The Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Why did the Allies disagree about what should be done to Germany? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What exactly was the Treaty of Versailles and how did Germany react to it? </li></ul>
1. Why did the Allies disagree about what should be done to Germany?
In November 1918 Germany surrenders to the Allied countries. The most powerful ones, being France, USA and Britain, wanted to create a treaty that clearly explained what Germany would now have to do. BUT WHAT SHOULD THEY DO? PUNISH? REBUILD? TAKE OVER? REVENGE!
It soon became clear that the main Allied countries could not agree on what the treaty should include. The only thing they could agree on was where the decision would be made: A French palace in a city called Versailles. The Treaty Of VERSAILLES
Many Historians believe that disagreements happened because the war affected the countries in many different ways.
BRITAIN 750,000 men died Spent nearly £8 billion of which 1 Billion was borrowed from the USA Some British people blamed Germany for the war and wanted revenge The British Prime Minister thought that if the Treaty was too harsh, then Germany might one day start another war. I don’t want to cripple Germany in the Treaty. I think that this could start another war in the future, but people in Britain want Germany to pay.
USA They joined in 1917 and lost 113,000 men Their land was never attacked USA wanted to a ‘softer’ treaty because they thought Germany was important for the future I don’t agree with France. Its probably because we didn’t suffer nearly as mush as the French. However, I want to focus upon setting up the League of Nations.
FRANCE Most of the fighting took place in Northern France. 1,250,000 men died Germany stole 90% of France’s coal and iron 1n 1914 Many roads and factories had been destroyed An area the size of Wales had been devastated I want to make sure that Germany pays for the problems it has caused us. We suffered the most in WW1 and we demand revenge and reparations Clemencau
2. What exactly was the Treaty of Versailles and how did Germany react to it?
FRANCE USA BRITAIN “ SIGN THE TREATY OR WE WILL INVADE YOU……ITS YOUR CHOICE!” The treaty was dictated to Germany as they did not have a say in it. This is known as ‘Diktat’.
THE TREATY WAR GUILT Germany had to accept the blame for starting the war MASSIVE ARMY CUTS The Army was cut to just 100,000 men, the Navy could only have 6 battleships and they were not allowed to build any planes, tanks or submarines. GERMAN LAND GIVEN AWAY Germany lost land to France, Poland, Belgium and Denmark. An area of Germany was even separated from the mainland . GERMANY’S EMPIRE All of Germany’s African colonies were taken away and given away to the Allied countries. PAY COMPENSATION This was know as reparations. Germany had to pay £6.6 Billion. This is about £500 Billion in today’s value. (100,000,000,000 German marks)
Not only did Germany lose about 10% of its land, it also consequently lost 10% of its population. German people were now living in foreign countries. Land taken away from Germany under the treaty of Versailles
Today in the Hall of Mirrors of Versailles the disgraceful Treaty is being signed. Do not forget it. The German people will press forward to reconquer the place among nations to which we deserve. Then will come revenge for the shame of 1919. From a German Newspaper on the day the treaty was signed.
The war, just like the majority of countries, had left Germany almost bankrupt. As its people starved and the country lay in chaos the Allies gave them a bill that they simply could not afford. “ When we have paid 100,000,000,000 marks, then I shall be able to feed you.” These words were on a German newspaper cartoon from 1919. It showed a starving and crying baby and a Mother. The Mother was saying this to her child.
Germany was a proud country due to its military strength and strong traditions of dominance within that area of Europe. However, the treaty of Versailles created different feelings: Humiliation Bitterness Embarrassment Revenge