Bottle Water
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Bottle Water

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academic presentation on microbiology

academic presentation on microbiology

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Bottle Water Bottle Water Presentation Transcript

  • Bottled water Hinnawala, S.M Disarathne, J.M.D.B Jayawardene, M.M.D.M
  • Content
    • What is bottled water
    • Types of bottled water
    • Origin of bottled water
    • Bottled water containers
    • Major suppliers and marketing approaches
    • Process of water bottling
    • Disinfection methods
    • Microbiological quality testing
    • Health hazards in bottled water
    • Quality Standards for bottled water.
    • References
  • (http://www.suite101`.com/content/the cost of bottled water.) What is bottled water? ( http://www.suite101`.com/content/the cost of bottled water.) Bottled water can be defined as any potable water intended for human consumption.
    • Spring water : This comes from an underground formation and must flow naturally to the earth surface.
    • Mineral water : Typically from a spring, contains dissolved solid like Ca 2+ ,Mg 2+ ,Na + ,K + ,Si & CO 3 -3 .
    • Purified drinking water : Water has been processed to remove Cl - ,Mg 2+ ,Ca 2+ .
    • Sterile water : Water from any source, But free from all microbes
  • Origin of bottled water
      • Artesian well
      • Water table well
      • Spring
      • Surface waters
  • Source: (Manual of PNWS-AWWA 2008 Annual Conference Bottled Water: Tapping the Trends)
  • Containers
      • Bottle
      • Water cooler
      • Counter-top spigot
      • Gallon jug
      • Other
      • Source: (Manual of PNWS-AWWA 2008 Annual Conference Bottled Water)
    Materials
      • Plastic
      • Glass
    Types
  • Major Suppliers and Marketing Approaches (http://www.google.com/image/bottled water )
  • Major Suppliers and Marketing Approaches
    • Leading Global Suppliers:
      • Nestlé
      • Danone
      • Coca-Cola
      • PepsiCo
  •  
  • Water bottling plant Starting Material Conway Belts Making Bottles Filling Quality controller Storage Sealing Labeling
  • Disinfection methods for bottled drinking water.
    • Ozonation
    • Ultraviolet(UV) Radiation
    • Distillation
    • Reverse Osmosis
    • Micron Filtration
  • Ozonation - water is disinfected using ozone, which kills most microbes ( Http://www.nsf.org )
    • Ultraviolet (UV) light - water is passed through UV light, which kills most microbes, depending on dosage applied
    Water inlet Water outlet Source:( Http://www.nsf.org ) UV Lamp
    • Distillation - water is boiled, and the steam is condensed to remove salts, metals, minerals, asbestos, particles, and some organic materials.
    Source:( Http://www.nsf.org ) Heat Source Cooling Water Raw Water Treated Water Steam
  • Reverse Osmosis
    • force water through membrane
    • removes many contaminants
    • Micron Filtration - water is filtered through screens with microscopic holes. The smaller the filter holes, the more contaminants the filter can remove.
    Source:( Http://www.nsf.org )
    • In Sri Lanka most commonly use,
    • UV Radiation and Ozonation
    • Heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) are commonly used to
    • assess the general microbiological quality of bottled water
    Microbiological quality testing of bottled water Table 01: Drinking water quality specifications in bottled water HPC limit World wide recommendation 50 cfu/cm3 Total Coliforms 0-10 cfu/100cm3 Fecal Coliforms 0 cfu/100cm3
  • Methods of detecting total & fecal coliforms
    • Conventional methods
    • Membrane filtration (MF) method
    • Most probable number (MPN) method
    • Modern methods
    • Colilert method
    • m-Coli Blue 24 method
    http://www2.m-techmicro.com/products/chromagar/ecc/ecc.jpg http://www.kcare.ksu.edu/DesktopModules/IM.aspx?I=2604&M=0
  • m-ColiBlue24® Method Mix the broth by inverting the ampoules Pour the contents evenly over the absorbent pad in a Petri dish Passes the water sample through a membrane filter Transfer the filter to the absorbent pad with slight rolling motion Replace the Petri dish lid Invert the Petri dish and incubate at 35 ± 0.5 °C for 24 hours Red colonies = Total coliforms Blue colonies = Fecal coliforms
  • Advantages of m-Coli Blue 24 method
    • Detection and Identification Within 24 Hours & no confirmation
    • required
    • Less expensive
    • Easy to read
    • Easy to interpret
    • Backed by Millipore technical support
    • EPA accepted
    http://www.millipore.com/publications.nsf/a73664f9f981af8c852569b9005b4eee/9272b9b78e06210385256bff004f2359/$FILE/PF196EN00.pdf
  • Sri lanka Quality Standards for bottled water. SLS 1021:1994 & SLS 1211:2001 are hygienic practices for collecting and processing bottled water. SLS 894:2003 & SLS 1038:2003 are specifications for bottled drinking water.
  • Health hazards in bottled water
    • Temperature
    Phathalate level in bottled water Temperature Leaching Phathalate into water form plastic bottle
    • Phathalates[PET]
        • Low water solubility
        • Possible carcinogen and endocrine disruptor
    Source: Johns Hopkins University Research Lab (http://www.jhsph.edu/dioxins)
  • References
    • C.L. Abayasekara, W.H.M.A.T. Herat, R.Chandrajith, S.C.Illapperuma, A.D. Sirisena and S.G. Rajapura ( 2007) Quality of Bottled Water in Sri Lanka: A Preliminary Survey , Proceedings of the Peradeniya University Research Sessions, Vol.12, Part I, 49-50
    • B. Oram, Environmental Sciences and Engineering Department Center for Environmental Quality Wilkes Barre,PA18766 http://www.water-research.net (570) 408-4619
    • L. Ling, Bottle Water Consumption Jumps, World Watch Institute. November 8, 2007
    • WHO (2001) Guidelines for drinking water quality (2 nd Edition) Vol 1: Microbiological Methods, World Health Organization, Geneva.
  • Thank you…