One thing Germany had to do was to accept the
blame for starting the war. For Germany this was
● The majors powers (France, Britain and USA)
agreed that Germany had to pay for the damage
caused by the war.
● Germany had to pay €6600 millions for the
damages she had caused.
Germany's overseas empire
was taken away. This was
one of the causes of bad
relations between Britain and
Germany before the war. The
ex German colonies became
mandates controlled by the
League of Nations (this
meant that France and
Britain controlled them.)
German territories and colonies
League of nations
It was an organisation to set up an international
"Police Force" to have peace between countries.
Germany was angry because
until she showed she was
a peaceful country France, USA
and Great Britain would not let
them join the League.
Germany's Armed Forces
Germany's growing army and navy was a major
concern to all the powers, especially France. After the
war, Germany was restricted to a level well level
below the level they had before the war:
● The army was limited to 100,000 men.
● Conscription was banned - soldiers had to be
● The navy could only build six battleships.
● Germany was not allowed to use armoured vehicles,
submarines or aircrafts.
● Germany had lost 10 per cent of its land
● All of its colonies
● 12.5 per cent of its population
● 16 per cent of its coalfields and nearly half of
its iron and steel industries.
Germany lost... (thanks to the treaty)
Undefeated so why unrepresented?
● Many Germans felt that their country had not
● Germany had not been occupied and the German
government had simply agreed to a ceasefire (to
stop shooting) on 11/11/1918 (Armistice Day).
● Germans expected that their nation would be able
to negotiate peace terms.
Germany's reaction to the Treaty of
On 7 May, the victors presented their Treaty to the German
delegation. Count Brockdorff-Rantzau (German diplomat) got
angered by the Big Three giving them a long speech criticising the
Treaty; then the delegation left and set about countering (to speak or
act in opposition) it. A little later, they sent their counter-proposal
based on the Fourteen Points to the Big Three -- their reply was so
good that one of the British delegation said it was much better than
the Allies' suggestions, and even Lloyd George wondered for a time
if they ought to rethink the treaty . Then the delegation went home.
Many Germans wanted to refuse to sign the treaty; some even
suggested that they start the war again. So it was with great
difficulty that the President got to agree to sign the treaty, and the
imperious way the two German representatives were treated when
they were forced to sign made things worse.
Germany felt that the Treaty of versailles instead of being a
negotiation was an execution.
Why should we care about the
● Hitler would gain a lot of support by promising
to tear the Treaty of Versailles up. Germans
would continue to feel outrage and betrayal by
the terms of the treaty.
● Many people in Britain would forgive Hitler’s
violation of the treaty terms (for example, by
rearming or expanding some of Germany’s
borders). They would feel that the Treaty of
Versailles was unnecessarily harsh.
Countering: to speak or act in opposition
Aim: To position or direct (a firearm, arrow,
rocket, etc) / Objective
Harsh: Ungentle and unpleasant in action or
effect: harsh treatment; harsh manners.
Coalfield: A coalfield is an area where coal
Rhineland: It was the border area between
Germany and France.
Aircraft: An aircraft is a machine that is
able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Forbade: Refuse to allow (something).
Former: Having previously filled a particular
role or been a particular thing.
Of or occurring in the past or an earlier period.
MP: Members of parliament.