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Antecedants of Job satisfaction


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Factors determining job satisfaction

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Antecedants of Job satisfaction

  1. 1. Antecedents of Job Satisfaction
  2. 2. Introduction What makes people like or dislike their jobs? o Environmental perspective o Personality perspective o Interactionist perspective of Person-job fit
  3. 3. Environmental Antecedents of Job Satisfaction
  4. 4. Job Characteristics  refer to job content and nature of job tasks themselves.  Only a few characteristics studied as contributors  Hackman and Oldham’s (1976) – job characteristics theory 5 important characteristics-  Skill variety  Task identity  Task significance  Autonomy  Task feedback  combined these five core characteristics- define scope and challenge of a job. 1. high scope-job satisfaction 2. low scope-boredom and dissatisfaction
  5. 5. Research studies  Fried and Ferris(1987)- meta-analysis of studies relating the Hackman and Oldham characteristics to global satisfaction. Correlations ranged from .20 for task identity to.45 for job scope.  Limitation- job characteristics assessed with questionnaire given to employees themselves.  Merely demonstrating the correlation does not mean that one necessarily causes the other.  More evidence necessary. Job characteristic Mean correlation Skill variety .29 Job feedback .29 Autonomy .34
  6. 6. 1.Different methodologies  not always supportive of the idea that five job characteristics lead to job satisfaction.  Spector and Jex(1991)-both questionnaire and job analysis techniques in a sample of employees who represented a wide range of jobs.  Questionnaire measures of job characteristics correlated with job satisfaction but job analysis data did not.
  7. 7. 2.Quasi experimental field studies  support for at least a short term effect of job characteristics on job satisfaction. 1.Holman et al.(2010)- individual whose jobs had core characteristics- job satisfaction improved over a period of 9 months. 2.Griffin(1991)-similar quasi-experiment-  increasing levels of core characteristics- increased job satisfaction.  Job satisfaction returned to the level found before the change in jobs by the time of a 2 year follow up.  Changes in job satisfaction may be short-lived.
  8. 8. 4.Comparison of pay and pay satisfaction  across different jobs- little or no correlation  Spector(1985)- mean correlation of only .17 between salary level and pay satisfaction in three heterogeneous samples.  Rice et al.(1990)- .50 correlation between pay and job satisfaction in a sample of mental health professionals holding the same jobs. Pay satisfaction- affected by how an individual’s salary is compared to those of others in the same job.  Cohen-Charash and Spector(2001)- Distributive and procedural justice strongly correlated with pay satisfaction with correlation of .58 and .45 respectively.
  9. 9. 3.Generalizability of results across countries  Relation between employees’ reports of their job characteristics and job satisfaction-consistent across samples in the united states and other countries but. not universally.  Pearson and Chong(1997)- 1. unable to find same results in Malaysia- unrelated in a sample of nurses. 2. Collectivistic Asian culture-more important to focus on relationships among coworkers and supervisors.  Results in more developed and westernized Hong Kong quite similar to those in United states.  Careful about generalizing results from one country to another country.
  10. 10. Pay  associated strongly with global satisfaction but even more strongly with the facet of pay satisfaction.  Brasher and Chen(1999)- surveyed recent college graduates.  level of starting pay related more strongly to pay satisfaction (correlation = .36) than to global satisfaction (correlation= .17) • fairness or equity more important determinant(Williams et al. 2006)
  11. 11. Justice  Perceptions of fairness- important determinant of people’s behavior and reactions to work.  Distributive Justice and Procedural Justice- both linked to both global and facet job satisfaction.  Cohen-Charash and Spector(2001)- Meta-analysis- 1. Overall job satisfaction 2. Facet satisfactions of pay 3. Supervisor satisfaction 4. Nature of work satisfaction correlate significantly with both the forms of justice.  Pay satisfaction-Distributive justice more important  Supervisor satisfaction-Procedural justice more important
  13. 13. PERSONALITY  Hawthorn studies – Chronic Kickers – continually complain about job .  Job satisfaction of employers correlated across 5- year time span . (Bowling,Beehr and Lepsito 2006 )  Job environment as well as personality is important . (T. Newton and Keenan 1991 )  Dorman and Zapf (2001) conducted a meta- analysis of such studies showing that job satisfaction is far more stable over time when people remain on the same job (mean correlation .42) than when they change jobs (mean correlation .18 )
  14. 14. Relevant Personality Traits  Negative Affectivity – tendency for an individual to experience negative emotions .  Watson,Pennebaker and Folger (1986) extended NA idea to workplace – some people just dwell on negative aspects of life .  This idea is supported by Conolly and Visweswaran (2000) who conducted meta- analysis of 27 studies found that mean correlation between NA and job satisfaction of -27 .
  15. 15. Locus Of Control  INTERNALS – people who believe that they control reinforcements .  Spector (1982) higher job performance results in more satisfaction with their jobs . Individuals who perform better might be better rewarded and thus like their jobs better .  EXTERNALS – people who believe luck , fate or powerful others control reinforcements .  Watson et al. (1986) externals with high NA perceives and experiences job negatively . Personality might also be related to job choice
  16. 16. GENDER  Most studies have compared men and women in their global job satisfaction and found few differences .  Meta-analytic studies involving multiple samples and thousand of employees have failed to find gender differences .  Greenhaus,Parasuraman and Wormley (1990) found no significant gender differences even though the distribution of jobs was not the same in their sample for both genders .
  17. 17. AGE  Legislation has made age discrimination illegal .  Siu,lu and copper (1999) have shown that older workers are more satisfied with their jobs than younger workers . These studies found curvilinear relation between age and job satisfaction .  One factor is tenure on job – job satisfaction is high at the time of hiring and then declines after initial honeymoon period .  Job satisfaction will increase perhaps as employees adjust to working life .
  18. 18. Cultural and Ethnic Differences  Large organizations frequently have facilities in multiple countries and employ people from different cultures .  Studies shown that black employees have slightly lower satisfaction than white employees.  Differences in other variables – Greenhaus et al.(1990) reported that blacks had lower mean performance ratings than whites thus leading to lower job satisfaction.  Soners and Birnbaum (2001) studies black and white employees of a hospital and found that there were no differences between them in demographic variables and type of work.
  19. 19. PERSON JOB FIT  Job satisfaction will occur when there is a good match between the person and the job.  The difference between having and wanting represents the amount of fit of person to job.  Verquer,Beehr and Wagner (2003) conducted a meta-analysis of 21 person-job fit studies and found that various measures of fit were correlated with job satisfaction.  Interaction of specific person and job variables in predicting job satisfaction  Gender has moderated the relation between the job condition and job satisfaction .
  20. 20. Growth need strength(GNS) Hackman and Oldham’s(1976) theory  A person’s desire for satisfaction of higher order needs, autonomy and achievement.  Meta-analyses- It moderates the relation between job characteristics and job satisfaction. (Loher et al. 1985)  Correlation between these two variables greater- individuals who are high in GNS.
  21. 21. THANK YOU