(http://www.suite101`.com/content/the cost of bottled water.) What is bottled water? ( http://www.suite101`.com/content/the cost of bottled water.) Bottled water can be defined as any potable water intended for human consumption.
Spring water : This comes from an underground formation and must flow naturally to the earth surface.
Mineral water : Typically from a spring, contains dissolved solid like Ca 2+ ,Mg 2+ ,Na + ,K + ,Si & CO 3 -3 .
Purified drinking water : Water has been processed to remove Cl - ,Mg 2+ ,Ca 2+ .
Sterile water : Water from any source, But free from all microbes
Origin of bottled water
Water table well
Source: (Manual of PNWS-AWWA 2008 Annual Conference Bottled Water: Tapping the Trends)
Source: (Manual of PNWS-AWWA 2008 Annual Conference Bottled Water)
Major Suppliers and Marketing Approaches (http://www.google.com/image/bottled water )
Major Suppliers and Marketing Approaches
Leading Global Suppliers:
Water bottling plant Starting Material Conway Belts Making Bottles Filling Quality controller Storage Sealing Labeling
Disinfection methods for bottled drinking water.
Ozonation - water is disinfected using ozone, which kills most microbes ( Http://www.nsf.org )
Ultraviolet (UV) light - water is passed through UV light, which kills most microbes, depending on dosage applied
Water inlet Water outlet Source:( Http://www.nsf.org ) UV Lamp
Distillation - water is boiled, and the steam is condensed to remove salts, metals, minerals, asbestos, particles, and some organic materials.
Source:( Http://www.nsf.org ) Heat Source Cooling Water Raw Water Treated Water Steam
force water through membrane
removes many contaminants
Micron Filtration - water is filtered through screens with microscopic holes. The smaller the filter holes, the more contaminants the filter can remove.
Source:( Http://www.nsf.org )
In Sri Lanka most commonly use,
UV Radiation and Ozonation
Heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) are commonly used to
assess the general microbiological quality of bottled water
Microbiological quality testing of bottled water Table 01: Drinking water quality specifications in bottled water HPC limit World wide recommendation 50 cfu/cm3 Total Coliforms 0-10 cfu/100cm3 Fecal Coliforms 0 cfu/100cm3
m-ColiBlue24® Method Mix the broth by inverting the ampoules Pour the contents evenly over the absorbent pad in a Petri dish Passes the water sample through a membrane filter Transfer the filter to the absorbent pad with slight rolling motion Replace the Petri dish lid Invert the Petri dish and incubate at 35 ± 0.5 °C for 24 hours Red colonies = Total coliforms Blue colonies = Fecal coliforms
Advantages of m-Coli Blue 24 method
Detection and Identification Within 24 Hours & no confirmation
Sri lanka Quality Standards for bottled water. SLS 1021:1994 & SLS 1211:2001 are hygienic practices for collecting and processing bottled water. SLS 894:2003 & SLS 1038:2003 are specifications for bottled drinking water.
Health hazards in bottled water
Phathalate level in bottled water Temperature Leaching Phathalate into water form plastic bottle
Low water solubility
Possible carcinogen and endocrine disruptor
Source: Johns Hopkins University Research Lab (http://www.jhsph.edu/dioxins)
C.L. Abayasekara, W.H.M.A.T. Herat, R.Chandrajith, S.C.Illapperuma, A.D. Sirisena and S.G. Rajapura ( 2007) Quality of Bottled Water in Sri Lanka: A Preliminary Survey , Proceedings of the Peradeniya University Research Sessions, Vol.12, Part I, 49-50
B. Oram, Environmental Sciences and Engineering Department Center for Environmental Quality Wilkes Barre,PA18766 http://www.water-research.net (570) 408-4619
L. Ling, Bottle Water Consumption Jumps, World Watch Institute. November 8, 2007
WHO (2001) Guidelines for drinking water quality (2 nd Edition) Vol 1: Microbiological Methods, World Health Organization, Geneva.