Treaty of versailles, russian revolution, & depression
Effects of WWI Mrs. Sample Social Studies History of Europe
In November 1918 Germany surrenders to the Alliedcountries. The most powerful ones, being France, USA and Britain, wanted to create a treaty that clearly explained what Germany would now have to do. BUT WHAT SHOULD THEY DO?
WHEN: January 1919• Allied countries could not agree on what the treaty should include, but...• They could agree on WHERE it should take place: A French palace in a city called Versailles (near Paris)W – After World War I, leaders from countries involved in the war met here to write a treaty (peace talks)H – Treaty outlined the terms of the winners and whatY they expected of the losing country
Many Historians believe thatdisagreements happened because the war affected the countries in many different ways.WHAT COUNTRIES WERE INVOLVED...
The British Prime Minister thought that if the Treaty was too harsh, then Germany might one day start another war. Some British 750,000 men people blamedGermany for the diedwar and wanted revenge Spent nearly $8 billion of which $1 billion was borrowed from the USA I don’t want to cripple Germany in the Treaty. I think that this could start another war in the future, but people in Britain want Germany to pay.
They joined in 1917 and lost 113,000 men. USA wanted a ‘softer’ treaty USA’s homeland because they was neverthought Germany attackedwas important for the future... Woodrow Wilson: I don’t agree with France. Its probably because we didn’t suffer nearly as much as the French. However, I want to focus upon setting up the League of Nations. US did not join the League of Nations for fear of being drawn into more wars. This also means the US did not sign the Treaty of Versailles.
Most of the fighting Germany stoletook place in Northern 90% of France’s France. coal and iron in 1914 Many roads and 1,250,000 men factories had been died destroyed I want to make sure that Germany pays for the problems it has caused us. We suffered the most in WW1 and we demand revenge and reparations Clemencau
“SIGN THE TREATY OR WE WILL INVADE YOU……ITS YOUR CHOICE!”FRANCE USA The treaty was dictated to Germany--BRITAIN they did not have a say in it.
WHAT DID THE TREATY ACCOMPLISH? LEAGUE OF NATIONS MASSIVE ARMY CUTS This organization of GERMANY’S EMPIREThe Army was cut to nations would cooperate to keep All of Germany’sjust 100,000 men, the colonies were takenNavy could only have 6 peace. away and given awaybattleships, and they to the Allied countries.were not allowed tobuild any new planes,tanks, or submarines. Treaty of GERMAN LAND GIVEN Versailles AWAY Germany lost land to PAY COMPENSATION France, Poland, Belgium, This was know as and Denmark. An area of reparations. Germany Germany was even had to pay $33 billion separated from the dollars. mainland.
Land taken away from Germany under the treaty of VersaillesNot only did Germany lose about 10% of its land, it alsoconsequently lost 10% of its population. German people were now living in foreign countries.
Excerpt from a German newspaper on the day the treaty was signed...“Today in the Hall of Mirrors ofVersailles the disgraceful Treaty isbeing signed.Do not forget it. The Germanpeople will press forward toreconquer the place amongnations to which we deserve.Then will come revenge for theshame of 1919.”
Germany was a proud country due to its military strength and strong traditions of dominancewithin that area of Europe. However, the treaty of Versailles created different feelings:
The war had left Germany almostbankrupt. As its peoplestarved and the country lay in chaos, the Alliesgave them a bill (Treaty of Versailles) that theysimply could not afford to pay... RESULT: German money become German money was only worthless good for starting fires…
HOW DID THE U.S. HELP GERMANY?• The Dawes Plan – Reduced the amount Germany owed – Set payments Germany could handle – Loaned Germany $200 million
Russian Revolution• Prior to 1917 (The Great War), Russia was an autocracy.• The Czar was the absolute ruler. The last czar was Nicholas II.• Nicholas II did not listen to the people or acknowledge the condition in which the Russian people were living.• There was not enough food, soldiers were lacking food and clothing.
Russians Revolt• Early 1917- Women, factory workers, and farmers riot and outnumber the police.• The military could not keep the peace.• The army turned against the ruling family and captured.• A government was set up to try and run country.• Still… too many problems.
Vladimir Lenin• Took control of the Russian government.• He ordered the execution of the czar and his family.• He reorganized the country & named it the Soviet Union.• The new Soviet Union signed a peace treaty with Germany.• Soviets gave up a large part of land to Germany rich in natural resources and arable land.
Worldwide Depression• Germany wasn’t the only country who suffered – In the 1930s, countries around the world fell into a worldwide economic depression• WHY?...
USAs Economic Depression• 1929—USA experienced a stock market crash – Value of stocks began to drop so stockholders began to sell their stocks as fast as they could• Businesses could no longer sell their goods because people had less money to spend, so many had to close & workers lost their http://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies jobs• People couldn’t repay their loans to the bank, so they lost everything (homes, farms, etc.)
Worldwide Economic Depression• Businesses around the world traded with the US: – When the US stopped buying goods, it hurt businesses in other countries – When US banks closed, banks in other countries were hurt too – Stockholders in other countries could no longer sell their stocks to American companies• As businesses and factories around the world closed one by one, buying and selling almost stopped…