Fabrics and how they are madePresentation Transcript
Fabrics and How They Are Made
In spring, the acreage is cleared for planting and cottonseed is mechanically planted in rows. With good conditions, seedlings usually emerge five to seven days after planting, with a full stand of cotton appearing after about 11 days.
Approximately six weeks after seedlings appear, flower buds, begin to form. The buds mature for three weeks and then blossom into flowers which then fall off just three days after blossoming. After the flower falls away, a tiny ovary is left on the cotton plant. This ovary ripens and enlarges into a green pod called a cotton boll.
Cotton: The Production Process
The boll matures in a period that ranges from 55 to 80 days. Ten weeks after flowers first appeared, fibers split the boll apart, and cream-colored cotton pushes forth.
At this point the cotton plant is defoliated if it is to be machine harvested. Defoliation (removing the leaves) is often accomplished by spraying the plant with a chemical. Without defoliation, the cotton must be picked by hand.
Harvesting is done by machine in the United States by using the picker system. It uses wind and pulls the cotton from the plant, usually leaving the leaves and rest of the plantbehind.
Once harvested, cotton is stored. Then it is cleaned, compressed, tagged, and stored at agin. The cotton is cleaned to separate dirt and seeds from the cotton.
Cleaned and de-seeded cotton is then compressed into balesfor economical reasons Cotton fibers are aligned in a process called carding, they naturally interlock as they are twisted and flattened for spinning. Specialized mechanical looms weave the yarn into cotton fabric.
Nylon is created in a chemical plant using a controlled method of combining specific chemicals. Creating useful nylon is a two-step process: chemical combination to create the material itself and the manufacturing process required to make it useful. Nylon: The Production Process
To create nylon, two sets of molecules are used. One set has an acid group on each end and the other set has amine group on each end. The result of this combination is a substance that is known as nylon 6, 6.
The chemical reaction required to create nylon is conducted in a machine specially designed for this purpose at very high temperatures. Once the chemical compound is created, the chemicals combined to form molten nylon which is then forced into a spinneret. The spinneret is used to separate the nylon into very thin strands. When nylon goes through the spinneret, it hits the air and the fibers harden. The fibers are then stretched which creates nylon’s elasticity characteristic.
Cotton and nylon are used in many other products as well as in fabrics. Nylon: tents, sails, fishing line, tennis rackets, jackets, sports bags, parachutes, bathing suits, cooking utensils, rope Cotton: furniture padding, cotton swabs, plastics, household fabrics, candle wicks, hair products, packing envelope windows, yarn Other uses