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What is Computational Legal Studies?  Presentation @ University of Houston - Workshop on Law & Computation
 

What is Computational Legal Studies? Presentation @ University of Houston - Workshop on Law & Computation

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    What is Computational Legal Studies?  Presentation @ University of Houston - Workshop on Law & Computation What is Computational Legal Studies? Presentation @ University of Houston - Workshop on Law & Computation Presentation Transcript

    • What is Computational Legal Studies? Daniel Martin Katz Michigan State University College of Law
    • What is Computational Legal Studies?
    • What is Computational Legal Studies?
    • Computational Legal Studies is
    • Sociophysics
    • Natural Language Processing
    • Machine Learning
    • Network Science
    • Statistical Methods
    • Out of Equilibrium Models
    • Non Linearity
    • Scaling
    • Diffusion
    • Social Epidemiology
    • Information Theory
    • New Kind of Science
    • Computational Game Theory
    • Web Scrapping
    • Information Visualization
    • What is Computational Legal Studies?
    • Computational Legal Studies Offers
    • A Set of Tools
    • that allow us to perhaps better understand
    • ‘Law’ in a modern society
    • Taxonomy of Approaches
    • Computational Legal Studies Data Analysis Formal Models
    • Computational Legal Studies Data Analysis Formal Models
    • Data Analysis
    • This is the Era of “Big Data” Increasing Computing Power Decreasing Data Storage Costs Fundamentally Altering the Scope of Scientific Inquiry
    • Highlighting the Data Deluge 2008 2009 2010
    • The Case for a Computational Approach Legal Systems Output large amounts of Information Need Methods that Scale to the Size and Scope of this Body of Information
    • Data Analysis statistical models and methods text as data other network related analytic methods approaches
    • What is Computational Legal Studies?
    • Computational Legal Studies is
    • quantitative legal prediction
    • do i have a case?
    • how do lawyers generate this assessment?
    • can it be automated?
    • Mental Models vs Aggregated Data
    • Weather Prediction
    • Tide Prediction
    • vs.
    • lots of factors matter
    • Inputs / Data Quality
    • Time Scales Matter
    • inherent system variability matters
    • ‘complexity’ matters
    • Some Potential Inputs
    • what is the relevant information contained therein?
    • text, citations, votes, etc.
    • other metadata
    • what form might the outputs take?
    • standard client memo + statistical portrait of 10,000 ‘similar’ cases
    • the caveat
    • your mileage may vary
    • but a statistical portrait
    • would be useful
    • to gut check a mental model
    • other big implications ...
    • the market for legal services
    • the market for legal education
    • ‘thinking like a lawyer’?
    • in the age of big data ...
    • What is Computational Legal Studies? Data Analysis Formal Models
    • Formal Models
    • Formal Models computational Agent game Based theory Modeling network models
    • Why Generate Formal Models?
    • Formal Models v. Data
    • The Evaluation of Counterfactuals
    • The Evaluation of Alternative ‘States of the world’
    • Cannot not be Exclusively Data Driven
    • A Few Examples ...
    • Theoretical Models and Computational Simulations schelling’s segregation model Axelrod’s Evolution of Cooperation model
    • An Entire Course on Computational Formal Models 18 Classes and more than 1000 slides! ICPSR Summer Methods Program
    • What is Computational Legal Studies? Data Analysis statistical models and methods text as data network analytic methods Formal Models computational game theory Agent Based Modeling network models
    • and more ...
    • Now Some Selected Applications
    • Project #1: United States Code
    • The United States Code
    • The United States Code Compiled Version of Federal Statutory Law Drawn from the Statutes at Large Does not Include Admin Regulations
    • These are the 50 titles in the Code
    • A Perspective on the Scope of Law in a Modern Society How Large is the United States Code? How Complex is the United States Code? How has its Scope Changed Over Time? Are Changes in Code Coupled with Changes in the Scope of the Administrative State?
    • How Large is the United States Code?
    • How Large is the United States Code?
    • How Large is the United States Code?
    • How Large is the United States Code?
    • How Large is the United States Code? ~Title 29 - Labor
    • This is the United States Code
    • Computational Approach to Measurement of Complexity Provide a Mathematical Representation of the Object Measure that Representation in a Manner that is Qualitatively Justified
    • The US Code as a Mathematical Object Hierarchical Structure Title 26 Subtitle A Chapter 1 Subchapter F Part I Section 501 Subsection (c) Paragraph (3) http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.4146
    • The US Code as a Mathematical Object Citation Network Example: Tax Evasion Title 26 Tax Cites Title 18 Crimes & Criminal Procedure http://computationallegalstudies.com
    • The US Code as a Mathematical Object Linguistic Content United States Code Features 24 Million Words
    • The US Code as a Mathematical Object Published in Physica A (October 2010)
    • How Complex is U.S. Code? Ongoing Project -Daniel Katz & Michael Bommarito “Measuring the Complexity of the United States Code”
    • The Complexity of Knowledge Acquisition Structure Language Dependence 3 Factors Influence Complexity of Executing a KA Protocol
    • Project #2: Network Analysis of the Federal Judiciary
    • the Federal Judicial Heirarchy United States Supreme Court Federal Court of Appeals Federal District Court
    • What is the Social Topology of the American Federal Judiciary?
    • ... And How Can We Measure it?
    • Network Analysis of the Federal Judiciary Relying Upon Data From Staff Directories Collected Nearly 19,000 Law Clerk ‘Events’ 1995 - 2005 For All Article III Judges
    • The Core Claim In the Aggregate ... Law Clerk Movements Reveal Social or Professional Relationships Between Judicial Actors
    • Network Analysis of the Federal Judiciary Justice Y Judge A Justice Z Judge B Judge D Judge E Judge C
    • Network Analysis of the Federal Judiciary
    • Network Analysis of the Federal Judiciary Daniel Katz & Derek Stafford (2010)
    • Project #3: Exploring the Path of Precedent? The Legal Genome Project and the analysis of Judicial Citations
    • The United States Reports
    • United States Supreme Court Case to Case Citation Network Nodes = Cases Decided by the Supreme Court Directed Edges = Citations between Cases
    • Case to Case Citation Network of the United States Supreme Court Oregon v. Elstad 530 U.S. 428 (2000) Miranda v. Arizona 384 U.S. 436 (1966) Dickerson v. U.S. 530 U.S. 428 (2000)
    • Exploring the Path of Precedent? Dynamic Visualization of the Early Supreme Court Citation Network
    • PLAY MOVIE! http://computationallegalstudies.com/ 2010/02/11/the-development-of-structure-inthe-citation-network-of-the-united-statessupreme-court-now-in-hd/ Beijing Cases Decided by the Supreme Court Citations in the Current Year Citations from prior years
    • Distance Measures for Dynamic Citation Networks
    • Growth Rules For Citation Networks
    • Dynamic Directed Acyclic Graphs
    • Dynamic Directed Acyclic Graphs Examples: Academic Articles
    • Dynamic Directed Acyclic Graphs Examples: Academic Articles Judicial Citations
    • Dynamic Directed Acyclic Graphs Examples: Academic Articles Judicial Citations Patent Citations
    • Network Dynamics: The Early Jurisprudence of the United States Supreme Court
    • Cases Decided by the Supreme Court Citations in the Current Year Citations from prior years
    • A Formalization of D-DAG’s
    • Six Degrees of Marbury v. Madison
    • A Formalization of D-DAG’s
    • Basic Idea of Sink Based Distance Measure
    • The Simplest Non-Trivial Distance Measure
    • Flexible Framework For More Detailed Specifications
    • Distance Measure <- -> Dendrogram
    • Potential Application to Patent Citations?
    • Potential Application to Patent Citations? Sternitzke, Bartkowski & Schramm (2008)
    • Network Analysis of Patent Citations http://www.eecs.umich.edu/cse/dm_11_video/erdi.mp4 Talk By Péter Érdi http://people.kzoo.edu/~perdi/
    • available at: http://arxiv.org/abs/0909.1819 http://ssrn.com/author=627779
    • Additional Materials Available Online!
    • @computational Thank You For Your Attention!