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Age, gender and marital status as factors of job satisfaction among print media workers

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  • 1. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Age, Gender and Marital Statusamong Print1. Department of Counselling, Psychology, College of Applied Education and Vocational Technology, Tai SolarinUniversity of Education, Ijagun, Ogun State, Nigeria.2. Department of Pure and Applied Psychology, Adekunle Ajasin University, AkunAbstractHaving established a gap in literature regarding job satisfaction among printage, gender and marital status as factors of job satisfaction among printmethod, a total of 199 participants were selected for the study. There were 107 males and 92 females; with their agesranging between 20 – 67 years. 114 of the participanThe highest educational qualification was master’s degree, while the least was ordinary level school leavingcertificate. Three hypotheses were tested and the results indicated that age and gendsatisfaction among the selected population. (Age: df =197, t=However, marital status did not significantly predict job satisfaction (df = 4, F=.291, p >.05). The findingssignificant implication for recruitment and policy making in organizations.Keywords: - Job Satisfaction, print-1. IntroductionJob satisfaction has been defined differently by scholars as: An attitude, an intwith personal feelings of achievement either qualitative or quantitative (Mullins, 2005); “a pleasurable or positiveemotional state, resulting from the appraisal of one’s job experiences” (Oshagbemi, 1999, quoting Lockeindividual’s general attitude towards his or her job (Robins, 2001) and the feelings and attitude one has about his job(Riggio, 2000). In essence, it is a worker’s attitude towards their job, whether positive (satisfied) or negative(dissatisfied). Job satisfaction is also considered one of the two “summary markers of adult vocational adjustment,”along with success (Jepsen & Sheu, 2003). Jepsen et al (2003) stated that general job satisfaction is one of the fiveglobal career status outcomes (alongseek through career counseling.Several personal characteristics, such as age, gender, and personality, have been reported to affect job satisfaction(Walker and Sorce, 2009). Age may have direct effect (Oshagbemi, 2003), or other factors such as stress (Fairbrother& Warn, 2003) and personality (Judge & Bretz, 1992). (Westerman & Yamamura, 2007; Jepsen & Sheu, 2003) havealso established that job tenure (i.e. the number of yelevel of job satisfaction. In other words, as people progress through the career life stages, their job satisfaction isexpected to increase. As the individual gains more work experience,work situation and they will therefore attain more job satisfaction (Walker et al. 2009).Despite the above, it needs be mentioned that survey data does not always provide support for this progression. In a25-year study of 169 high-school graduates, it was found that the average job satisfaction scores remained the sameduring the adult years, whereas the average job congruence (measured by the similarity between the individual’smajor in college and the position held at the time of the survey) increased significantly (Jepsen & Sheu, 2003). Davis(2004) also found no evidence to support the hypothesis that older people tend to be more satisfied with their jobsthan younger people, and no statistically signifrecent research (Macky, Forsyth& Boxall 2008).As discussed by Oshagbemi (2003), the relationship between age and job satisfaction is uncertain. Two differentexplanations exist: linear and curvilinear. The linear relationship is explained by the ideas of accommodation(adjusting to the workplace) and an increased ability to obtain more rewarding jobs due to seniority and experience.Research on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)126nd Marital Status as Factors of Job Satisfactionmong Print-Media WorkersSamuel, E. Oladipo 1* Uchenna, C. Onuoha21. Department of Counselling, Psychology, College of Applied Education and Vocational Technology, Tai SolarinUniversity of Education, Ijagun, Ogun State, Nigeria.2. Department of Pure and Applied Psychology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State Nigeria.* kingola2001@yahoo.comHaving established a gap in literature regarding job satisfaction among print-media workers, this study investigateds as factors of job satisfaction among print-media workers. Using convenient samplingmethod, a total of 199 participants were selected for the study. There were 107 males and 92 females; with their ages67 years. 114 of the participants were married; 78 never married; 2 divorced; and 4 widowed.The highest educational qualification was master’s degree, while the least was ordinary level school leavingcertificate. Three hypotheses were tested and the results indicated that age and gender were significant factors of jobsatisfaction among the selected population. (Age: df =197, t=-.169, p<.001; Gender: df = 197,t=However, marital status did not significantly predict job satisfaction (df = 4, F=.291, p >.05). The findingssignificant implication for recruitment and policy making in organizations.-media, workers, gender, marital statusJob satisfaction has been defined differently by scholars as: An attitude, an internal state which can be associatedwith personal feelings of achievement either qualitative or quantitative (Mullins, 2005); “a pleasurable or positiveemotional state, resulting from the appraisal of one’s job experiences” (Oshagbemi, 1999, quoting Lockeindividual’s general attitude towards his or her job (Robins, 2001) and the feelings and attitude one has about his job(Riggio, 2000). In essence, it is a worker’s attitude towards their job, whether positive (satisfied) or negativeJob satisfaction is also considered one of the two “summary markers of adult vocational adjustment,”along with success (Jepsen & Sheu, 2003). Jepsen et al (2003) stated that general job satisfaction is one of the fiveglobal career status outcomes (along with performance, persistence, economic stability, and identity) that employeesSeveral personal characteristics, such as age, gender, and personality, have been reported to affect job satisfaction. Age may have direct effect (Oshagbemi, 2003), or other factors such as stress (Fairbrother& Warn, 2003) and personality (Judge & Bretz, 1992). (Westerman & Yamamura, 2007; Jepsen & Sheu, 2003) havealso established that job tenure (i.e. the number of years a worker has put into service) can also affect the individual’slevel of job satisfaction. In other words, as people progress through the career life stages, their job satisfaction isexpected to increase. As the individual gains more work experience, they will be able to move closer to their idealwork situation and they will therefore attain more job satisfaction (Walker et al. 2009).Despite the above, it needs be mentioned that survey data does not always provide support for this progression. In aschool graduates, it was found that the average job satisfaction scores remained the sameduring the adult years, whereas the average job congruence (measured by the similarity between the individual’ssition held at the time of the survey) increased significantly (Jepsen & Sheu, 2003). Davis(2004) also found no evidence to support the hypothesis that older people tend to be more satisfied with their jobsthan younger people, and no statistically significant generational differences have been found for job satisfaction inrecent research (Macky, Forsyth& Boxall 2008).As discussed by Oshagbemi (2003), the relationship between age and job satisfaction is uncertain. Two differentr and curvilinear. The linear relationship is explained by the ideas of accommodation(adjusting to the workplace) and an increased ability to obtain more rewarding jobs due to seniority and experience.www.iiste.orgf Job Satisfaction1. Department of Counselling, Psychology, College of Applied Education and Vocational Technology, Tai Solaringba Akoko, Ondo State Nigeria.media workers, this study investigatedmedia workers. Using convenient samplingmethod, a total of 199 participants were selected for the study. There were 107 males and 92 females; with their agests were married; 78 never married; 2 divorced; and 4 widowed.The highest educational qualification was master’s degree, while the least was ordinary level school leavinger were significant factors of job.169, p<.001; Gender: df = 197,t= -.227, p< .05).However, marital status did not significantly predict job satisfaction (df = 4, F=.291, p >.05). The findings haveernal state which can be associatedwith personal feelings of achievement either qualitative or quantitative (Mullins, 2005); “a pleasurable or positiveemotional state, resulting from the appraisal of one’s job experiences” (Oshagbemi, 1999, quoting Locke); anindividual’s general attitude towards his or her job (Robins, 2001) and the feelings and attitude one has about his job(Riggio, 2000). In essence, it is a worker’s attitude towards their job, whether positive (satisfied) or negativeJob satisfaction is also considered one of the two “summary markers of adult vocational adjustment,”along with success (Jepsen & Sheu, 2003). Jepsen et al (2003) stated that general job satisfaction is one of the fivewith performance, persistence, economic stability, and identity) that employeesSeveral personal characteristics, such as age, gender, and personality, have been reported to affect job satisfaction. Age may have direct effect (Oshagbemi, 2003), or other factors such as stress (Fairbrother& Warn, 2003) and personality (Judge & Bretz, 1992). (Westerman & Yamamura, 2007; Jepsen & Sheu, 2003) havears a worker has put into service) can also affect the individual’slevel of job satisfaction. In other words, as people progress through the career life stages, their job satisfaction isthey will be able to move closer to their idealDespite the above, it needs be mentioned that survey data does not always provide support for this progression. In aschool graduates, it was found that the average job satisfaction scores remained the sameduring the adult years, whereas the average job congruence (measured by the similarity between the individual’ssition held at the time of the survey) increased significantly (Jepsen & Sheu, 2003). Davis(2004) also found no evidence to support the hypothesis that older people tend to be more satisfied with their jobsicant generational differences have been found for job satisfaction inAs discussed by Oshagbemi (2003), the relationship between age and job satisfaction is uncertain. Two differentr and curvilinear. The linear relationship is explained by the ideas of accommodation(adjusting to the workplace) and an increased ability to obtain more rewarding jobs due to seniority and experience.
  • 2. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013The curvilinear relationship is explained by the ideaenvironment, increased pressure to perform at higher levels, and a desire to retire earlier, all collide.Although gender has been reported to affect job satisfaction from time to time, overalsupport the idea that gender directly influences job satisfaction (Oshagbemi, 2003). Contradicting survey results onthis matter further confuse the theory, although it has been determined that men and women have differenneeds are satisfied by a job (Kifle & Desta, 2012), which may impact how they respond to satisfaction questions(Oshagbemi, 2003). There is a dearth of literature regarding how marital status influence job satisfaction, particularlyamong print-media workers. In the light of the foregoing, the purpose of this study was to examine age, gender andmarital status as factors of job satisfaction among printi. Older people will be significantly moreii. Female print-media workers will be significantly more satisfied with their jobs than male printworkers.iii. Marital status will significantly predict job satisfaction among print1.1.MethodDesign: - This study adopted a crossParticipants: - participants in this study were 199 conveniently sampled printand 92 females; with their ages ranging between 20married; 2 divorced; and 4 widowed. The highest educational qualification was master’s degree, while the least wasordinary level school leaving certificate.Sampling procedure: - samples were conveniconvenient sampling method, participant’s consent was got before requesting them to respond to the researchinstrument.Instrument of data collection: Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questioresponses ranged from ‘strongly agreejob satisfaction, while scores below the mean are interpreted as low job satisfaction. Authorreliability of the entire scale to be .91, while for this study; an Alpha reliability of the entire scale was .81.Procedure for data collection: - After obtaining permission from the appropriate authorities, study participants wereapproached and after seeking their consents the research instrument was administered on them. Participantscompleted and returned the questionnaires same day since the approximate time of response was 10minutes.Statistical Analysis: - The SPSS version 17.0 wahypotheses were tested with the student tone way analysis of variance1.2 ResultThe present study examined Age, Gworkers. A total of 199 conveniently sampled printand 92 females; with their ages ranging between 20married; 2 divorced; and 4 widowed. The highest educational qualification was master’s degree, while the least wasordinary level school leaving certificate. Three hypotheses were tested.Results of hypotheses 1 and 2 are presented in table 1, while the result of hypothesis 3 is presented in table 2.Table 1 showed the summary of t-test analysis done to compare young workers to old workers on job satisfactionamong print media workers. The result showed that age wasmedia workers. Younger workers are more dissatisfied with their jobs compared to the older workers. The firsthypothesis was thus accepted.Gender was also found to be a significant predictor of job1 also. Female workers were more satisfied with their jobs compared to their male counterpart. The hypothesis wasthus accepted.The third hypothesis was tested with a one way analysis of variance aanalysis of the third hypothesis showed that marital status is not a significant predictor of job satisfaction amongprint-media workers (df = 4, F=.291, p >.05)Research on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)127The curvilinear relationship is explained by the idea that stress on the job increases over time as changes in theenvironment, increased pressure to perform at higher levels, and a desire to retire earlier, all collide.Although gender has been reported to affect job satisfaction from time to time, overall there is very little evidence tosupport the idea that gender directly influences job satisfaction (Oshagbemi, 2003). Contradicting survey results onthis matter further confuse the theory, although it has been determined that men and women have differenneeds are satisfied by a job (Kifle & Desta, 2012), which may impact how they respond to satisfaction questions(Oshagbemi, 2003). There is a dearth of literature regarding how marital status influence job satisfaction, particularlymedia workers. In the light of the foregoing, the purpose of this study was to examine age, gender andmarital status as factors of job satisfaction among print-media workers. The following hypotheses were tested.Older people will be significantly more satisfied with their jobs than younger peoplemedia workers will be significantly more satisfied with their jobs than male printMarital status will significantly predict job satisfaction among print-media workers.This study adopted a cross-sectional ex post facto survey research designparticipants in this study were 199 conveniently sampled print-media workers; there were 107 malesand 92 females; with their ages ranging between 20 – 67 years. 114 of the participants were married; 78 nevermarried; 2 divorced; and 4 widowed. The highest educational qualification was master’s degree, while the least wasordinary level school leaving certificate.samples were conveniently selected for participation in the study. Despite the adoption ofconvenient sampling method, participant’s consent was got before requesting them to respond to the research: Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to measure Job Satisfaction. Theresponses ranged from ‘strongly agree – strongly disagree’, with a score above the mean being interpreted as highjob satisfaction, while scores below the mean are interpreted as low job satisfaction. Authorreliability of the entire scale to be .91, while for this study; an Alpha reliability of the entire scale was .81.After obtaining permission from the appropriate authorities, study participants wereoached and after seeking their consents the research instrument was administered on them. Participantscompleted and returned the questionnaires same day since the approximate time of response was 10minutes.The SPSS version 17.0 was used in the analysis of the data collected. First and secondhypotheses were tested with the student t-test for independent samples, while the third hypothesis was tested with theThe present study examined Age, Gender and Marital Status as Factors of Job satisfaction among Printworkers. A total of 199 conveniently sampled print-media workers participated in the study; there were 107 malesand 92 females; with their ages ranging between 20 – 67 years. 114 of the participants were married; 78 nevermarried; 2 divorced; and 4 widowed. The highest educational qualification was master’s degree, while the least wasordinary level school leaving certificate. Three hypotheses were tested.d 2 are presented in table 1, while the result of hypothesis 3 is presented in table 2.test analysis done to compare young workers to old workers on job satisfactionamong print media workers. The result showed that age was a significant predictor of job satisfaction among printmedia workers. Younger workers are more dissatisfied with their jobs compared to the older workers. The firstGender was also found to be a significant predictor of job satisfaction among print-media workers as shown in table1 also. Female workers were more satisfied with their jobs compared to their male counterpart. The hypothesis wasThe third hypothesis was tested with a one way analysis of variance and the result is presented in Table 2. Theanalysis of the third hypothesis showed that marital status is not a significant predictor of job satisfaction among(df = 4, F=.291, p >.05). The third hypothesis was thus rejected.www.iiste.orgthat stress on the job increases over time as changes in theenvironment, increased pressure to perform at higher levels, and a desire to retire earlier, all collide.l there is very little evidence tosupport the idea that gender directly influences job satisfaction (Oshagbemi, 2003). Contradicting survey results onthis matter further confuse the theory, although it has been determined that men and women have differences in whatneeds are satisfied by a job (Kifle & Desta, 2012), which may impact how they respond to satisfaction questions(Oshagbemi, 2003). There is a dearth of literature regarding how marital status influence job satisfaction, particularlymedia workers. In the light of the foregoing, the purpose of this study was to examine age, gender andmedia workers. The following hypotheses were tested.satisfied with their jobs than younger peoplemedia workers will be significantly more satisfied with their jobs than male print -mediamedia workers.media workers; there were 107 males7 years. 114 of the participants were married; 78 nevermarried; 2 divorced; and 4 widowed. The highest educational qualification was master’s degree, while the least wasently selected for participation in the study. Despite the adoption ofconvenient sampling method, participant’s consent was got before requesting them to respond to the researchnnaire was used to measure Job Satisfaction. Thestrongly disagree’, with a score above the mean being interpreted as highjob satisfaction, while scores below the mean are interpreted as low job satisfaction. Author reported an Alphareliability of the entire scale to be .91, while for this study; an Alpha reliability of the entire scale was .81.After obtaining permission from the appropriate authorities, study participants wereoached and after seeking their consents the research instrument was administered on them. Participantscompleted and returned the questionnaires same day since the approximate time of response was 10minutes.s used in the analysis of the data collected. First and secondtest for independent samples, while the third hypothesis was tested with theender and Marital Status as Factors of Job satisfaction among Print-mediamedia workers participated in the study; there were 107 malesthe participants were married; 78 nevermarried; 2 divorced; and 4 widowed. The highest educational qualification was master’s degree, while the least wasd 2 are presented in table 1, while the result of hypothesis 3 is presented in table 2.test analysis done to compare young workers to old workers on job satisfactiona significant predictor of job satisfaction among print-media workers. Younger workers are more dissatisfied with their jobs compared to the older workers. The firstmedia workers as shown in table1 also. Female workers were more satisfied with their jobs compared to their male counterpart. The hypothesis wasnd the result is presented in Table 2. Theanalysis of the third hypothesis showed that marital status is not a significant predictor of job satisfaction among
  • 3. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Marital status did not significantly predict job satisfaction among printmarried or not does not have a significant influence on such an individual’s level of job satisfaction. In other words,factors other than marriage would account for level of job satisfaction among this set of workers.4.DiscussionIn congruence with the finding of this study that age significantly predicted job satisfaction among printworkers, several other studies have shown that older workers(Hunter, 2007; Lorber &Skela, 2012). Although, it needs be mentioned also that some other researchers have found that age is not asignificant predictor of job satisfaction in some other places (Lamliterature for age difference in job satisfaction (particularly in the Western world) include the benefits that come withmaintaining a long career, including higher salaries, better benefits and success in the wpresent study also found age as a significant predictor of job satisfaction among printas a result of pay package or better benefitsFurther explanation could be the fact that most young people are stithey are mostly looking for greener pastures hence their high turnbetween the old and the young could also be an explanation for the difference. The youvalues and motivations compared to the older workers. The older workers most probably would have different goalsand motivations compared to the younger workers and this may account for some of the differences in their jobsatisfaction.Again, someone who is close to retirement may not be ready to take any action against the organization if heconsiders such an action as not being in his own personal interest, whereas the younger workers may not mind suchaction since they are at advantage asregards age and mobility. Some researchers have observed that most young people have seen corporations actdisloyally to their parents, so they have no qualms about changing jobs rapidly. In fact, many do not expect to stay ina job or even career for too long (Armour, 2005). Many also think that they can ‘get more by trying new companiesand careers (Safer, 2007), and it is also a way out of companies when no career development opportunities arepresented (Trunk, 2007). They are also unwilldo better elsewhere (Schmitt, 2008 Gerdes, 2007; Rowh, 2007).The result of the second hypothesis that established a significant statistical gender difference in the job satisfactionamong print-media workers is in line with the findings of Okpara, Squillace,& Erondu, 2005) who had previouslyestablished same result in a similar but extensive study conducted in the United States of America. Despite thecongruence in the present study finding, researchers like Pitts, Jarry, Wilkins & Pandey (2006)at different times and in different studies have reported no significant difference in the level of job satisfaction ofmen and women. They asserted that women are no lessfinding was that female workers most possibly should have the same expectations as their male counterparts and sothe same job satisfaction. Sloane and Ward (2001) however, went a step further breport that women over the age of 35 have significantly high job satisfaction.Within the culture in which the present study was conducted, the patriarchal system couldhave accounted for the result observed. In a male doto take whatever is given to her as a privilege and not a right, so, she is more or else not to complain, rather sheshould take whatever her experience is as her fate. Although, other reasons (beyond the scope of thishave accounted for the result observed, it has been ascertained that gender significantly predicted job satisfactionamong print-media workers.Research on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)128tatus did not significantly predict job satisfaction among print-media workers. Therefore, whether one ismarried or not does not have a significant influence on such an individual’s level of job satisfaction. In other words,uld account for level of job satisfaction among this set of workers.In congruence with the finding of this study that age significantly predicted job satisfaction among printworkers, several other studies have shown that older workers are more satisfied with their jobs than younger workers2012). Although, it needs be mentioned also that some other researchers have found that age is not asignificant predictor of job satisfaction in some other places (Lamont, 2007). Some of the reasons advanced inliterature for age difference in job satisfaction (particularly in the Western world) include the benefits that come withmaintaining a long career, including higher salaries, better benefits and success in the wpresent study also found age as a significant predictor of job satisfaction among print-media workers, it may not beas a result of pay package or better benefitsFurther explanation could be the fact that most young people are still upwardly mobile and with the age on their side,they are mostly looking for greener pastures hence their high turn-over intention. The difference in value orientationbetween the old and the young could also be an explanation for the difference. The younger workers have differentvalues and motivations compared to the older workers. The older workers most probably would have different goalsand motivations compared to the younger workers and this may account for some of the differences in their jobAgain, someone who is close to retirement may not be ready to take any action against the organization if heconsiders such an action as not being in his own personal interest, whereas the younger workers may not mind suchat advantage asregards age and mobility. Some researchers have observed that most young people have seen corporations actdisloyally to their parents, so they have no qualms about changing jobs rapidly. In fact, many do not expect to stay incareer for too long (Armour, 2005). Many also think that they can ‘get more by trying new companiesand careers (Safer, 2007), and it is also a way out of companies when no career development opportunities arepresented (Trunk, 2007). They are also unwilling to compromise, and rarely settle for a job when they think they cando better elsewhere (Schmitt, 2008 Gerdes, 2007; Rowh, 2007).The result of the second hypothesis that established a significant statistical gender difference in the job satisfactionmedia workers is in line with the findings of Okpara, Squillace,& Erondu, 2005) who had previouslyestablished same result in a similar but extensive study conducted in the United States of America. Despite thefinding, researchers like Pitts, Jarry, Wilkins & Pandey (2006)at different times and in different studies have reported no significant difference in the level of job satisfaction ofmen and women. They asserted that women are no less satisfied than men. The possible explanation given for thisfinding was that female workers most possibly should have the same expectations as their male counterparts and sothe same job satisfaction. Sloane and Ward (2001) however, went a step further by asserting in their own researchreport that women over the age of 35 have significantly high job satisfaction.Within the culture in which the present study was conducted, the patriarchal system couldhave accounted for the result observed. In a male dominated culture, a woman is expectedto take whatever is given to her as a privilege and not a right, so, she is more or else not to complain, rather sheshould take whatever her experience is as her fate. Although, other reasons (beyond the scope of thishave accounted for the result observed, it has been ascertained that gender significantly predicted job satisfactionwww.iiste.orgmedia workers. Therefore, whether one ismarried or not does not have a significant influence on such an individual’s level of job satisfaction. In other words,uld account for level of job satisfaction among this set of workers.In congruence with the finding of this study that age significantly predicted job satisfaction among print-mediaare more satisfied with their jobs than younger workers2012). Although, it needs be mentioned also that some other researchers have found that age is not aont, 2007). Some of the reasons advanced inliterature for age difference in job satisfaction (particularly in the Western world) include the benefits that come withmaintaining a long career, including higher salaries, better benefits and success in the workplace. Although thismedia workers, it may not bell upwardly mobile and with the age on their side,over intention. The difference in value orientationnger workers have differentvalues and motivations compared to the older workers. The older workers most probably would have different goalsand motivations compared to the younger workers and this may account for some of the differences in their jobAgain, someone who is close to retirement may not be ready to take any action against the organization if heconsiders such an action as not being in his own personal interest, whereas the younger workers may not mind suchregards age and mobility. Some researchers have observed that most young people have seen corporations actdisloyally to their parents, so they have no qualms about changing jobs rapidly. In fact, many do not expect to stay incareer for too long (Armour, 2005). Many also think that they can ‘get more by trying new companiesand careers (Safer, 2007), and it is also a way out of companies when no career development opportunities areing to compromise, and rarely settle for a job when they think they canThe result of the second hypothesis that established a significant statistical gender difference in the job satisfactionmedia workers is in line with the findings of Okpara, Squillace,& Erondu, 2005) who had previouslyestablished same result in a similar but extensive study conducted in the United States of America. Despite thefinding, researchers like Pitts, Jarry, Wilkins & Pandey (2006); and Mabekoje (2009)at different times and in different studies have reported no significant difference in the level of job satisfaction ofsatisfied than men. The possible explanation given for thisfinding was that female workers most possibly should have the same expectations as their male counterparts and soy asserting in their own researchminated culture, a woman is expectedto take whatever is given to her as a privilege and not a right, so, she is more or else not to complain, rather sheshould take whatever her experience is as her fate. Although, other reasons (beyond the scope of this study) mayhave accounted for the result observed, it has been ascertained that gender significantly predicted job satisfaction
  • 4. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013ReferencesArmour, S. (2005). Generation Y: They’ve arrived at work with a new attitude. USA Todhttp://www.usatoday.com/money/workplace/2005Davis, G. (2004). Job satisfaction survey among employees in small businesses.Enterprise Development, 11,4, 495.Erickson, T. (2007, 11 December). Generation X: Stuck in the middle. BusinessWeek. Available fromhttp://www.businessweek.com/managing/content/dec2007/ca20071211_660890.htmFairbrother, K., & Warn, J. (2003). Workplace dimensions, stress, and job satisfaction.Psychology, 18(1), 8-21.Gerdes,L.(2007). A good time to hunker down. BusinessWeek. Available fromhttp://www.businessweek.com/careers/content/apr2007/ca20070417_437652.htmHunter, D. (2007). Nonlinear Patterns of Job Satisfaction and Age Cohorts in an Industrial Environment.American Academy of Business, 11, 2, 231Jepsen, D.A., & Sheu, H-B. (2003). 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  • 5. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Schmitt, J. (2008). Unions and Upward Mobility for Young Workers. Center for Economic and Policy Research.Sloane, P.J. & Ward, M.E. (2001). Cohort Effects and Job Satisfaction of Academics.12, 787-91Trunk, P. (2007, 5 July). What Gen Y really wants. Time. Available fromhttp://www.time.com/magazine/article/0,9171,1640395,00.htmlWesterman, J.W. & Yamamura, J.H. (2007). Generational preferences for work environment fit: Effects onemployee outcomes. Career Development InternationalWhat Is the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction &Age? Frances Burks,Demand Mediahttp://smallbusiness.chron.com/relationshipTable 1. Summary of t-test comparing means based on age andworkersJob satisfactionVariablesAgeYoung workersOld WorkersGender MaleFemaleTable 2. Post Hoc TestsN Mean Std. Deviationsingle 78 64.8462 11.22622married 114 66.2982 12.78476divorced 2 63.0000 4.24264widowed 4 69.5000 5.50757Total 199 65.7588 11.98746Research on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)130Schmitt, J. (2008). Unions and Upward Mobility for Young Workers. Center for Economic and Policy Research.& Ward, M.E. (2001). Cohort Effects and Job Satisfaction of Academics. Applied Economic LettersTrunk, P. (2007, 5 July). What Gen Y really wants. Time. Available fromhttp://www.time.com/magazine/article/0,9171,1640395,00.htmlJ.W. & Yamamura, J.H. (2007). Generational preferences for work environment fit: Effects onCareer Development International, 12, 2,150-161What Is the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction &Age? Frances Burks,Demand Mediahttp://smallbusiness.chron.com/relationship-between-job-satisfaction-age-12618.html retrieved on 04/12/12test comparing means based on age and gender on job satisfaction among print mediaN Mean SD dfYoung workers 131 65.86 13.778197Old Workers 68 65.56 7.502107 65.579 9.743197Female 92 65.967 14.212Std. Deviation Std. Error95% Confidence Interval forMeanLower Bound Upper Bound11.22622 1.27112 62.3150 67.377312.78476 1.19740 63.9260 68.67054.24264 3.00000 24.8814 101.11865.50757 2.75379 60.7362 78.263811.98746 .84977 64.0830 67.4346www.iiste.orgSchmitt, J. (2008). Unions and Upward Mobility for Young Workers. Center for Economic and Policy Research.Applied Economic Letters, 8,Trunk, P. (2007, 5 July). What Gen Y really wants. Time. Available fromJ.W. & Yamamura, J.H. (2007). Generational preferences for work environment fit: Effects onretrieved on 04/12/12gender on job satisfaction among print mediat Remark.169P < .05 (.001)Sig.-.227P < .05 (.033)Sig.95% Confidence Interval forUpper Bound101.1186
  • 6. This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open AccessPublishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute isAccelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage:http://www.iiste.orgCALL FOR PAPERSThe IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals andcollaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline forsubmission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submissioninstruction on the following page: http://www.iiste.org/Journals/The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualifiedsubmissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to thereaders all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other thanthose inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of thejournals is also available upon request of readers and authors.IISTE Knowledge Sharing PartnersEBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrichs Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP OpenArchives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, ElektronischeZeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe DigtialLibrary , NewJour, Google Scholar