Confined space entry

1,283 views
1,146 views

Published on

OSHA Training - Confined Space Entry

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,283
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
83
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Confined space entry

  1. 1. Confined Space Entry Environmetal Safety & Health - Safety CenterAuthor: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 1
  2. 2. Confined Space Entry Why are we here? OSHA and this company require that all employees who must enter into confined spaces receive training as to the hazards, procedures and equipment required to do so safely.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 2
  3. 3. Confined Space Entry Definitions: The entrant is the person who enters a confined space. The attendant is the person who stays with the entrant outside the confined space, and is responsible for assisting the entrant in exiting the confined space, and calling for emergency assistance when required. The safety representative is the qualified person who evaluates the hazards, prescribes required equipment and precautions and issues the Confined Space Entry Permit.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 3
  4. 4. Confined Space Entry Goals and Objectives: At the end of this session you will: o be familiar with the hazards and requirements of “safe” confined space entry. o pass a 10 question quiz with a score of 100%.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 4
  5. 5. Confined Space Entry - Hazards O2 Both animal and plant life require oxygen to live. One of the primary hazards of entering confined spaces is oxygen deficiency. When oxygen is present in O2 concentrations less than 19.5% the atmosphere is said to be oxygen deficient.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 5
  6. 6. Confined Space Entry - Hazards Oxygen can also be present in concentrations that are too high. Oxygen in concentrations greater than 23% is too oxygen rich and can cause combustible materials to ignite very quickly.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 6
  7. 7. Confined Space Entry - Hazards Oxygen deficiency can be caused by several processes: Consumption: oxygen is used up by the person who is in the confined space and turned into carbon dioxide. Displacement: denser materials push the oxygen out of the occupied space. Reaction: oxygen is reacted with other materials to make other compounds.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 7
  8. 8. Confined Space Entry - Hazards CO2 O2 After oxygen is delivered The human body requires to body organs and used oxygen to carry out cellular by organ cells, it reacts metabolism. Oxygen is with carbon to make brought in through the lungs carbon dioxide. Red and transported to cells of blood cells carrying body organs by the red carbon dioxide turn blood cells. When blood is blue. Carbon dioxide is rich in oxygen it turns red. carried back to the lungs by the red blood cells and exhaled into the surrounding atmosphere.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 8
  9. 9. Confined Space Entry - Hazards O2 Given a fixed amount of oxygen as you would have in a confined space, respiration of oxygen causes carbon dioxide to increase. When oxygen CO2 decreases to less than 19.5%. the atmosphere is said to be oxygen deficient, putting occupants of the confined space at risk of losing consciousness and death.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 9
  10. 10. Confined Space Entry - Hazards CO2 NOx Processes which operate by the principle of combustion use up H20 oxygen much faster than the CO human respiration. Products of combustion vary with the fuel that is present and the temperature of the combustionO2 reaction. Welding, burning natural fuel gas, propane, gasoline, and diesel engines are examples of combustion processes.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 10
  11. 11. Confined Space Entry - Hazards Manholes often remain Manholes may also covered for long periods accumulate highly of time. Naturally flammable gasses H2 S occurring toxins, such such as methane as hydrogen sulfide and ethane. Unlike can accumulate inside of the gas we receive at manholes. home, we cannot detect CH4 some of these gases with our sense of smell.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 11
  12. 12. Confined Space Entry - Hazards Toxic and flammable Material can leach materials are sometimes through soil from illegally put into sanitary ?? many miles and storm sewers. away. Leaking tanks or spills may migrate under ?? ground causing seepage into manholes. ?? ?? ??Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 12
  13. 13. Confined Space Entry - Hazards Sudden releases of fluid solids, such as When torrential forces granulated salt, sugar, are suddenly released, or sand, liquids, and people may be struck dense gases can cause by moving objects , or engulfment of persons be pushed helplessly inside underground downstream. tanks, or pits.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 13
  14. 14. Confined Space Entry - Hazards Trenches, ravines and other excavations may also be considered confined spaces, if there is a potential for accumulation of toxic gases, engulfment ? and/or the depletion of oxygen.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 14
  15. 15. Confined Space Entry - Hazards Many confined space entries involve a complex set of exposures to mechanical, electrical, pressure and chemical hazards.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 15
  16. 16. Confined Space Entry The entry of a confined space begins with a Confined Space Entry Permit. Confined Space Entry Permit Confined Space Entry Permit The permit system requires Location and Description of Confined Space: Location and Description of Confined Space: that a qualified safety Reason for Entry: Reason for Entry: representative visit the Permit Issued to (Name of Company/Organization): Permit Issued to (Name of Company/Organization): work location and evaluate the conditions under which entry will be made.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 16
  17. 17. Confined Space Entry Each process hazard to which the entrant may be exposed, adjacent operations or processes, and scheduled activity are reviewed. For each hazard identified, countermeasures are detailed on the Confined Space Entry Permit.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 17
  18. 18. Confined Space Entry The safety representative tests the space for hazardous concentrations of known harmful substances, such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, and flammable liquid or gas. The concentration of oxygen is measured at the same time.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 18
  19. 19. Confined Space Entry - Hazards Fresh Air If concentrations of materials are found to Fresh outside Fresh outside be at harmful levels, air is blown into air is blown into ?? the confined space the space to dilute the space to dilute must be ventilated to and remove and remove remove them before contaminants, and contaminants, and O2 ?? entry. supply oxygen. supply oxygen. ?? O2 ?? O2 O2Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 19
  20. 20. Confined Space Entry - Hazards Fresh Air Should the concentration Should the concentration of contaminants remain ?? of contaminants remain at harmful levels, at harmful levels, respirators may have to respirators may have to be worn to assure aasafe O2 ?? be worn to assure safe air supply. air supply. ?? O2 ?? O2 O2Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 20
  21. 21. Confined Space EntryMeans of emergency rescuemust be readily availableto the confined spaceentry attendant foremergencyextrication ofentrants.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 21
  22. 22. Confined Space Entry A means must be provided for both safe normal entry or exit , and emergency extrication. Tripods with hoist, lifeline, and full body harness are often used for emergency extrication. Ladders may be used for ordinary entry and exit.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 22
  23. 23. Confined Space Entry Barriers to prevent passers-by and the curious from falling into the opening must be put in place. Holes and openings must be closed or guarded when not attended.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 23
  24. 24. Confined Space Entry Place warning signs where CAUTION pedestrians can see them. Opening in Ground Keep Out ! Signs must state the hazard and the required action.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 24
  25. 25. Confined Space Entry Confined Space Entry Permit Confined Space Entry PermitRequirements Required countermeasures include Requirements personal protective equipmentEye protection yes no Eye protectionRespiratory protection Respiratory protection yes yes yes no no no for hazards expected to be foundContinuous Ventilation yes no Continuous VentilationBody Protection yes yes no no within the confined space. Body Protection yes noHand Protection yes no Hand Protection yes noFoot Protection yes no Foot ProtectionWeather Protection Weather Protection yes yes yes no no no Eye and head injuries are always a potential, therefore safety glasses and hard hats are required wear for entrants. Other conditions may require the use of respirators, safety shoes, protective gloves, and other personal protective equipment. Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 25
  26. 26. Confined Space Entry Confined Space Entry Permit Confined Space Entry PermitRequirements Required countermeasures also Requirements include prevention of electricalGround Fault Interruption yes no Ground Fault InterruptionLockout of Hazardous Lockout of Hazardous yes no shock hazards due to loss ofEnergy Sources yes no Energy Sources yes no earth ground for portable tools. GFCI’s are required for portable electric tooling. o o There may also be a need to Danger Danger lockout and tag equipment both in the confined space and on adjacent equipment and processes. Do not use! Do not use! Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 26
  27. 27. Confined Space EntryEntrants must constantly monitor Entrants must leave the Entrants must leave thethe confined space for toxic gases, confined space when the confined space when theoxygen, and combustible gases. monitor alarm is activated. monitor alarm is activated.Entrants will be issued a personal H2 Smonitor to wear O2 It is the attendant’s It is the attendant’sfor this responsibility to see that responsibility to see thatpurpose. CO HCN the entrant leaves the the entrant leaves the CH4 space during an alarm. space during an alarm. CO2 Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 27
  28. 28. Confined Space EntryShould conditions develop Should conditions developwhich require extrication, which require extrication,and the entrant cannot and the entrant cannotget out of the confined get out of the confinedspace on their own, space on their own,the attendant must the attendant mustcall for emergency call for emergencyassistance at once! assistance at once! Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 28
  29. 29. Confined Space Entry The attendant should The attendant should attempt to remove the attempt to remove the entrant from the confined entrant from the confined space using tripods, hoist, and space using tripods, hoist, and lifelines. Attendants are NOT lifelines. Attendants are NOT TO ENTER CONFINED TO ENTER CONFINED SPACES. Lethal hazards may SPACES. Lethal hazards may be present within the confined be present within the confined space. Only properly space. Only properly equipped equipped and trained emergency rescue and trained emergency rescue personnel may enter confined personnel may enter confined spaces to make rescues. spaces to make rescues.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 29
  30. 30. Confined Space Entry - Summary Confined space entry hazards can include: - the presence of toxic substances - insufficient oxygen, or too much oxygen - engulfment - presence of combustible gases and liquids - process or equipment related hazards. - conditions changing from nonhazardous to hazardous.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 30
  31. 31. Confined Space Entry - Summary Confined Space Entry Permit Confined Space Entry Permit Required countermeasures are Location and description of confined space: Reason for and description of confined space: Location entry: Permit issuedentry: Reason for to: determined by a qualified safety Permit issued to: Supervisor’s Name: Supervisor’s Name: Attendant’s name: professional. Attendant’s name: Permit issuer’s name: Permit issuer’s name: lower explosive limit: % oxygen: % ppm CO: H2S: % oxygen: % lower explosive limit: ppm CO: H2S: Requirements Requirements Once the required countermeasures Emergency Rescuer Emergency Rescuer Continuous Gas Monitor yes yes yes no no no are in place, a permit is issued by Barrier for ground Monitor Continuous Gas openings yes no Barrier for ground openings Warning Signs Warning Signs yes yes yes yes no no no no the safety representative and the Safety Harness with life line Harness with Safety life line Tripod / Hoist / Pulley yes yes yes no no no confined space may be safely Tripod / Hoist / Pulley yes no Access (ladders/other)yes Access (ladders/other)yes Eye protection Eye protection no no yes yes no no entered. Respiratory protection yes no Respiratory protection Continuous Ventilation yes yes no no Continuous Ventilation Body Protection yes yes no no Body Protection yes no Hand Protection Hand Protection Foot Protection Foot Protection yes yes yes yes no no no no Should an emergency arise during Weather Protection yes no Weather Protection Ground Fault Circuit Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters yes yes no no the entry, the attendant notifies Interrupters yes no Lockout of Hazardous Energy of Hazardous Lockout Energy yes yes no no an emergency response team and attempts to extricate the entrant.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 31
  32. 32. Confined Space Entry -Summary CAUTION Confined Space Safe Work Permit Required Confined spaces are required to be labeled. Some spaces may have been overlooked. Contact your safety representative when in doubt. It is up to you to obey signs and to follow permit procedures before entry.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 32
  33. 33. Where to Get Help?The supervisor of a confined space entry should be contactedfor any equipment necessary to complete the task at hand.Safety Representatives are responsible for answering questionsabout the confined space entry permit, countermeasures,sampling methods, and instrumentation.Author: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 33
  34. 34. References and Sources for More Information OSHA 29CFR 1910.146 Permit - Required Confined SpacesAuthor: R. Chiodi 03/21/1997 rev 04/16/2000 34

×