Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply


Published in News & Politics
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. We-makingDaniel Vaarik
  • 2. Who are “we”?
  • 3. Every slicing of “we” creates difference
  • 4. We-making is they-making ✓The creation of “them” is a requirement for setting the boundaries of the “we”
  • 5. Some we’s and they’s are fairly new ✓Generations ✓Nations ✓Car owners
  • 6. In Spring 2010. Theatre NO99 created an experiment.
  • 7. An audience member was asked to come to an empty stage.
  • 8. People were encouraged to join her. “Because she is so lonely down there!”
  • 9. People started coming to the stage to support her.
  • 10. Soon many people filled the stage.
  • 11. But not everyone left the seats.
  • 12. And even if asked many times, some people never went to stage. Suddenly there were “we” and “they”. The audience was polarized.
  • 13. Unfortunately... ✓... polarization is also a main mechanism of sense making... ✓ is also the easiest way to get votes in politics
  • 14. The Baltic Way 1+ million out of 8 million But was it unity?
  • 15. ✓“Blue headlights talk. Of money. You can tell from far that money is coming. Good and peaceful. I know that a rich person is driving towards me. I know that he knows that I am rich, because my car has blue xenon headlights as well. Rich respect each other.” (Kaur Kender, “Check Out”, 2001). Fragmentation
  • 16. ✓“If you came from the planet Mars, it would have been harder to make distinctions between the new guard and the old. But you could tell that the new ones were happier, they wore Baltman ties. The old ones were sad and angry, they had monochrome ties from the Leningrad trouser-factory number 3”. (Daniel Vaarik, “Praktikaaruanne”, 2012).
  • 17. Ideal “we” is impossible.. ✓...since “we” always requires “them”... ✓... since without differences the world as we know it, would end ...
  • 18. Doubts ✓Who are “they”? ✓Are “they” among us? ✓Is this person what he or she claims or appears to be?
  • 19. Violence ✓“Violence gives some form of certainty ...” (Arjun Appadurai)
  • 20. Minor differences ✓In fact, minor differences can become the least acceptable ones ✓How dares this small minority come between us while we are almost we now?
  • 21. Even animals... “We” “They”
  • 22. Symbolic violence and jokes on... ✓nationalities ✓gays ✓etc
  • 23. Government and “we” ✓Is there a better way to manage “we”? ✓Or should we accept that we will always live in fear of “them”?
  • 24. Definition of us ✓Ethnic ✓Multiethnic
  • 25. “Our Russians or Putin’s”?
  • 26. Bringing the “we” together ✓By force is expensive ✓By soft power it also looks better
  • 27. Make protocols and interfaces ✓Not so much what is said, but how it is said
  • 28. In Spring 2013 hundreds of Estonian people were randomly chosen with lottery to discuss 5 important laws. Resulting discussion was a surprise to many.
  • 29. Avoid final polarization ✓Don’t say that: “who is not with us, is our enemy” ✓Learn to stop the radicalization cycles ✓Learn, when to retaliate and when not to retaliate
  • 30. Mandela: a pussy or strong leader?
  • 31. Dealing with historic wounds ✓Apologies can radicalize ✓Apologies can work
  • 32. Symbols ✓If apology, then pure ✓If monument, then beautiful and inclusive
  • 33. Silent gradualism ✓Role models ✓Everyday practice
  • 34. ✓Every “we“ is imaginary
  • 35. ✓We can imagine very different “we’s”
  • 36. Thanks!