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Bottle Water

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academic presentation on microbiology

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Bottle Water

  1. 1. Bottled water Hinnawala, S.M Disarathne, J.M.D.B Jayawardene, M.M.D.M
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>What is bottled water </li></ul><ul><li>Types of bottled water </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of bottled water </li></ul><ul><li>Bottled water containers </li></ul><ul><li>Major suppliers and marketing approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Process of water bottling </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfection methods </li></ul><ul><li>Microbiological quality testing </li></ul><ul><li>Health hazards in bottled water </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Standards for bottled water. </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. (http://www.suite101`.com/content/the cost of bottled water.) What is bottled water? ( http://www.suite101`.com/content/the cost of bottled water.) Bottled water can be defined as any potable water intended for human consumption.
  4. 4. <ul><li>Spring water : This comes from an underground formation and must flow naturally to the earth surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral water : Typically from a spring, contains dissolved solid like Ca 2+ ,Mg 2+ ,Na + ,K + ,Si & CO 3 -3 . </li></ul><ul><li>Purified drinking water : Water has been processed to remove Cl - ,Mg 2+ ,Ca 2+ . </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile water : Water from any source, But free from all microbes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Origin of bottled water <ul><ul><li>Artesian well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water table well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface waters </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Source: (Manual of PNWS-AWWA 2008 Annual Conference Bottled Water: Tapping the Trends)
  7. 7. Containers <ul><ul><li>Bottle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water cooler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counter-top spigot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gallon jug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: (Manual of PNWS-AWWA 2008 Annual Conference Bottled Water) </li></ul></ul>Materials <ul><ul><li>Plastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass </li></ul></ul>Types
  8. 8. Major Suppliers and Marketing Approaches (http://www.google.com/image/bottled water )
  9. 9. Major Suppliers and Marketing Approaches <ul><li>Leading Global Suppliers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nestlé </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Danone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PepsiCo </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Water bottling plant Starting Material Conway Belts Making Bottles Filling Quality controller Storage Sealing Labeling
  11. 12. Disinfection methods for bottled drinking water. <ul><li>Ozonation </li></ul><ul><li>Ultraviolet(UV) Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Distillation </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Micron Filtration </li></ul>
  12. 13. Ozonation - water is disinfected using ozone, which kills most microbes ( Http://www.nsf.org )
  13. 14. <ul><li>Ultraviolet (UV) light - water is passed through UV light, which kills most microbes, depending on dosage applied </li></ul>Water inlet Water outlet Source:( Http://www.nsf.org ) UV Lamp
  14. 15. <ul><li>Distillation - water is boiled, and the steam is condensed to remove salts, metals, minerals, asbestos, particles, and some organic materials. </li></ul>Source:( Http://www.nsf.org ) Heat Source Cooling Water Raw Water Treated Water Steam
  15. 16. Reverse Osmosis <ul><li>force water through membrane </li></ul><ul><li>removes many contaminants </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Micron Filtration - water is filtered through screens with microscopic holes. The smaller the filter holes, the more contaminants the filter can remove. </li></ul>Source:( Http://www.nsf.org )
  17. 18. <ul><li>In Sri Lanka most commonly use, </li></ul><ul><li>UV Radiation and Ozonation </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) are commonly used to </li></ul><ul><li>assess the general microbiological quality of bottled water </li></ul>Microbiological quality testing of bottled water Table 01: Drinking water quality specifications in bottled water HPC limit World wide recommendation 50 cfu/cm3 Total Coliforms 0-10 cfu/100cm3 Fecal Coliforms 0 cfu/100cm3
  19. 20. Methods of detecting total & fecal coliforms <ul><li>Conventional methods </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane filtration (MF) method </li></ul><ul><li>Most probable number (MPN) method </li></ul><ul><li>Modern methods </li></ul><ul><li>Colilert method </li></ul><ul><li>m-Coli Blue 24 method </li></ul>http://www2.m-techmicro.com/products/chromagar/ecc/ecc.jpg http://www.kcare.ksu.edu/DesktopModules/IM.aspx?I=2604&M=0
  20. 21. m-ColiBlue24® Method Mix the broth by inverting the ampoules Pour the contents evenly over the absorbent pad in a Petri dish Passes the water sample through a membrane filter Transfer the filter to the absorbent pad with slight rolling motion Replace the Petri dish lid Invert the Petri dish and incubate at 35 ± 0.5 °C for 24 hours Red colonies = Total coliforms Blue colonies = Fecal coliforms
  21. 22. Advantages of m-Coli Blue 24 method <ul><li>Detection and Identification Within 24 Hours & no confirmation </li></ul><ul><li>required </li></ul><ul><li>Less expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to read </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to interpret </li></ul><ul><li>Backed by Millipore technical support </li></ul><ul><li>EPA accepted </li></ul>http://www.millipore.com/publications.nsf/a73664f9f981af8c852569b9005b4eee/9272b9b78e06210385256bff004f2359/$FILE/PF196EN00.pdf
  22. 23. Sri lanka Quality Standards for bottled water. SLS 1021:1994 & SLS 1211:2001 are hygienic practices for collecting and processing bottled water. SLS 894:2003 & SLS 1038:2003 are specifications for bottled drinking water.
  23. 24. Health hazards in bottled water <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul>Phathalate level in bottled water Temperature Leaching Phathalate into water form plastic bottle <ul><li>Phathalates[PET] </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low water solubility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possible carcinogen and endocrine disruptor </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: Johns Hopkins University Research Lab (http://www.jhsph.edu/dioxins)
  24. 25. References <ul><li>C.L. Abayasekara, W.H.M.A.T. Herat, R.Chandrajith, S.C.Illapperuma, A.D. Sirisena and S.G. Rajapura ( 2007) Quality of Bottled Water in Sri Lanka: A Preliminary Survey , Proceedings of the Peradeniya University Research Sessions, Vol.12, Part I, 49-50 </li></ul><ul><li>B. Oram, Environmental Sciences and Engineering Department Center for Environmental Quality Wilkes Barre,PA18766 http://www.water-research.net (570) 408-4619 </li></ul><ul><li>L. Ling, Bottle Water Consumption Jumps, World Watch Institute. November 8, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>WHO (2001) Guidelines for drinking water quality (2 nd Edition) Vol 1: Microbiological Methods, World Health Organization, Geneva. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Thank you…

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