(drug courts - types) "There are generally two models for drug courts: deferred prosecution programs and post-adjudication programs. In a deferred prosecution or diversion setting, defendants who meet certain eligibility requirements are diverted into the drug court system prior to pleading to a charge. Defendants are not required to plead guilty and those who complete the drug court program are not prosecuted further. Failure to complete the program, however, results in prosecution. Alternatively, in the post-adjudication model, defendants must plead guilty to their charges but their sentences are deferred or suspended while they participate in the drug court program. Successful completion of the program results in a waived sentence and sometimes an expungement of the offense. However, in cases where individuals fail to meet the requirements of the drug court (such as a habitual recurrence of drug use), they will be returned to the criminal court to face sentencing on the guilty plea.“ (King Pg. 3)
"Drug Court Activity Update: Summary Information on All Drug Court Programs and Detailed Information on Adult Drug Courts," Office of Justice Programs Drug Court Clearinghouse and Technical Assistance Project (Washington, DC: American University, June 25, 2001), pp. 2, 6.http://www1.spa.american.edu/justice/documents/1933.pdf
“In a recent survey, 34 percent of U.S. jails indicated that they had some type of formal diversion program for mentally ill detainees (2). However, in a follow-up telephone survey, only 18 percent of the jails that claimed to have such interventions actually had programs that fit the definition provided above. After researchers visited these sites, their final estimate was that only about 50 to 55 true jail diversion programs for mentally ill detainees exist nationwide.” (Steadman 1999)
“Rarely do you see housing as a part of a jail/criminal justice program for mentally ill or substance abusing individuals. You may see some use of short term housing vouchers but not the full scale commitment Maryland has made.”
The National Commission on Correctional Health Care (NCCHC), which is based in Chicago, Illinois, has already begun the process of creating nationwide standards.
Transcript of "Diversionary Problems Helping The Mentally Ill And Comorbid"
Diversionary Problems: Helping the Mentally Ill and Comorbid within the Criminal Justice System<br />What to do?<br />
Elissa A. Quiles<br />Argosy University: Undergraduate Studies<br />Psychology 492: Advanced General Psychology<br />August 14, 2011<br /> Hooman Keshavarzi<br />
Currently in our penal system we have more people with mental disorders than any other point within history. “Not only is this practice inappropriate, it is also extremely cost ineffective with $15 billion spent annually to house individuals with mental illness in jails and prisons.” (James Pg. 2) <br />
Cost of Things<br />Drug courts: $4,300 avg. Per personGroup therapy/Long term rehabilitation centers: $16, 424 per yearIncarceration: $47,000 a year avg.Good Mental Health: Immeasurable Get Addiction under control: ImmeasurableCommunity Mental Health and Well being: Immeasurable<br />
Drug Court Activity Update<br />(OJPDCC&TAP 2001)<br />
<ul><li>“A national study from 2002 through 2004 estimated that 56% of state prisoners, 45% of federal prisoners, and 64% of jail inmates suffer from a mental illness.
This indicates an increase from the 1998 national study that found 16% of state prisoners, 7% of federal Inmates, and 16% in local jails reported a mental illness.” (NAMI 2011)</li></li></ul><li>What will happen when those that are incarcerated are released back into the regular population of the US? <br />Our economy will suffer worse then it is now due to the cost of recidivism.<br />Those with mental illness and substance abuse (Co morbidity) may well end up homeless unless they have advocates helping them navigate the system.<br />People’s safety will be at risk, due to a dangerous element preying on the homeless.<br />
“Today it is an accepted fact that correctional health care is a vital component of public health. Correctional health care not only benefits the direct recipients, but also has a significant impact on the health of the community. The nation cannot afford to neglect the health of this unseen population.” (NCCHC Pg.1) <br />
References: <br />Anglin Douglas M. Brown S. Barry. Dembo. Richard. Leukefeld. Carl. Criminality and Addiction: Selected Issues for Future Policies, Practice, and Research. Journal of Drug Issues 0022-0426/09/01 89-100 (2009)<br />American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition TR. (2004)<br />American Public Health Association. The Need for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services for the Incarcerated Mentally Ill. American Journal of Public Health 91: 3 551 (2001)<br />Fazel S, Danesh J. Serious mental disorder in 23000 prisoners: a systematic review of 62 surveys. Lancet. 359(9306):545–550. (2002)<br />Karberg JC, James DJ. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report: Substance Dependence. Abuse and Treatment of Jail Inmates. 2002. (2005) <br />King. Ryan S. Pasquarella. Jill. (2009). Drug Courts: A Review of the Evidence<br />James & Glaze. (2006). Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates. United States Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.<br />
Lamb HR, and Weinberger LE. Person with severe mental illness in jails and prisons: A review. Psychiatric Serv.49(4): 483-492. (1998)<br />Legislative Analyst’s Office. California’s Nonpartisan Fiscal and Policy Advisor. Retrieved from http://www.lao.ca.gov/laoapp/laomenus/sections/crim_justice/6_cj_inmatecost.aspx?catid=3. Retrieved on August 8 2011.<br />Legislative Budget Board Staff (2011). Managing and Funding State Mental Hospitals in Texas: Legislative Primer.<br /> <br />Lindquist CH. Lindquist CA. Gender differences in distress: mental health consequences of environmental stress among jail inmates. Behavioral Science Law. 15(4):503–523. (1997)<br />Mauer. M. SENTENCING REFORM: Amid mass incarcerations-guarded optimism.Criminal Justice 26(1)/ 27-27-36. (2011)<br />Meyers C.J. Arresting the Patient Instead of the Illness-The Jail as Psychiatric Services of Last Resort. Journal of Prison Jail Health 5:20 Pg. 28 (1985). <br />
Munetz, M.R. & Griffin, P.A. (2006). Use of the Sequential Intercept Model as an approach to decriminalization of people with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Services. 5(74). 544-549.<br />National Commission on Correctional Health Care. 2010 Annual Report (Pg.1). National Commission on Correctional Health Care (2011)<br />NAMI (National Alliance on Mental Illness): Virginia. Fact Sheet: Mental Illness and the Criminal Justice System (2011). <br />PelissierB. Gender differences in substance use treatment entry and retention among prisoners with substance use histories. Am J Public Health. 94(8): 1418–1424. (2004)<br />Public Citizen Health Research Group and National Alliance for the Mentally Ill. Criminalizing the Seriously Mentally III: The Abuse of Jails as Mental Hospitals (1992)<br />Sabol WJ, Minton TD. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin: Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007. US Dept of Justice. (2008)<br />
Steadman. H. and Veysey B. Providing Services for Jail Inmates with Mental Disorders. Research in Brief. Washington. DC: U.S. Departmentof Justice. National Institute of Justice. (April1997). NCJ 162207 (Pg. 1).<br />Survey of State Prison Inmates. 1991. Washington, DC. Bureau of Justice Statistics Department of Justice Publication No. NCJ- 136949. (1992)<br />