an exothermic reaction in a reactorsignificant influence on selectivity and reaction rate. The op- is fast and reliable and destruction of the reactor contents istimum is often in a narrow temperature interval. avoided. Thermal reactions are compensated quickly and reliably (Figure 4):  Exothermic reaction starts  The Unistat compensates by rapid cooling  Process temperature rise is brought under control  The reaction is cooled to setpoint temperature  As the process temperature drops the Unistat heats  The process is brought back to the desired temperature -3-
  4. 4. Temperature ControlPower according to DIN 12876DIN – Deutsches Institut für Normung, is Typical Unistat Applications:the national standards body for Germany. »» Reaction Systems, Autoclaves »» Pilot PlantDIN 12876, demands that the quoted »» Mini Plantcooling capacity is to be measured at »» Process Developmentfull pump power using water as a HTF. »» Double jacketed vesselsReducing pump power reduces the heat »» Reaction Calorimetryentering the system leading to more net »» Distillationcooling capacity and makes lower tem- »» Plant testingperatures possible. Reducing the pump »» Material Testingspeed increases cooling power and in »» Combinatorial Chemistrysome cases 30 to 50 Watts and up to 5 °C »» Semiconductor Industrylower end temperatures can be achieved.Huber always quote cooling power at full »» Kilolabpump power. »» Vacuum ChambersUnistats have a very low filling volume Figure 5: Unistats are in use in many industries - particularly in reactorand therefore a very high cooling power temperature control.density [W / l]. This shows how quickly asystem changes temperature. A crucial pa-rameter in terms of safety. -4-
  5. 5. Temperature ControlTrue Adaptive Control a multi-dimensional model of the process, User defined ramp rates allow for fasterVarying research criteria and process de- TAC is able to automatically adjust PID pa- or slower response (Fig. 6). If TAC is notmands change the thermal load on the rameters to cope with and respond rapidly required, the user can manually adjust thetemperature control system; what does to sudden changes in the process. PID parameters.not change is the requirement for goodcontrol. Operating in both „Jacket” and „Process”, TAC provides responsive and close controlThe solution is True Adaptive Control (TAC) with rapid changes with no overshoot towhich has the capability to automatically the process - automatically and under allchange with those demands. By building conditions. Rapid Ramping (no overshoot) Faster Ramping (minimal overshoot) Setpoint Setpoint With TAC With TAC Without TAC Without TACFigure 6: TAC generates a multidimensional model of the process to achieve the Figure 7: Large cross-sections and pumpdesired temperature in the shortest times without overshoot connections minimise pressure losses and provide optimum heat transferOptimised heat transfer Pump CurvesThe Unistat range has improved pumpconnections, with wide internal diametersto minimise flow losses and internal pres-sure. Wider bores, low pressure and lowflow resistance allow higher flow rates.This has a significant influence on heattransfer and results in improved cooling Pressure/barand heating capacity, improved processcontrol and faster response times. LargeUnistats are equipped with M24 x 1.5pump connections (Fig. 7). Bench top mo-dels are supplied with M16 x 1 adaptorsas standard; allowing existing connectionsand hoses be used without modification. Flow Rate l/min Measured according to DIN 12876 with water at 20 °C Figure 8: Pump curves show reduced flow as pressure increases -5-
  6. 6. Temperature ControlPractical featuresIn temperature control importance isplaced on the primary function of a systemsuch as heating and cooling power, butoften secondary attributes play a decisi-ve role in performance. High heating andcooling capacities are worthless if pres-sure from the pump is too high. Pressurereduces flow which causes heat transferto be restricted and this has a dramaticeffect on performance. With low pressureand high flow smaller, less expensive unitsare required. Figure 9: The Unistat range offers over 50 standard models for temperature con- trol applications in research, pilot plant and production from -120 to +425 ° CHuber systems offer users numerous func-tions and settings which make control ware against breakage and compensating can be written and stored and a range ofsimpler. These settings allow very fine for pressure changes in the thermal fluid. safety features allow Unistats to run unat-tuning of the application; for example, Intelligent temperature control techniques tended. The Unistat-Pilot can be removedTrue Adaptive Control (TAC) intelligent ensure minimum pressure with maximum from the Unistat and mounted remotelytemperature control system, continuously flow for optimum heat transfer. to allow flexible control. Further featuresanalyzes the system, learning with the ap- such as: the programmer, adaptive casca-plication so the more you use it the better Water Separation System de control, ramp functions, calendar start,control. VPC – Variable Pressure Control, Occasionally water from previous applica- individual user menus, sensor calibrationwith soft start, protecting delicate glass- tions, cleaning or moisture absorbed from and analogue and digital interfaces for in- the atmosphere during storage can build tegration in process control systems round up within the heat transfer fluid circuit. off the Unistats functionality. Unistats offer the unique water separati- on system, which allows residual water to Analogue and Digital Interfaces be removed. If water is not removed, ice Numerous data interfaces allow Huber builds up during low temperature work, systems to integrate into equipment or preventing heat transfer and in some ca- process control systems. Standard fea- ses resulting in costly repairs. tures include an RS232/RS485 interface and various analogue interfaces comply- Unistat-Pilot ing to NAMUR standards are available. Unistats offer full functionality in the Uni- The optional Web.G@te module (Fig. 11) stat-Pilot controller. This 5.7 inch colour touch screen controller can be customised to display all the important parameters for the applications such as setpoints, actual values and limits clearly. Temperature gra- dients can be displayed in a real time gra- phic format and the unit can be switchedFigure 10: Unistat were developed with from Celsius to Fahrenheit. In addition theprocess engineers in chemical and phar-maceutical companies Unistat-Pilot offers interfaces in 6 langua- Figure 11: WebG.@te enables instru- ment control and data transfer via ge options, temperature control programs network or Internet -6-
  7. 7. Temperature Controlprovides additional ports for Ethernet and Performance in the smallest space The Petite Fleur comes with the Com.G@USB, enabling the exchange of data over High heating and cooling capacities, so- te interface which offers RS232/RS485, acorporate networks, the Internet or the phisticated safety features and an extensi- potential free contact, analogue interfacestorage of data and profiles on USB sticks. ve list of features - all in compact housing, (0/4-20mA or 0-10V) and connection for with small footprints. external control signals (ECS). The PetiteUnistats stand out in safety and economy! Fleur is available in two versions for eitherThe efficient energy management system According to DIN12876 cooling power is temperature control of externally closed orkeeps electrical power consumption to a divided by the size of the housing to give externally open applications.minimum. Reduced operating costs and power density in watts/dm3 = kW/ms.minimal use of water further saves on utility Truly compact units occupy the smallest Models for process technologyconsumption. The hydraulically sealed con- space whilst at the same time ensuring The Unistat product range offers manystruction of the Unistat range prevents the a high cooling power density (watts/litre) models with the power to control a rangeformation of oil vapours and oxidation, ex- for temperature rates of several hundred of reactors from small scale to 1,000 lit-tending the lifetime of costly thermal fluids degrees per hour. res or more depending on the application.by years. The Unistat Pilot offers Compre- The product range has recently expandedhensive safety features and continuously Even the Petite Fleur, the smallest Unistat with the addition of the new Unistats 905,monitors the process allowing Unistats to in the range, (Fig. 12) offers the best ther- 905w, 912w and 915w (Fig. 13). Theserun remotely. In the event of an emergen- modynamic properties and full functionali- new models are suitable for many typicalcy, alarms are activated and, depending on ty despite being incredibly compact with a applications in process and process engi-the user defined settings, the system will small footprint. The working temperaturethen either, turn off or, the emergency over- range of the Petite Fleur is from -40°Ctemperature protection function will be to +200°C with cooling powers of 480activated; switching the machine to 100% watts, when measured at full pump speedcooling in the event of a thermal runaway. in accordance to DIN 12876. Decreasing the pump speed allows additional cooling power to become available – in some ca- ses an extra 50 watts can be achieved! The powerful variable speed pump gu- arantees optimum circulation with flow and pressure rates of 33l / min and 0.9 bar. Unistats, including the Petite Fleur of- fer many safety options, such as TAC, VPC and Process Safety feature. Figure 13: The new Unistats 905, 905w 912w and 915w are suitable for applications in process and process technologies, such as reac-Figure 12: As the smallest of the Uni- tors, autoclaves, mini plant, pilotstats, the Petite Fleur is suitable for plants, reaction blocks, distillationthe research laboratories. columns, etc. -7-
  8. 8. Temperature Control and digital interfaces for connection to process control systems. The Unistat series offers cooling capacities up to 150 kW and operating temperatures from -120 °C to +425 °C. In addition options for weather protection and/or winter operation are available, al- lowing units to be located outdoors and controlled remotely with the detachable controller (Fig. 14). For Unistats sited in ATEX zones 1 & 2, Huber offers two so- lutions. The Unistat can either be placed Figure 15: Ex-p Pressurised cabinet for in an Ex-p pressure chamber (Fig. 15). or use within hazardous areas in ATEX an ATEX certified controller can be moun- zones 1 & 2. ted in the ATEX area whilst the UnistatFigure 14: The removable Unistat Pilotcan be used as a remote controller remains in the safe zone. Production reactors interaction of the individual energy sour- of 10 m³ or moreneering, e.g. temperature control of biore- ces and control temperature accordingly. The introduction of the new Unistat Hyb-actors, autoclaves and reaction blocks in This results in faster heating times for lar- rid technology extends the range of HuberMini and Pilot Plants. All models cover a ge volume reactors heated by steam or re- systems allowing temperature control oftemperature range of -90 to +250 °C and spectively faster cooling times with liquid large volume reactors of 10,000 litres oroffer a heating capacity of 6 kW. Cooling nitrogen or cooling water. The advanta- more. The Unistat Hybrid combines thecapacities range from 4.5 to 11 kW de- ges of this technique are precise control, precise control of the Unistat range, withpending on the model. The variable speed an extended temperature range, more the power of existing energy resources incirculation pump achieves flow rates up to heating and cooling power and reliable a production facility such as steam, coo-110 l/min. control of thermal reactions. Linking the ling water or liquid nitrogen (fig. 16), offe- Unistat Hybrid into an existing centralised ring powerful process control and a parti-The Unistat-Pilot enables further auto- cooling/heating system results in better al cost effective modernisation of existingmation of work processes with features process conditions and improved produc- resources.which include a programmer, ramp func- tion output. Using a Unistat Hybrid system (Fig. 17) intion, calendar, start, customisable user this way, allows the Unistat to manage themenus, sensor calibration and analogueFigure 16: Complete solution: The Unistat hybrid temperature control system used in conjunction with external heat ex-changers and various energy sources (steam, cooling water, nitrogen) and controls the interaction. -8-
  9. 9. Temperature ControlProfessional Scale-up Roche requires that chillers are HCFC, HFC Dynamics of the UnistatOver 50 models are available in the Unis- & PFC free. Now the entire Huber rangetat product group, offering precise tempe- is offered with natural refrigerants as anrature control from -120 to +425 °C. They option or as standard.range from very compact units to powerfulmodels for controlling temperature of pro- The energy management system keepsduction reactors, to the Unistat Hybrid for energy consumption to a minimum. Theproduction scale. A range of accessories Unistats highly efficient energy conversionincluding: Heat transfer fluid, hose con- from electrical power to temperature control Dynamics of conventional technologynections, booster pumps, explosion proof and the speed and accuracy of Huber savesequipment, maintenance contracts are resources, time and money. With a Huberavailable. chiller consumption of water can be reduced to zero and in addition to this, the materialsEnvironmental Commitment used in manufacturing are recyclable stain-1995 signalled the end of the use of CFC‘s less steel, copper and high grade polymers.as refrigerants. In 1991, four years aheadof the ban all Huber systems were built For Huber, the eradication of CFC‘s is goodwithout CFC‘s and R22, which was later but not sufficient, the current target is to Figure 18: A comparison of the thermo-banned in 2000. As a result Huber custo- phaze out all FC‘s, well before the dead- dynamics of Unistats and conventional technology illustrates the practicalmers were the first to buy machines that line in 2015. Reducing energy consumpti- benefits. Time savings in research tasksreached -120°C, fully Chlorine free and on in the build and operation of systems and an improved production through- put are the main arguments.environmentally friendly. Bespoke tempe- remains a priority but the current units arerature control systems developed in ac- a great start, leading the way in reducedcordance with the global K6 directive from energy consumption. Modernisation of Che- mical Plants with the Unistat Hybrid Chemical and pharmaceutical production plants, often use central Cooling and Heating systems in production processes for tempera- ture control. The Unistat Hybrid system opti- mises existing systems by connecting a hyd- raulically sealed temperature control unit. The available cooling and heating capacity is incre- ased and the range of temperatures expanded. Benefits • Higher heating and cooling capacities • Use of existing energy resources such as steam, cooling water, LN2 liquid nitrogen, etc. • Temperature range extension in existing facilities • Precise control of the process temperature • Reliable compensation of thermal reactions • Low cost modernisation of existing facilities • Avoids costly and time consuming system renovationsFigure 17: With a Unistat Hybrid system production reactors of 10,000 liters andmore can be controlled. Advantages are a high precision control and reliable com-pensation of thermal reactions. -9-
  10. 10. Temperature Control Process Safety Practical Advantages: 1 Unistats provide an option to allow the circulation pump and compressor to continue to work despite an over temperature trip. This allows controlled heat removal and protects your thermally controlled products from being destroyed. Heat Transfer Powerful circulation pumps and a large hose cross section ensure maximum 10 flow rates and optimum heat transfer. De-Gassing 2 Unistats only require de-gassing after each application set up. As a result uncontrolled conditions during normal operation will be Space saving design minimised. Unistats have a compact design requi- ring little space. The power to volume ratio (Watts/cm3) according to DIN 12876 documents the extremely small 9 space requirement of the Unistats. Hydraulically sealed Volume changes due to fluid temperature 3 fluctuations are equalised by the expansi- on vessel. The fluid in the expansion vessel Power / Volume hydraulically seals the fluid circuit and Unistats have a high power to vo- prevents early Oxidation. lume ratio (Watts/Litre). In practice, Unistats offer a very high speed of temperature change in the region of 8 several hundreds of Kelvin per hour. Touchscreen Colour Display 4 The large, graphic touchscreen aids Pressure Control 7 operation and shows convenient display The pressure control VPC continuously of temperature runs directly on the monitors the pressure in the connected machine. Therefore essential application application and therefore protects the parameters are always in view. sensitive glass reactor from breakage. Temperature Control Data Communication The intelligent temperature control TAC analyses the controlled fluid circuit conti- nuously, and adjusts the control parameters 6 5 Unistats offer numerous possibilites for data communication. RS232/RS485 interfaces are fitted as standard, as well as various analogue automatically. The result is the best control interfaces. The optional Web.G@te offers additi- results even with difficult applications. onal interfaces for Ethernet, Internet and USB.Peter Huber Kältemaschinenbau GmbHWerner-von-Siemens-Strasse 177656 Offenburg / GermanyPhone: +49 781 9603-0Fax: +49 781 57211info@huber-online.comwww.huber-online.com high precision thermoregulation - 10 -
  11. 11. Temperature ControlCase Study:Unistat® 615wHeating & cooling a Buchi 250 litre glass linedstainless steel reactor through 60 KRequirementThis case study shows the remarkable power trans-fer capabilities of the Unistat range in using a Unistat615w to heat and cool a 250-litre Buchi Glas UsterGLSS reactor.MethodThe Unistat was connected to the reactor using two2 metre insulated metal hoses. The reactor was filledwith 200 litre of Ethanol.ResultsThe Unistat cools the process from 20 °C to -40 °C(60 K) in approximately 150 minutes. It can be seenfrom the jacket temperature that the system is “com-fortable” with this load. The heat up time back to20 °C takes approximately 60 minutes. Setup details Temperature range: –60...200 °C Cooling power: 9.5 kW @ 200…0 °C 8.0 kW @ -20 °C 4.8 kW @ -40 °C 1.2 kW @ -60 °C Jacket temperature Heating power: 12 kW Process temperature Hoses: M38x1,5; 2x2 m Setpoint HTF: DW-Therm (#6479) Reactor: Buchi Glas Uster CR252 250 litre glass lined (enameled) steel reactor Reactor content: 200 litre Ethanol Reactor stirrer speed: 90 rpm Control: process - 11 -
  12. 12. Temperature Control Case Study: Unistat® 1005w Cooling an Asahi 10 litre triple wall reactor to -110 °C Requirement Temperatures required to carry out chemistry in spe- cialised cryogenic research have become lower and lower. This case study demonstrates that the process temperature inside an Asahi vacuum insulated glass reactor can be comfortably cooled and controlled at -110 °C by using a Unistat 1005w. Method The Asahi reactor was connected to the Unistat 1005w using two 1.5 metre insulated metal hoses. Under process control, a process set-point of -110 °C was entered and the results recorded using the Huber “SpyControl”. Results The jacket temperature cools quickly in a linear fashion to -100 °C in approximately 55 minutes ramp rate of 2 K/min) before slow.Setup detailsTemperature range:-120...100 °CCooling power: 1.5 kW @ 100…-40 °C 1.4 kW @ -60… -80 °C Jacket temperature 1.0 kW @ -100°C Process temperatureHeating power: 2.0 kW SetpointHoses: x1.5 m; M30x1.5 2 (#6386)HTF: Kryothermal SReactor: litre insulated 10 jacketed glass reactorReactor content: 10 litre M90.055.03Stirrer speed: ~ 200 rpmControl: process Tmin Jacket -120 °C On the point control - 12 -
  13. 13. Temperature Control Case Study: Unistat® 510w Controlling a simulated 300  W (258  kcal  /  hr) exothermic reaction in a 15 litre Buchi Glas Uster reactor Requirement This case study shows the temperature profile of a specific test while undergoing a simulated exother- mic reaction. Method A Unistat 510w has been selected to control the pro- cess temperature inside a 5 litre glass lined (ename- led) steel reactor which is 2/3 filled with M20.235.20. Results The 300 W exothermic reaction increases the process temperature by approx. 1.7 K and the Unistat com- pensates the temperature difference in 9 minutes. After a while the heater is removed out of the reactor and the process temperature goes down to approx. 18.3 °C. The Unistat takes 12 minutes to bring back the process temperature to its set-point. Setup details Unistat® 510w Buchi Glas Uster reactor Temperature range: -50...250 °CHeater „On“ at a value of Cooling power: 5.3 kW @ 0…250 °C300 W (258 Kcal/hr) 2.8 kW @ -20 °C Process temperature 0.9 kW @ -40 °C back at set-point and Heating power: 6.0 kW controlled during simulated reaction Hoses: 2x1.5 m; M30x1.5 (#6386) HTF: DW-Therm (#6479) Reactor: litre glass lined (enameled) 15 Heater „Off“ steel reactor Reactor content: litre M20.235.20 (#6162) 10 Stirrer speed: 80 rpm Jacket ramps 8 K/min. to Control: process recover the process to its set-point Jacket ramps 5.6 K/min. to create a Jacket temperature wide DT to make the extra entergy flow Process temperature out into the jacket Setpoint - 13 -
  14. 14. Temperature Control Case Study: Unistat® 705w Unistat® 705w cooling a 2 litre reactor to Tmin Requirement This case study demonstrates the minimum achiev- able process temperature when a Unistat 705 is con- nected to a Radleys “Reactor Ready” system config- ured with 2 litre vacuum insulated reactor. Method The reactor was filled with 1,5 litres of “P20.275.50” as a thermal load, the stirrer set to 250 rpm and the control to “Process”. The results were recorded on the Huber “SpyControl” software. Results As can be seen from the graphic, the jacket rapidly cools to -61 °C with a corresponding minimum pro- cess temperature of -59 °C. The ramp time back to 20 °C sees the jacket tempera- ture increase to 47 °C before ramping back to bring the process temperature exactly to its 20 °C set point.Jacket temperature Setup Details:Process temperatureSetpoint Temperature range: - 70...250 °C Cooling power: 0,6 kW @ -20 °C 0,6 kW @ -40 °C 0,3 kW @ -60 °C Heating power: 1,5 / 3,0 kW Pump speed: 3500 rpm Hoses: 2x1 m; M24x1,5 (#9325) HTF: SilOil P20.275.50 (#6157) Reactor: litre vacuum 2 jacketed glass reactor Reactor content: litre P20.275.50 1.5 (#6259) Reactor stirrer speed: 250 rpm Control: Process Over 200 Case Studies available to download at: www.huber-online.com - 14 -