Technical Introduction to PostgreSQL and PPAS
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Technical Introduction to PostgreSQL and PPAS

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PostgreSQL and buzz it has created
Architecture
Oracle Compatibility
Performance Feature
Security Features
High Availability Features
DBA Tools
User Stories
What’s coming up in v9.3
How to start adopting

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Technical Introduction to PostgreSQL and PPAS Technical Introduction to PostgreSQL and PPAS Presentation Transcript

  • A Technical introduction to PostgreSQL and PPAS Enterprise Class PostgreSQL Database from EDB 10/6/2014 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • Introduction • About Ashnik • PostgreSQL and buzz it has created • Postgres Plus Advanced Server • Architecture • Oracle Compatibility • Performance Features • Security Features • High Availability Features • DBA Tools • User Stories • What’s coming up in v9.3 • How to start adopting Agenda 2 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • Independent & Thriving Development Community for over 20 years • Thousands of active deployments worldwide in public and private sector organizations of all sizes PostgreSQL and the Community 3 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Postgres’ IMPACT 4 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • PostgreSQL – Postgres Plus Users, Globally 5 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • 6 Malaysia Philippines Singapore Vietnam Thailand Indonesia PostgreSQL – Postgres Plus Users, across ASEAN CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • EnterpriseDB – The Company 7 • The Enterprise PostgreSQL company was founded in 2004, first product GA in 2005 • 2,000+ customers across all market segments • 70,000+ downloads/week of PostgreSQL and related products • Enabling database consolidation using PostgreSQL and advanced Oracle compatibility • Saving customers millions through the power of open source • Strong financial backing: CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Postgres Plus - Recognized by Gartner’s Magic Quadrant as a challenger in the Database Market
  • The EnterpriseDB Advantage 8 • Products and Tools • Advanced database server software • Deep Oracle compatibility • Bundled development and management tools • Technical Support and Services • Around the clock support • Expert consulting • Oracle migration services • Remote management and monitoring • Professional Training • Learn PostgreSQL from the experts • Web and on-site training • Training for developers and DBAs CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • Fast development cycles • Thousands of developers • Better code • Lower cost • 24/7 support • Services and training • Certification • Indemnification • Product strategy Bringing the Advantage to Enterprises 9 Open Source Software Commercial SoftwareEnterpriseDB CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • About PPAS 10 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Architectural Overview 11 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Process Architecture Postmaster BGWRITERBGWRITER STATS COLLECTOR STATS COLLECTOR ARCHIVERARCHIVERAUTO--VACUUMAUTO--VACUUM BGWRITERBGWRITER STATS COLLECTOR STATS COLLECTOR Data Files WAL Segments Archived WAL Shared Memory Shared Buffers Process ArrayWAL Buffers WAL WriterWAL Writer LOG WRITERLOG WRITER Error Log Files 12 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Database Limitations 13 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. • Limitations are generally defined by • Operating System Limits • Compile-Time Parameters – Data Type Usage General Database Limitations Limit Value Maximum Database Size Unlimited Maximum Table Size 32 TB Maximum Row Size 1.6 TB Maximum Field Size 1 GB (4TB in v9.3 Beta) Maximum Rows per Table Unlimited Maximum Columns per Table 250-1600 (Depending on Column types) Maximum Indexes per Table Unlimited
  • Oracle Compatibility 14 • Run applications written for Oracle virtually unchanged • No need to re-train Oracle DBAs and developers • Support for PL/SQL language and OCI interoperability • Replication for easy sharing of data • Dramatic Cost Savings • No Vendor Lock-in CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Survey: Re-Use of Oracle DBA Skills 15 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Compatibility Means 16 • SQL Extension support • Decode, NVL, Substr, NVL2,replace,translate, table() • Date/time functions: add_months, extract, next_day,months_between,trunc, current_date support • Support for cascade option in drop table • PL/SQL support • REF Cursors, Implicit and explicit cursors • Looping, variable declarations, conditional statements • Collections: Associative Arrays, Varrays, Nested tables • Bulk binding • Named parameters • User Defined Exceptions • Explicit Transaction Control - within a stored procedure • Tools • EDB*Plus – SQL*Plus look-a-like • EDB*Loader – SQL*Loader equivalent • EDB*Wrap – similar to the PL/SQL wrapper CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Compatibility Means (cont.) 17 • Packages • Stored procedures • Functions • Triggers • Optimizer Hints • Database Links • Hierarchical Queries • Synonyms – Public and Private • Sequences • Materialized Views CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. • Rownum • Object types o Create type … as object o Create type … as table o Create type …as varray o Constructor and collection methods • PL/SQL like SUBTYPE, which inherits form base type • Users/Roles • Dynamic SQL • Features
  • Compatibility Means (cont.) 18 • Data Types • Integer, number, char, double precision, float, varchar2, blob, clob, xmltype, rowid, boolean • Built-in Packages • DBMS_: o SQL, LOB, JOB, PIPE, ALERT, OUTPUT, UTILITY, PROFILER, RLS • UTL_: o FILE, MAIL, SMTP, ENCODE, TCP • Oracle-like Data Dictionary • ALL_, DBA_, USER_ views • Most commonly accessed views • Diagnostics - DRITA • System and session waits o Not exposed in PostgreSQL o Part of Advanced Server • Statspack-like reporting CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Flexible Partitioning Scheme in PostgreSQL 19 • Partitioning Example in PostgreSQL o CREATE TABLE employees o Create Child Tables o create table emp_mgmt (check (job in (MANAGER'))) inherits (employees); o create table emp_sales (check (job in ('SALESMAN'))) inherits (employees); o Create the partitioning function o CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION partition_emp(); o Create the trigger for partition o CREATE TRIGGER employees_partition_trigger BEFORE INSERT ON employees FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE partition_emp(); • Advantages • Flexible • Customize your Partitioning Policy • Disadvantages • Complex • Difficult to add/delete/split Partitions CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • Partitioning Example in PPAS CREATE TABLE employees (empno numeric(4,0),ename varchar(10),job varchar(9),hiredate timestamp) PARTITION BY LIST (job) (PARTITION emp_mgmt VALUES ('MANAGER', 'PRESIDENT') tablespace tbsp_1, PARTITION emp_sales VALUES ('SALESMAN') tablespace tbsp_2, PARTITION emp_ops VALUES ('CLERK') tablespace tbsp_3 ); • PPAS Offers • LIST and RANGE Partitioning Syntax • Easy to manage and maintain partitions • You can still take benefit of PostgreSQL syntax for complex partitioning e.g. Dynamic Partitions • Easy to Add/Delete/Split/Swap/Detach/Attach partitions • Brings the best of both the world! Compatible and Flexible Partitioning Scheme in PPAS 20 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Scaling with Partitioning in PPAS v9.3 21 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 100 250 500 1000 Time in Seconds NumberofTablePartitions Partitioning Performance: PPAS 9.3 v. PostgreSQL 9.3 v. PPAS 9.2 • Postgres Plus Advanced Server 9.3 is up to 460 times faster with row insertions into partitioned tables than PostgreSQL 9.3 or PPAS 9.2 • Better performance for bulk loading and disaster recovery
  • • Online Migration Toolkit enables point and click migration from Oracle • Automatically Migrates: Database Migration Toolkit 22 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. • Data • Schemas • Stored Procedures • Triggers • Functions • Sequences • Packages • Views • Database Links • Synonyms
  • • Developed for High Performance Transaction Environments (OLTP) • DynaTune: • Dynamic tuning of the database server to make the optimal usage of the system resources available on the host machine • Index Advisor: • Helps determine which columns you should index to improve performance in a given workload. • Query Optimization Hints, Hi-Speed Bulk Loader, Multi-Threaded Replication Performance enhancement in PPAS 23 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • Infinite Cache • High performance horizontal scaling architecture for cache memory • Cache expands with inexpensive commodity hardware Scalability with Infinite Cache 24 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Scalability with Infinite Cache 25 • Architecture: How it Works • Disk access for data is slower than RAM access • Infinite Cache puts disk data into the RAM cache • Additional requests for that data are read from the faster cache • The cache scales as needed with inexpensive hardware CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Application High speed pg_cach e buffers in RAM Slow speed disk High Speed Network Update d Data Blocks Update Read If not in buffer Database Server InfiniteCache RAMblades High speed
  • Scalability with Infinite Cache 26 • Single Machine Performance CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Advanced Server is 16X faster on a single machine with large amounts of memory (e.g. greater than 2 GB) Infinite Cache can be used on a single machine!
  • Scalability with Infinite Cache 27 • Infinite Cache - Features • Expands and Distributes buffer cache across multiple machines • Designed for Read-Mostly applications (e.g. Content Management, Query Intensive, Business Intelligence, Data Warehouse) • Cache is transparent to client applications (no cache coding needed) • Compression feature enables caching entire databases (e.g. put a 250 GB database into 32 GB RAM Cache) • Cache can be pre-warmed for immediate results • Cache scales using inexpensive commodity hardware • Infinite Cache can be run to boost single machine performance! • Created For • DBAs and data managers overseeing large amounts of data requiring fast response times for queries and reporting loads • Developers who don’t want to write specialized caching code16 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • Red Hat Reference Architecture Series:  Comparing BenchmarkSQL Performance on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 to Windows Server Enterprise (2010) Performance Benchmark to SQL Server 28 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Scalability MySQL Vs PostgreSQL 29 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Security 30 • Object level privileges assigned to roles and users • Virtual Private Database • Kerberos and LDAP authentication • Host base authentication • SSL communication • Data Level Encryption (AES, 3DES, etc) • Ability to utilize 3rd party Key Stores in a full PKI Infrastructure • Foundation for full compliance with the strictest of security standards (PCI Data Security Standard) • Flexible field level encryption and row level security CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. “By default, PostgreSQL is probably the most security-aware database available ...” Database Hacker's Handbook- David Litchfield
  • PL/Secure and EDB*Wrap 31 • Encrypt your Pl/pgsql stored programs with PL/Secure • Encrypt your SPL procedures with EDB*Wrap CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • SQL/Protect 32 • DBA Managed SQL Injection Protection a) Preventing attacks is normally the responsibility of the application developer, but with SQL/Protect, DBAs can now provide another layer of protection to prevent corruption or co-opting of the database. • Multiple Prevention Techniques a) Unauthorized Relations b) Utility Commands (e.g. DDL) c) SQL Tautology d) Unbounded DML CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • Multi-Master Replication – Active-Active Technology • Near real-time Replication • Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC) • Point-in-Time Recovery • Log Shipping for Standby (~ Oracle® Data Guard) High Availability 33 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Availability
  • Backup and Recovery Options 34 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. • Physical and Logical Backup • Logical Backup using pg_dump • Instance level logical backup using pg_dumpall • Table level, Schema level or DB level logical backup • pg_restore • Physical Backups • pg_basebackup • Compressed backup • Recovery with WAL and archived WAL • Point in Time Recover
  • • Using OS Clustering • Using a shared disk for data Active – Passive OS HA Clustering 35 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • Uses WAL (Write Ahead Log) • WAL is continuously shipped through an opened TCP channel to Hot Standby Node • Hot Standby node can be used for read scalability Hot Streaming Replication (Hot Standby Mode) 36 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • Uses WAL (Write Ahead Log) • Archived WAL is shipped to Hot Standby Node • Hot Standby node can be used for read scalability Log Shipping Replication (Hot Standby Mode) 37 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • EnterpriseDB Postgres Plus Failover Manager 38 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Agent Agent
  • • Using pg-pool • Using redundant disk for data • Hot Standby node can be used for read scalability HA with read scaling (with pg-pool) 39 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • Trigger based replication • Publication – Subscription • Snapshot and Continuous • Cascaded Replication • Read Scalability • Master/Slave DB can be: • Oracle • MSSQL • Postgres Plus Advanced Server • Either Master or Slave should be PPAS/PostgreSQL xDB Single Master Replication (SMR) 40 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • High Availability uses • Geographic distribution of load • For creation of Testing/staging env using snapshot replication • Segregate OLTP and reporting xDB Replication Use Cases 41 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Replication
  • xDB Single-Master Replication (SMR) 42 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Table D Table C Table B Table A Table C Table D Procs Objects ReportsQueries Continuous or Scheduled ---------------- Filtered or All Rows Transaction Replication Improved OLTP Performance Inexpensive Query / Reporting Oracle Server Postgres Plus Advanced Server
  • xDB SMR Heterogeneous Replication Support 43 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Source/Target Oracle MS SQL Server 2005/2008 PostgreSQL Advanced Server (Oracle mode) Advanced Server (PostgreSQL mode) Oracle No No Yes Yes Yes MS SQL Server 2005/2008 No No Yes Yes Yes PostgreSQL No Yes Yes Yes Yes Advanced Server (Oracle mode) Yes Yes No Yes No Advanced Server (PostgreSQL mode) No Yes Yes Yes Yes
  • • Trigger based replication • 2 or more Masters can be Sync • Auto Conflict Detection & Resolution • Read & Write Scalability xDB Multi Master Replication (MMR) 44 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • Java-based Replication Server and Replication Console • Delta changes recorded in shadow tables via post Insert/Update/Delete triggers • Data Replication through JDBC channel xDB MMR Architecture 45 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Enterprise Class DBA Tools 46 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Remotely Manage, Monitor And Tune • Management En-Mass Design • Enterprise Performance Monitoring • Proactive Alert Management • Graphical Administration • SQL Workload Profiling • Simplified Capacity Planning • Full SQL IDE Postgres Enterprise Manager 47 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • PEM Distributed Architecture 48 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • Performance Monitoring Dashboards • Capacity Manager • Postgres Expert • Alert Management • Browser based console and dashboard • Audit Manager • Team Support • Distributed Architecture • Convenient Access PEM For DBAs: Centralized Tool 49 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Helps you apply patches and updates for all the products under PPAS: Stackbuilder Plus 50 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • A solution to aid in the creation of highly available configurations of Postgres • Monitors the health of a Postgres HA configuration • Automates the failover process in the event of a failure • Used in conjunction with Streaming Replication Postgres Plus Failover Manager 51 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Slave Witness Master
  • Failover Manager Architecture 52 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Agent Agent
  • • Automatic Failover from master to replica node • Configurable fencing operation 1. By default uses VIP 2. Parameter to specify alternative operation a) Ex: reconfigure a load balancer • Manual failover configuration possible • Email notifications when cluster status changes • Witness node provides protection against ‘split brain’ scenarios • User configurable wait times • Built on PPCD/JGroups technology Failover Manager Features 53 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • Replicate below objects from MS SQL Server to Postgres Plus Advanced Server: • Schemas • Tables • Constraints • Indexes • Table data • Views Replicating & Migrating Microsoft SQL Server 54 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • • Split input files into multiple files • Load single tables in parallel • Magnitudes better load time performance • Parallel load capabilities also in Migration Toolkit and Migration Studio Parallel Data Loader 55 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • FTD Replicates Oracle Data for Volume Peaks Background FTD is the world’s leading provider of floral- related products and services Processes 15M+ orders annually through 20,000 retail florists in the US The ARGO System Project FTD deployed new shipping administration system (ARGO) ARGO’s performance deteriorated during peak holiday loads Oracle-based system couldn’t handle peak reporting volumes Off-load reporting data form Oracle to Postgres using Postgres Plus Replication Server Why Postgres No major changes required to run Oracle apps on Postgres Project completed in 6 weeks (Valentines Day  Mother’s Day) Out of the Box Compatibility with existing database Improved Vendor Service – response times decreased dramatically Performance of order processing systems improved 400% by offloading reporting to Postgres “When someone comes in at a sixth of the cost [of Oracle] and 500 times the customer service, that makes it very easy.” Jason Weiss, Software Architect
  • InMobi Delivers Mobile Ads with Postgres 57 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Background • One of the fastest growing mobile advertising networks • Huge scalability and performance requirements, billions of ads per month • Uses HP Proliant server Mobile Ad Platform Project • Postgres the best fit for a scalable open-source database • Community support not sufficient to meet business requirements, EnterpriseDB a partner • Initial database install supported organic growth • 25 instances across 4 data centers with replication • Database sizes upwards of 600 GB • 200K txns/minute with 3 ms response time Why Postgres • Most scalable open-source database • Lower cost than traditional databases • Performance and reliability up to the task at internet scale, supporting the most extreme workloads • Customizations by EnterpriseDB rapidly incorporated into the product ensuring costly customization maintenance is avoided
  • Sony Reduces TCO of database environment by 80% 58 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Free Realms Project • Lower TCO and improve licensing flexibility • Leverage existing Oracle DBA and Developer talent • Migrate key Oracle apps to Postgres • Commercial-grade quality and reliability, including backup and recovery standards, to support mission- critical applications • Scalable, high performance execution Why Postgres • Reduced TCO by 80% • East of Migration – majority of Oracle apps could run unmodified on Postgres Plus • Skills re-use – Oracle – trained staff could immediately work with Postgres Plus • Exceptional technical support from EnterpriseDB “Postgres Plus has proven to be a cost-effective database that can accommodate Free Realms’ massive growth.” - Andy Sites, Free Realms Senior Producer, SOE Background • Free Realms massively multiplayer online game • >9M registered players since April 2009 • IT Oracle scale-up was cost-prohibitive
  • Background • Multi-terabyte Oracle DB and needed to reduce DB costs • Running old, unsupported version of Oracle and had to pay to upgrade The EPBS Project • Engaged EnterpriseDB consulting services to migrate • Unique migration process developed and implemented Why Postgres • 2.2 TeraByte system migrated and now running on Postgres Plus Advanced Server • Current performance is comparable to Oracle • Costs reduced significantly by migrating to EnterpriseDB solutions Achieved Comparable Performance Replacing Oracle 59 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • ToT, Thailand plans to replace Oracle Exadata-TimesTen In- memory database with HP-EnterpriseDB stack 60 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Background • Largest public sector company in telecom in Thailand • Has very stringent response time SLA (20ms response time for user requests ~ 3-5 read queries) • Current setup has Oracle Exadata and four TimeTen In-memory databases Current Challenges in Oracle Stack • Issues in sync of Exadata with In-memory databases • Full refresh locks the tables • Current system can go upto 1500 tps • Dynamic Partitioning for huge table • Current system load is 750 TPS with write operations • 5000 user requests (16.5K read queries) per second with 4 servers HP-EnterpriseDB Stack Proposed to be DR for Exadata • HP DL-980 (4 CPU * 10 cores, 256GB RAM) • 1TB VMA Disks for faster access • Simulation tests show 2800 write-TPS achieved • Flexible Partitioning scheme in PPAS (add partition on the fly for each new date, no manual intervention) • Currently this server is being tested as DR for Exadata • Replication using xDB near-relatime replication for 1000 tps • Scalability achieved using cascaded replication and Infinite Cache • Setup can handle 5500 user requests (18K queries per second) with 1.5-2.5ms response time per query
  • v.9.3 • Switch master without archive logs in cascaded replication • Faster recovery • Enhanced partitioning feature- Better performance • More extended JSON support • Materialized Views • Updatable Views • Recursive Views • Replication between Heterogeneous System Architectures – Facilitates central backup server • pg_xlogdump to decode WAL • 4TB Large Object Support • Better memory managements What’s New? 61 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • v.9.4 • Logical Replication • Time Lagging DR • Enhanced JSON features • Enhancements in Materialized Views • Moving aggregates • Pg_prewarm to warm up the cache • Backup throttle • ALTER SYSTEM command to set parameters What’s Coming up? 62 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.
  • How to start adoption 63 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. REPLICATION SERVER BACKUP / DR SERVER NEW APPLICATION MIGRATION
  • You have a ‘Real’ alternative to Oracle or other conventional proprietary Databases Conclusion 64 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved. Economical Technically Sound Easy to Adopt
  • 65 CONFIDENTIAL ©2011EnterpriseDB.Allrightsreserved.