Principles of food sanitation


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Food sanitation is more than just cleanliness. It included all practices involved in protecting food from risk of contamination, harmful bacteria, poisons and foreign bodies, preventing any bacteria from multiplying to an extent which would result in an illness of consumers; and destroying any harmful bacteria in the food by thorough cooking or processing.

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Principles of food sanitation

  1. 1. PRINCIPLES OF FOOD SANITATION, SAFETY & HYGIENE INTRODUCTION Food sanitation is more than just cleanliness. It included all practices involved in protecting food from risk of contamination, harmful bacteria, poisons and foreign bodies, preventing any bacteria from multiplying to an extent which would result in an illness of consumers; and destroying any harmful bacteria in the food by thorough cooking or processing. The primary tenet of food-service sanitation is absolute cleanliness. It begins with personal hygiene, the safe handling of foods during preparation, and clean utensils, equipment, appliances, storage facilities, kitchen and dining room. Control of the microbial quality of food must focus on the preparation of food itself, food handlers, facilities and equipment. The quality of food depends on the condition when purchased and the time temperature control during storage, preparation and service. Personal hygiene and cleanliness of the facilities and equipment also contribute to food safety.
  2. 2. CHAPTER 1: FOOD SAFETY Definition of terms 1. Food – Any substance whether simple, mixed or compounded that is used as food, drink, confectionery or condiments. 2. Safety – is overall quality of food fit for consumption. 3. Sanitation – is a health of being clean and conducive to health. 4. Cleanliness – is the absence of visible soil or dirt and is not necessarily sanitized. 5. Microbiology - the branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effect on other microorganisms. 6. Microorganisms - organism of microscopic or submicroscopic size. (bacterium , protozoan). 7. Food Infection - microbial infection resulting from ingestion of contaminated foods. 8. Food Intoxication - type of illness caused by toxins. Under favorable condition certain bacteria produce chemical compounds called toxins 9. Food Spoilage - means the original nutritional value, texture, flavor of the food are damaged, the food become harmful to people and unsuitable to eat. 10. Foodborne Illness – A disease carried or transmitted to people by food. 11. Foodborne Outbreak – An incident in which two or more people experience the same illness after eating the same food. 12. Contamination – The presence of harmful substances in the food 13. Time-Temperature Abuse – Food that has been exposed to temperature favorable to the growth of foodborne microorganisms. 14. Potentially Hazardous Foods – Food in which microorganisms can grow rapidly. It is often moist, high protein, slightly acidic. 15. Cross Contamination – Occurs when microorganisms are transferred from one surface or food to another 16. Personal Hygiene – Sanitary health habits that include keeping the body, hair, teeth, clothes and washing hands regularly. 17. Temperature Danger Zone – temperature range (41⁰F -140⁰F) food borne bacteria grow and reproduce
  3. 3. FOOD SAFETY: A TOP PRIORITY Food safety is the responsibility in every person who is involve in food service. Serving safe food is the top priority for every food service employee. 1. Dangers of food borne illness a. Individual – Food borne illness are the greatest danger to food safety. It could result to illness or diseases to an individual that would affect their overall health, work and personal lives.  Loss of family income  Increased insurance  Medical expenses  Cost of special dietary needs  Loss of productivity, leisure and travel opportunities  Death or funeral expense b. Establishment – Food borne illness outbreak can cost an establishment thousands of pesos, it can even be the reason an establishment is forced to close.  Loss of customers and sales  Loss of prestige and reputation  Lawsuits  Increase insurance premiums  Lowered employee morale  Employee absenteeism  Increase employee turn over  Embarrassment 2. Types of Food Contaminants A. Biological Contaminants B. Physical Contaminants C. Chemical Contaminant
  4. 4. A. Biological Contaminant – A microbial contaminant that may cause a food borne illness (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, biological toxins) Examples: Sea food toxins, Mushroom toxins, Clostridium Botulinum, Salmonella bacteria COOKING DOES NOT DESTROY TOXINS!!! Preventing Biological contaminant: 1. Purchase foods only on reputable supplier 2. Do not use wild mushrooms 3. Maintain good personal hygiene 4. Observe proper hand washing 5. Clean and sanitize equipment 6. Maintain clean and sanitize facilities 7. Control pests B. Physical Contaminant – any foreign object that accidentally find its way into food Examples: Hair, Staple wire, Dust Preventing Physical Contaminants: 1. Wear hair restraint 2. Avoid wearing jewelry when preparing, cooking and holding foods (ring, earrings) 3. Do not carry pencil or pen 4. Do not wear nail polish or artificial nails when working with foods 5. Clean can openers regularly 6. Remove staple wire in the receiving area 7. Place shields on lights C. Chemical Contaminant – a chemical substance that can cause food borne illness. Substances normally found in restaurant Examples: Toxic metals, Pesticides, Cleaning product, Sanitizers, Preservatives Preventing Chemical Contaminants: 1. Teach employees how to use chemicals 2. Store chemicals in original containers to prevent accidental misuse, as well as leakage into food 3. Make sure labels are clearly identify chemical contents of chemical containers 4. Wash hands thoroughly after working with chemicals 5. Wash foods in cold running water 6. Monitor pest control operator and make sure chemicals do not contaminate foods
  5. 5. Highly acidic foods such as tomatoes or lemons can react with metals!!! 3. Main Causes of Food Borne Illness 1. Cross- Contamination 2. Time-Temperature Abuse 3. Poor Personal Hygiene Cross Contamination - occurs when microorganisms are transferred from one surface or food to another. The bacteria can transfer from: 1) Hand to food Contamination - Occurs when contaminated hands handle cooked or ready to eat foods. How to prevent hand to food contamination?  Wash hands properly  Cover cuts, sores and wounds  Keep fingernails short, unpolished & clean  Avoid wearing jewelry, except for plain ring When to wash hands? Before: 1) Beginning food preparation 2) Putting on disposable gloves 3) Serving customers After: 1) Arriving at work and after break 2) Using the restroom, washing sinks 3) Eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco and gums 4) Handling raw foods 5) Touching or scratching a part of the body 6) Coughing, sneezing 7) Handling garbage 8) Touching dirty surfaces
  6. 6. How to Wash Hands? 1) Use the hand washing sink with running at approximately 100°F and liquid soap. 2) Lather hands and exposed arms 3) Rub hands for at least 20 seconds 4) Wash hands thoroughly, paying attention to fingernails 5) Rinse in clean running water. Turn off the faucet with paper towel in your hands 6) Dry hands using paper towel or air dryer. Not cloth or apron 2) Food to Food Contamination - When harmful organisms from one food contaminate other foods. (Raw meats, thawing meat on top of the shelf where it can drip on the other foods) How to prevent Food-Food Contamination?  Store cooked foods that will not be cooked in the refrigerator on a higher shelf than raw foods.  Best to practice mix left over foods with fresh foods  Wash fruits & veg, in a cold running water  Do not let raw meat and raw vegetables are prepared on the same surface at the same time
  7. 7. 3) Equipment to Food Contamination How to prevent?  Use separate cutting boards for different foods (meat- veg)  Prepare raw foods in separate area from fresh and ready to eat foods  Clean & sanitize equipment, work surfaces & utensils after preparing each foods  Use specific containers for various food products.  Make sure cloth and paper towel use for wiping spills are not used for any other purposes TIME TEMPERATURE ABUSE – happens when the food is exposed to Temperature Danger Zone (5⁰C - 60⁰C) for more than 4 hrs. When Time Temperature Abuse occur?  Food is not stored, prepared or held at a required temperature  Food is not cooked or reheated to temperature high enough to kill harmful microorganisms  Food is not cooled low enough fast  Food is prepared in advance and not set to a safe required internal temperature while the food is on hold How to Preventing Time Temp Abuse?  Never expose the food to Temperature danger zone: 5°C - 60°C  Not to exceed 4 hours, except cool-down  Document temperatures & time  Includes receiving, storage, preparation, holding, serving, cooling, and reheating  Pass food through danger zone quickly  Keep hot foods hot. Keep cold foods cold  Don’t keep the food at all  Internal temperature should be 60°C to prevent harmful microbes from growing
  8. 8. POOR PERSONAL HYGIENE – Food handlers are carriers of disease causing bacteria. Food service personnel can contaminate food. Basics of Good Personal Hygiene: Stay home if someone is suffering from these illnesses: Hepatitis A, Shigella, E-Coli Infection, and Salmonella  Medicines should be kept inside the locker and away from foods  Clean and cover cuts and wounds  Never use bare hands when handling ready to eat foods  Disposable gloves should be used once  Take a bath everyday  Wear appropriate attire  Refrain from wearing jewelry, make ups, and nail polish  Observe proper hand washing procedures at all times 4. POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS FOODS  Food most likely to become unsafe typically has the following characteristics:  Water activity level of .85  Ph level 4.6 to 7.5  High protein content Examples: 1. Fish 2. Meat (beef, pork, lamb) 3. Milk & milk products 4. Cooked rice, beans 5. Textured Soy Protein 6. Poultry 7. Sea foods 8. Sprouts & raw seeds 9. Sliced melons 10. Eggs 11. Baked/boiled potatoes 12. Garlic in Oil Mixture
  9. 9. CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING MICROORGANISMS Definition of terms: 1. Pathogens - are disease causing microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasite and fungi) 2. Bacteria - single celled living microorganisms responsible for the decay of many plant and animal diseases. 3. Virus - The smallest of the microbial food contaminants, viruses rely on a living host to reproduce. 4. Parasite - An organism that needs a living host to survive. 5. Fungi - can be single celled or multi cellular microorganisms can that can cause food spoilage and lives by absorbing nutrients from organic matter 6. pH – potential of Hydrogen. A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, numerically equal to 7 for neutral solutions, with increasing alkalinity and decreasing with increasing acidity. The pH scale commonly in use ranges from 0 to 14. 7. Spore - The spore is formed by some bacteria, thickens walls to protect from adverse condition such as extreme acidity and temperature. 8. Vegetative Stage - is a condition favorable for bacteria to grow and multiply rapidly. 9. Budding Reproduction - – a form of asexual reproduction where in new bud or bump is formed from the mother cell. 10. Water Activity (Aw)– The amount of moisture available in food for microorganisms to grow.
  10. 10. BACTERIA -Bacteria consist of only a single cell (unicellular) -Bacteria reproduce through “binary fission” when one cell divides to form two new cells -All bacteria exist in a vegetative stage -Some bacteria has the ability to form a spore where they can survive in an adverse or extreme conditions “spore forming bacteria” -Bacteria are “photosynthetic”, they have the ability to make their own food through the use of the sunlight, and thus bacteria also give off oxygen. - An average bacterium measures 1 micrometer 1. Classification of Bacteria: 1. Spoilage Bacteria – where they breakdown foods so they look, taste and smell bad. Thus, food is undesirable to eat and unacceptable. 2. Pathogenic Bacteria – are disease causing bacteria that can make people ill if they or their toxins are consumed with foods.
  11. 11. 2. Shapes of bacteria: 1. Coccus or Cocci – spherical shaped bacteria 2. Bacillus or bacilli – rod shaped bacteria 3. Spirilla - spiral shaped bacteria How they move?  Bacteria use it’s “flagella”, a hair like appendages use to swim around.  Some stick out thin, rigid spikes called “fimbriae” to help hold them to surfaces. 3. Phases of Growth of Bacteria: 1. Lag Phase –bacteria adapt themselves to growth conditions. It is the period where the individual bacteria are maturing and not yet able to divide. 2. Log Phase or Logarithmic Phase –“exponential phase” growth is very rapid, doubling in numbers in every few minutes 3. Stationary Phase - the growth rate slows as a result of nutrient depletion and accumulation of toxic products. This phase is reached as the bacteria begin to exhaust the resources that are available to them. 4. Death or Decline Phase - bacteria run out of nutrients and die
  12. 12. 4. Conditions Bacteria Needs to Grow and Multiply 1. Food 2. Acidity 3. Temperature 4. Time 5. Oxygen 6. Moisture Food  Bacteria feed on Protein and Carbohydrates. Foods that contain these items can support the growth of microorganisms  Potentially Hazardous Foods have the potential for contamination, they have the characteristics to allow microorganisms to grow and multiply. How to Control the Growth of Bacteria in Food? 1. Purchase from reputable suppliers 2. Avoid cross-contamination of food 3. Cook food to safe internal temperature and test with food thermometer Acidity  Bacteria grows best at a slightly acidic and slightly neutral environment (pH 4.6 to 7.5)  Some bacteria can develop a “spore” such as acidophilic bacteria, where it could grow And multiply in an acidic environment  Bacteria such as E-Coli can grow in unpasteurized apple that has a pH value of 4.0 If the pH is: Below 4.6 Bacteria will not grow Between 4.6 to 7.0 Bacteria will thrive Between 7.0 to 9.0 Bacteria may survive
  13. 13. How to Control Acidity to Control the Growth of Bacteria:  Highly acidic foods such as vinegar and lemon inhibit the growth of microorganism.  Salad dressing made with vinegar, oil and garlic can make as a marinade for meat Time  Under ideal conditions, bacterial cells can double in number every 25 minutes to 30 minutes.  Pathogens start to multiply in four hours at the Temp. Danger Zone How to Control Time to Control the Growth of Bacteria? 1. Store received foods as quickly as possible to limit the time in Temp. Danger Zone 2. If the foods will not be cooked or served right away, store it inside the refrigerator or freezer 3. Check temperature on holding cabinets; make sure that it maintains the internal of 135⁰F and above 4. Document food inside the storage room, practice First in First out 5. Reheat foods at the internal temperature of 165⁰F for 15 seconds Temperature • Temperature Danger zone - temp. Range (5C- 60C). Food borne bacteria grow and reproduce. • Temperature Abuse –foods that have not been to a safe temperature or kept at the proper temperature • Psychrophilic bacteria – grow within the temperature range of (0⁰C) –(21⁰C) (spoilage organisms) • Mesophilic bacteria – grow at temp. (21⁰C) – (43⁰C) • Thermophilic bacteria – grows best above (43⁰ C)
  14. 14. How to Control Temperature to Control The Growth of Bacteria? 1. Cold foods, must be stored 41⁰F or below 2. Hot foods, must be held at 140⁰F (60⁰C) and above 3. Control the temperature of food during storing, preparing, cooking, holding, re-heating, serving. 4. Check internal temperature regularly 5. Cook foods at a required internal temperature with a food thermometer 6. Keep foods out of Temperature Danger Zone Oxygen  Bacteria differ in their oxygen requirement. Anaerobic bacteria – cannot survive when oxygen is present because it is toxic to them. Anaerobic bacteria grow well in vacuum packaged foods or canned foods where oxygen is not available. Aerobic bacteria – need oxygen to grow Facultative anaerobic bacteria – can grow with or without free oxygen but have a preference Microaerophilic organisms – can survive in a very little amount oxygen How to Control Oxygen to Control the Growth of Microorganism? 1. Bacteria grow in different oxygen requirement; it is difficult to control this condition. 2. Bacteria such as Clostridium Botulinum and Clostridium Perfringens live without the presence of oxygen, it is important to cool foods in a shallow pan. Moisture Moisture is important factor in bacterial growth. The amount of water available for bacterial activity. • Water Activity level – is the measure of the amount of water that is not available for bacterial to grow. ( 0- 10) • Potentially hazardous foods (PHF) – foods that have a water activity level of .85 or higher How to Control Moisture to Control the Growth of Microorganism? 1. Lower the amount of moisture in food through freezing, dehydrating, adding sugar or salt. **Bacteria remain alive and become potentially hazardous when moisture is added**
  15. 15. VIRUSES • Microbes are single-celled organisms that can perform the basic functions of life — metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation except viruses. • Viruses can’t metabolize nutrients, produce and excrete wastes, move around on their own, or even reproduce unless they are inside another organism’s cells. • Viruses are the simplest and tiniest of microbes; they can be as much as 10,000 times smaller than bacteria. • Viruses comes in many sizes and shapes • Some may survive in freezing and cooking • Viruses consist of a small collection of genetic material (DNA or RNA) encased in a protective protein coat called a capsid. PARASITE  A parasite is an organism that lives by feeding upon another organism. Parasites living in the human body feed on our cells, our energy, and our blood, the food we eat and even the supplements we take.  There are several types of parasites: protozoa are single celled organisms that are only visible under a microscope  While worms come in all sizes from, that measure less than one centimeter, to tapeworms that grow up to 12 meters in length.  They grow naturally in many animals such as pigs, cats and rodents  They can be killed by proper cooking or freezing How can I get a Parasite?  Contaminated or unfiltered water  Contaminated soil  Contaminated fruits and vegetables  Raw or rare meat  Pets Mosquitoes Contact with feces
  16. 16. FUNGI  Fungi are a group of organisms and micro-organisms that are classified within their own kingdom, the fungal kingdom, as they are neither plant nor animal.  Fungi draw their nutrition from decaying organic matter, living plants and even animals.  Many play an important role in the natural cycle as decomposers and return nutrients to the soil, they are not all destructive.  Fungi usually reproduce without sex. Single-celled yeasts reproduce asexually by budding. Examples of Fungi are: 1) Mold  Mold cause spoilage in food and could cause illnesses  They grow under almost any conditions, but grow well in sweet, acidic food with low water activity.  Freezing temperatures prevent or reduce the growth of molds, but not destroyed  Some molds produce called “aflatoxins” 2) Yeasts  Yeast also cause food spoilage  Yeast spoilage produce a smell or taste of alcohol. They appear in pink color discoloration  They also grown well in sweet, acidic foods with low water activity level  Such as jellies, honey and fruit juices
  17. 17. CHAPTER 3: FOOD BORNE ILLNESSES Foodborne illness is any illness that results from eating contaminated food. Foodborne infection is an illness resulting from eating food contaminated by a pathogen that causes an infection in the person who ate the food. All foodborne illnesses used to be called food poisoning. However, food poisoning occurs when a substance that is poisonous to humans is consumed, including toxins produced by some types of bacteria. A microorganism or microbe is an organism so small that it cannot be seen without a microscope. Bacteria and viruses and some parasites are microorganisms. A pathogen is a microorganism that causes illness, and the word “germ” is generally used to mean the same thing. Pathogens vary in their infective doses—the number of microorganisms you need to swallow in order to become sick. It takes fewer microorganisms to make you sick when a pathogen has a low infective dose. A case of foodborne illness is one individual who is sick. An outbreak is when 2 or more individuals from different households have a similar illness from consuming the same food. Potentially hazardous foods are any (usually moist and low in acid) food that is capable of supporting the rapid growth of bacteria. Sometimes these foods are called perishable. Potentially hazardous foods must be kept out of the “danger zone” (5–60°C) to prevent foodborne illnesses. Examples: ✓ Foods of animal origin such as meat, milk, cheese, poultry, eggs, fish, and other seafood ✓ Foods of plant origin that have been heat-treated, including cooked vegetables, beans, and rice ✓ Raw sprouts ✓ Cut melons, peeled carrots, and other peeled vegetables and fruits ✓ Cooked pasta ✓ Tofu and other moist soy protein products
  18. 18. Most foodborne illnesses are caused by eating food that contains harmful bacteria, viruses, or parasites. After the food is eaten, these microorganisms or germs continue to grow and reproduce in our body, causing an infection. Foods also can cause illness if they contain a toxin or poison that is produced by bacteria growing in the food. ILLNESSES CAUSED BY BACTERIA  Bacteria are a very large group of tiny organisms that reproduce by cell division. They can be found in virtually any environment, including food, and plants and animals produced for food. Bacteria thrive in warm, moist foods that are low in acid.  Most disease-causing bacteria grow very slowly at low temperatures, multiply rapidly in mid-range temperatures, and are killed at high temperatures.  Antibiotics are effective for controlling most kinds of bacterial infection. However, some bacteria types are developing the ability to resist antibiotics, which means that illnesses caused by these bacteria are not easily treated. It appears that antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing in the food supply, making prevention of foodborne illnesses very important.  Hand washing, heating to appropriate temperatures, kitchen cleanliness, and refrigeration are essential to control bacterial pathogens.
  19. 19. 1) Botulism (*spore forming) Bacteria: Clostridium Botulinum (Anaerobic bacteria)  Organism produce a neurotoxin, deadly biological toxin to man  Type of illness: Bacterial intoxication  Symptoms : Dizziness , double vision, difficulty in breathing and swallowing  Onset time: 12-36 hrs.  Food Sources : Improperly canned foods, vacuum packed, Refrigerated foods  Prevention : Discard bulging cans , Do not use home canned foods, Do not mix and store oil and garlic, saute’ onion as needed, Don’t store left over potatoes in a foil 2) Campylobacteriosis Bacteria: Campylobacter Jejuni  It requires a very strict amount of air for growth (microaerophilic)  Type of Illness : bacterial infection  Symptoms : watery, bloody diarrhea , fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, Headache, muscle pain  Onset time : 7-10 days  Food Sources : Unpasteurized milk, raw poultry, beef , fecal contaminated water  Prevention :Personal hygiene, Follow hand washing guidelines, Avoid cross contamination, Cook all meat, Maintain good pest control, Use pasteurized dairy products and Use safe water 3) E- Coli (E. coli O157:H7) Bacteria : Escherichia coli  Produce Shiga Toxin , a poisonous substance  Facultative anaerobic bacteria  Type of Illness : Bacterial Infection  Onset time : 3-8 days  Symptoms : Bloody diarrhea followed by kidney failure  Food Sources : undercooked ground beef, unpasteurized apple juice, undercooked fruits and vegetables, raw milk, dairy
  20. 20. products  Prevention: Good personal hygiene, Avoid cross contamination, Cook all poultry, meat carefully, Use pasteurized milk and dairy products, Wash all fresh fruits & vegetables in a clean running water 4) Listeriosis Bacteria : Listeria Monocytogenes  Facultative anaerobic bacteria, ability to survive in high salt foods, and can grow at refrigerated temperature.  Type of Illness: Bacterial Infection  Onset time: 3- 70 days  Symptoms: headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance, convulsion, dangerous for pregnant women (result to premature delivery, fetal death)  Food Sources : raw milk, meat, refrigerated ready to eat foods, processed foods (hotdogs, deli meats, luncheon meats) and soft cheeses  Prevention: Good personal hygiene, Avoid cross contamination, cook all meat, poultry carefully, Use pasteurized milk, milk products, Wash all fruits & vegetables in a clean running water and Clean & sanitized utensils & equipment 5) Perfringens foodborne illness Bacteria: Clostridium Perfringens  Microaerophilic bacteria  Type of Illness Bacterial toxin mediated infection  Onset time: ( 8- 22 hrs.)  Symptoms : Severe abdominal cramps, severe diarrhea  Food Sources: cafeteria germs, spices, gravy, improperly cooled foods, foods not cooked to the right temperature  Prevention: Good personal hygiene, Avoid cross contamination, Cook all meat carefully
  21. 21. 6) Salmonellosis Bacteria: Salmonella bacteria  Facultative anaerobic bacteria  Fecal contamination  Type of Illness : Bacterial infection  Symptoms : stomach cramps, diarrhea, head ache, nausea, fever, vomiting  Type of Illness : Bacterial infection  Symptoms : stomach cramps, diarrhea, head ache, nausea, fever, vomiting  Food Sources: Contaminated by soil, insects, intestinal waste of animals raw meat, fish, eggs, raw salad dressing, cake mixes, sliced fruits & vegetables, dried gelatin, peanut butter  Prevention: Good personal hygiene, Avoid cross contamination, Cook all meat carefully 7) Shigellosis Bacteria: Shigella bacteria  Facultative anaerobic bacteria  Comes from human intestines, polluted water, spread by flies and food handlers  Type of Illness : Bacterial infection  Symptoms : Diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, dehydration  Food Sources : foods that are prepared by human contacts, salads, ready to eat meats, pasta salads, lettuce, moist foods  Prevention: Good personal hygiene, Avoid cross contamination, Use clean water, control flies, cook foods properly 8) Staphylococcal illness Bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus  Facultative anaerobic bacteria. Can grow in cooked or safe foods that are re contaminated  Commonly found in human skin, hands, hair, nose and throat.  Carrier are healthy and unhealthy people  Can grow in high salt or high sugar, and lower water activity  Type of Illness : Bacterial intoxication  Symptoms : nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, headaches
  22. 22.  Food Sources: Foods that are prepared by human contacts, Left over, meat, eggs, egg products, potato salad, salad dressings  Prevention: Good hygiene, Avoid cross contamination, Cover a burn or cut wounds, wear a disposable gloves when preparing foods, cook foods thoroughly ILLNESSES CAUSED BY VIRUSES Viruses are extremely small pathogens that reproduce only within a living host cell. Some viruses (such as noroviruses and Hepatitis A) can be transmitted by food and water. Other viruses (such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS) are transmitted from person to person, but not through food or water. Washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet and avoiding shellfish and other foods that may have been exposed to sewage-contaminated water are essential to avoiding the transmission of viral diseases through food. Viruses are killed when foods are adequately cooked. 1) Hepatitis A Virus: Hepto Virus or a Hepatitis A virus  Found in human intestinal and urinary tract and contaminated water  Symptoms : fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, loss of appetite, stomach pain, vomiting  Incubation time: 2-10 months after contaminated food and water is consumed  Food sources : 1. Raw and lightly cooked oyster and clams harvested from polluted water 2. Raw vegetables irrigated and washed in polluted water 3. Potentially hazardous food handled by a person infected with hepatitis A that needed no further cooking  Prevention: 1. Handle foods properly 2. Cook the at recommended temperature 3. Avoid eating raw seafood 4. Food handlers must practice good personal hygiene 5. Wash hands and fingernails properly
  23. 23. 2) Norwalk Virus Virus: Norwalk virus  Symptoms : nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, low grade fever  Food Sources : contaminated water, shellfish from contaminated water, contaminated fruits and vegetables  Prevention : Cook foods to a proper temperature, practice good personal hygiene, wash hands and fingernails 3) Rota Virus Virus: Cause diseases like rota virus gastroenteritis  It is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among infants and children.  Symptoms : vomiting, low grade fever, watery diarrhea  Transmission : person to person spread through contaminated hands  The viruses foodborne disease differ from bacteria: 1. They can only multiply inside the living host 2. Viruses do not multiply in foods. 3. Viruses are usually transferred from one food to another. 4. From a food handler to food and water 5. A potentially hazardous food is not needed to support survival of virus  Prevention : Cook foods properly, practice good personal hygiene ILLNESSES CAUSED BY PARASITES Parasite is a biological hazard. They need a living host to survive. Parasites can enter a food system and can cause food borne illnesses. Parasites are small, primitive animals that live within the bodies of other animals. Several types of parasites can be found in food and water, including TOXOPLASMA GONDII (the cause of toxoplasmosis), TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS (the cause of trichinosis), GIARDIA LAMBLIA, CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM, and CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS. Parasites are larger in size than bacteria, do not reproduce in food, and usually require more than one animal species to carry out their life cycle. Cooking food and heating or filtering water are the ways to avoid infection by parasites.
  24. 24. 1) Anisakis Parasite: Anisakis spp. Are nematodes (round worm)  Associated with food borne infection from fish.  Anisakis is about 1- 1 ½ inches long and a diameter of human hair.  They are beige, ivory, white, gray, brown or pink.  Symptoms: 1. Vomiting, abdominal pain if the worm is attached to the stomach 2. Coughing if the worm is attached to the throat 3. Sharp pain, fever if the worm is attached to the large intestines  Food Sources: 1. Raw undercooked seafood 2. Bottom feeding fish (cod, salmon, herring, flounder) 3. Human are accidental host upon eating fish infested with parasite 2) Cyclosporiasis Parasite: Cyclospora cayetanensis  Prevention: cook seafood at proper temperature  Symptoms : infections that infect the small intestines 1. Watery diarrhea 2. Loss of appetite 3. Bloating 4. Stomach cramps 5. Nausea 6. Vomiting 7. Low grade fever  Food Sources: Berries, lettuce, fresh herbs 3) Giardiasis Parasite: Giardia Duodenalis  A single cell microorganism called “protozoa”  Symptoms: diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea  Food Sources: undercooked pork
  25. 25. 4) Trichinosis Parasite: Trichiniella Spiralis  This parasite looks like a small, hairy round worm  Symptoms :nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, later stage are fever, swelling of tissues around the eyes, muscle stiffness, death  Food Sources: Undercooked pork and sausages, Ground meats contaminated through meat grinders ILLNESSES CAUSED BY FUNGI Fungi, the word for more than one fungus, can be found on different parts of the body, Fungi are organisms that can grow in or on the body, causing infections of internal organs or of the skin, nails, and hair. Molds, yeast and other fungi cause food spoilage 1) Molds  Individual mold cells are microscopic, they grew quickly and they become visible  Molds spoil foods, causing discoloration, and unpleasant smell  Molds grow in any conditions ( moist, dry, acidic, salty, sweet, cold, warm)  Mold produce toxins, some of which relate to cancer and cause allergies  Aflatoxin can cause liver disease  Molds can be used to make cheese such as Brie, Camembert, Gorgonzola, Bleu cheese  Although the cells and spores can be killed by heating to 140°F for 10 minutes, the toxins are heat stable and are not destroyed 2) Yeast  Like molds, yeast can cause food spoilage  Foods such as jellies, honey, syrup, fruit juices are most likely loved by yeast  Evidence of bubbles, and alcoholic smell or taste are the sign where foods have the presence of yeast  Discard any foods that has the evidence of yeast
  26. 26. FOODBORNE ILLNESSES CAUSED BY NATURALLY OCCURRING CHEMICALS Naturally occurring chemicals include toxins that are produced by a biological organism. 1. FOOD ALLERGENS- Cause the immune system to overreact  The problem lies in the allergic reaction that occurs when you eat food you’re allergic to. When allergens are introduced into your system, inflammation occurs as an immune response. Inflammation produces an insulin resistance, which leads to more insulin in the body, and insulin is a fat-storage hormone  Symptoms: Hives, swelling of the lips, tongue and mouth, difficulty in breathing, Vomiting, diarrhea and cramps.  Common Food Allergens: Milk Soy, Egg Fish, Wheat proteins Shell fish Peanuts Chicken
  27. 27. 2. CIGUATOXINS – intoxication caused by eating contaminated tropical reef fish. The toxin is found in algae and then eaten by reef fish, which is eaten by big fish such as barracuda, mahi, bonito, jack fish, snapper, in which the toxin is accumulated in the flesh of these fishes.  Symptoms : nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, shortness of breath  Common Foods : Barracuda, mackerel, snapper, triggerfish  Prevention: Toxin is not destroyed by cooking. Purchase sea foods from Reliable supplier 3. Scombrotoxin – Scombrotoxin poisoning, also called histamine or scombroid poisoning occurs when people eat fish that have been carelessly handled and permitted to build up biogenic amines such as histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine as a consequence of bacterial spoilage. It is one of the three most common causes of food borne illnesses associated with the consumption of seafood. It takes a very small amount of the amines, quantities measured in parts per million (ppm), to cause an illness. Concentrations at or above 50 ppm are not allowed in seafood.  Symptoms: dizziness, burning sensation, facial rash, shortness of Breath, peppery taste in the mouth.  Common Foods: tuna, anchovies, blue fish, mackerel, amberjack, Dark meat fishes.  Prevention: Purchase food from reputable supplier, Store “fresh” sea food at Temperature between (0⁰C) to (4⁰C).  Do not accept seafood that is suspected being thawed and Refrozen or temperature abused.
  28. 28. 4. Shellfish Toxin – toxins are produced by certain algae called “DINOFLAGELLATES” when Eaten by certain shellfish such as mussles, clams, oysters Scallop accumulate in their internal organs and become Toxic to humans.  Common Foods : Mussel, clams, oysters, scallop  Prevention: Purchase shellfish from reliable supplier 5. Mycotoxin – Fungi are molds, yeast and mushrooms, some of which are Causing food borne illnesses. Molds and yeast can withstand more extreme condition than bacteria  Many mycotoxins have been shown to cause cancer.  “Aflatoxin” is produced by certain mold  Common Foods : More drier and acidic food such as corn, corn products, peanuts, Pecans, walnuts and milk  Prevention: Purchase food from reputable supplier. Store grains and nuts in a Dry and protected from humidity area  Toxin is not destroyed by cooking
  29. 29. CHAPTER 4 SANITARY FACILITIES & PEST MANAGEMENT Well-designed kitchens make it easier to keep food safe. Generally, an efficient kitchen design will result in a more sanitary kitchen. A workflow must be established that will minimize the amount of time food spends in the temperature danger zone. It must also minimize the number of times food is handled. A good layout will minimize the risk of cross-contamination. Dirty equipment should not be placed where it will touch clean equipment or food. Since hard to reach areas are less likely to be cleaned, a well-planned layout ensures that equipment is easily accessible for cleaning.
  30. 30. The most important consideration when selecting construction materials is how easy the establishment will be to clean and maintain. Each area of the establishment has specific flooring needs. Flooring should be strong, durable, and easy to clean. It should also resist wear and help prevent slips. Once installed, flooring should be kept in good condition and be replaced when damaged or worn. The porosity of flooring material is an especially important consideration. Porosity is the extent to which a material will quickly absorb liquids. You should avoid high-porosity flooring for a number of reasons. Its absorbency often makes it an ideal place for microorganisms to grow. High-porosity flooring can also cause people to slip or fall, and often become easily damaged. To prevent such problems, nonabsorbent flooring is recommended for specific areas of the establishment including walk-in refrigerators, food-preparation areas, dishwashing areas, restrooms, and other areas subject to moisture, flushing, or sprays cleaning. Beyond repelling liquids, the flooring in most areas of the establishment must be able to withstand shock without breaking or cracking. Nonabsorbent, resilient flooring is the best choice for these areas. Rubber and vinyl tile are a few examples. In addition to withstanding shock, this type of flooring is relatively inexpensive, easy to clean and maintain, capable of handling traffic, resistant to grease and alkalis, and easy to repair or replace. Hard surface flooring is commonly used in establishments since it is nonabsorbent and very durable. It includes quarry and ceramic tile, brick, terrazzo, marble, and hardwood. These types of flooring are an excellent choice for public restrooms or high-soil areas. However, there are several disadvantages to hard surface flooring. They are no resilient and may crack or chip, do not absorb sound, are somewhat difficult to clean, can be slick, and are more expensive. Carpeting is a popular choice for the dining room, because it absorbs sound. However, carpet is not recommended for beverage stations, major traffic aisles, service areas, or dish drop off areas. Nonslip surfaces should be used in high-traffic areas. In fact, nonslip surfaces are best for the entire kitchen, since slips and falls are a potential hazard. Rubber mats are allowed for safety reasons in areas where standing water may occur, such as the dish room. Rubber mats should be picked up and cleaned separately when scrubbing floors. Coving is required in establishments using resilient or hard surface flooring materials. Coving is a curved, sealed edge placed between the floor and the wall to eliminate sharp corners or gaps that would be impossible to clean. Handwashing stations must be conveniently located so employees will be encouraged to wash their hands often. They are required in restrooms, and areas used for food preparation, service, and dishwashing. A handwashing station must have hot and cold running water, soap, a means to dry hands, a waste container, and signage indicating employees are required to wash hands before returning to work. It is important to purchase equipment that has been designed with sanitation in mind. Food contact surfaces must be safe, durable, corrosion resistant, nonabsorbent, sufficient in weight and thickness to withstand repeated cleaning, smooth and easy to clean, and resistant to pitting, chipping, cracking, scratching, scoring, distortion, and decomposition. Equipment surfaces that are not designed to come into contact with food, but which are exposed to splash, spillage, or other food soiling, or that require frequent cleaning, must be constructed of smooth, nonabsorbent, corrosion-resistant material, free of unnecessary ledges, projections, and crevices, and designed and constructed to allow easy cleaning and maintenance. Dishwashing machines vary widely by size, style, and method of sanitizing. High temperature machines sanitize with extremely hot water
  31. 31. while chemical-sanitizing machines use a chemical solution. When selecting and installing a dishwashing machine, a few things should be considered. Water pipes to the machine should be as short as possible to prevent the loss of heat. The machine must be raised at least six inches off the floor to permit easy cleaning underneath. Materials used in dishwashing machines should be able to withstand wear, including the action of detergents and sanitizers. Information should be posted on or near the machine regarding proper water temperature, conveyor speed, water pressure, and chemical concentrations. The machine’s thermometer should be located so it is readable, with a scale in increments no greater than 2 degrees. Some equipment is designed to ne cleaned and sanitized by having detergent solution, a hot water rinse, and sanitizing solution pass through it. Food contact cleaning and sanitizing solutions must remain within the tubes and pipes for a predetermined amount of time, reach all food contact surfaces, and be completely drained after use. When installing kitchen equipment, consider the following. Portable equipment is often easier to clean and clean around than permanently installed equipment. A piece of equipment’s distance from walls and other equipment is determined by its overall size and by the amount of surface to be cleaned. Stationary equipment must be mounted on legs at least six inches off of the floor or sealed to a masonry base. Stationary tabletop equipment should be mounted on legs providing a minimum clearance of four inches between the base of the equipment and the tabletop. Any cracks or seam greater than 1/32 inch that result when equipment is attached to the floor, wall, or counter must be filled with a nontoxic sealant. Some equipment can be attached to a mount or wall with a bracket. Water can carry pathogens; therefore, safe water is vital in your operation. Water that is safe to drink is called potable water. Sources of potable water include approved public water mains, private water sources that are regularly maintained and tested, bottled drinking water, portable water containers filled with potable water, on- premise water storage tanks, and water transport vehicles. If the water supply is interrupted, use bottled water, boil the water if allowed by local regulations, and purchase ice. Improperly installed or poorly maintained plumbing that allows the mixing of potable and nonpotable water has been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks. For this reason, only licensed plumbers should install and maintain plumbing systems in an establishment. The greatest challenge to water safety comes from cross- connections. A cross-connection is a physical link through which contaminants from drains, sewers, or other wastewater sources can enter a potable water supply. A cross-connection is dangerous because it allows the possibility of backflow. Backflow is the unwanted, reverse flow of contaminants through a cross-connection into a potable water system. It can occur whenever the pressure in the potable water supply drops below the pressure of the contaminated supply. A running faucet located below the flood rim of a sink or a running hose in a mop bucket are examples of cross-connections. To prevent cross-connections, do not attach a hose to a faucet unless a backflow-prevention device is attached. Threaded faucets and connections between two piping systems must have a vacuum breaker or other approved backflow prevention devices. The only completely reliable method for preventing backflow is creating an air gap. An air gap is an air space used to separate a water supply outlet from a potentially contaminated source. A properly designed and installed sink typically has two air gaps
  32. 32. to prevent backflow. One is the air space between the faucet and the flood rim of the sink. The other is located between the drain pipe of the sink and the floor drain of the establishment. Grease condensation in pipes is another common problem in plumbing systems. Grease traps are often installed to prevent a grease buildup from creating a drain blockage. If used, grease traps must be easily accessible, installed by a licensed plumber, and cleaned periodically according to manufacturer’s recommendations. If the traps are not cleaned, or not cleaned properly, a backup of wastewater could lead to odor and contamination. Good lighting generally results in improved employee work habits, easier and more effective cleaning, and a safer work environment. Food preparation areas require 540 lux. Handwashing or dishwashing areas, buffets and salad bars, displays for produce or packaged food, utensil-storage areas, wait stations, and restrooms require 215 lux. Walk-in refrigerators and freezers, dry storage areas, and dining rooms require 108 lux. You should position overhead or ceiling lights above workstations so employees do not cast shadows on the work surface. Shatter resistant light bulbs and protective covers made of metal mesh or plastic should be used. Heat lamps should have shields. Ventilation helps maintain an establishment’s indoor air quality by removing odor, gases, grease, dirt, and mold that can cause contamination. If ventilation is adequate, there will be little or no buildup of grease and condensation on walls and ceilings. To control hazards from garbage, garbage should be removed from food preparation areas as quickly as possible to prevent odors, pests, and possible contamination. Do not carry garbage above or across food preparation areas. Plastic bags and wet-strength paper bags may be used to line garbage containers. Garbage containers must be leak proof, waterproof, and pest proof, and have tight-fitting lids. Garbage containers should be cleaned frequently and thoroughly, both inside and out. To keep serving stations clean, clean up spills immediately. Wash, rinse, and sanitize sinks and countertops either daily or after each shift. Clean equipment daily or as often as recommended by the manufacturer. Clean and sanitize bus tubs manually or in the dishwashing machine daily. When storing tools and supplies, consider the following:  Air-dry wiping cloths overnight.  Hang mops, brooms, and brushes on hooks to air-dry.  Clean rinse, and sanitize buckets. Let them air-dry, and store them with other tools. Deny pests access to the establishment. Deny pest food, water, and a hiding or nesting place. Work with a licensed pest control operator (PCO) to eliminate pests that do enter.
  33. 33. Pests can enter the establishment in one of two ways. They either are brought inside with deliveries, or they enter through openings in the building itself. To prevent pests from entering your establishment, pay particular attention to deliveries, doors, windows, vents, pipes, floors, and walls. Use reputable suppliers. Check all deliveries before they enter your establishment. Refuse shipments in which you find pests or signs of infestation. Food Safety Regulation and Standards All establishments serving the public are subject to inspection. It does not matter whether there is a charge for the food or whether the food is consumed on or off the premises. The inspection lets the establishment know how well it is following practices critical to the safety of the food it serves. Many health departments use a traditional inspection to rate establishments. By this method, scoring is based on a demerit scale. Usually, the highest possible score is 100 points. For every violation, 1 – 5 points are subtracted from 100 points to get the final score. Noncritical violations are worth one or two points. They must be corrected by the time if the next routine inspection. Critical violations are worth four or five points and must be corrected within a time frame specified by the inspector. If a low score is received upon re-inspection, the establishment may be fined or even closed. Some health departments use HACCP-based inspections to evaluate establishments. This type of inspection focuses on the control of hazards throughout the flow of food rather than on the sanitary appearance of the facility. Since a HACCP-based inspection could be viewed as complex and time-consuming, it might only be performed under special circumstances. Some health departments are required to conduct inspections at least every six months. However, the frequency will vary depending on the area, type of establishment, or food served. Many health departments use a risk-based approach to determine inspection frequency. The size and complexity of the operation, the establishment’s inspection history, the clientele’s susceptibility to foodborne illness, and the workload of the local health department can all determine the frequency of the inspections. When you are faced with a food safety inspection, ask the inspector for identification. Be sure to cooperate with the inspector. Take notes as problems are pointed out. Be sure to keep the relationship with the inspector professional. You should be prepared to provide records that may be request by the inspector. Discuss violations and time frames for correction with the inspector. And always follow up on the deficiencies pointed out by the inspector. In some states, if the inspector determines a facility poses an immediate and substantial health hazard to the public, he may ask for a voluntary closure or issue an immediate suspension of the permit to operate. Examples of hazards calling for closure include:  Significant lack of refrigeration  Backup of sewage into the establishment or its water supply
  34. 34.  Emergency, such as building fire or flood  Significant infestation of insects or rodents  Long interruption of electrical or water service  Clear evidence of a foodborne-illness outbreak related to the establishment A suspension requires the approval of the local health department. If an establishment receives a suspension, it must cease operations immediately. Characteristics of Food Safe Facilities: 1. Ceiling, Walls & Floors  Clean walls with cleaning solution daily  Sweep and vacuum floors daily. Spills should be clean immediately  Swab ceilings instead of spraying them, to avoid soaking lights and ceiling fans  Clean light fixtures with sponge or cloth  Establish a routine cleaning schedule 2. Ventilation  Use exhaust fan to remove odors and smoke  Use hood over cooking areas and dishwashing equipment  Check exhaust fan and hood regularly, make sure it is working and cleaned properly  Clean hood filters regularly as instructed by the manufacturer 3. Rest rooms  Warm water at 100⁰F for hand washing  Liquid soap, toilet paper, paper towels or hand dryer should have adequate supply  Garbage can should have a foot pedal cover  Door should be self-closing  Remove trash daily 4. Garbage & Garbage Collections  Garbage must be kept away from food preparation areas.  Garbage containers must be leak proof, water proof, pest proof and durable,  Garbage should be cleaned and sanitized regularly inside and out 5. Pests I. Cockroaches  Any place that is dark, warm, moist and hard to clean  Holes, boxes, seams of bags folds of paper  Seeing one in day is sign of serious infestation  Strong oily odor  Feces like pepper grains  Dark capsule-shaped egg cases
  35. 35. II. Flies  Enter through tiny holes size of pinhead  Contaminate with mouth, hair, feces, feet  Lay eggs in warm decaying material, away from sun III. Rodents  Droppings  Gnawing  Tracks in dust  Nesting materials  Holes in baseboards and walls IV. Pest Control Program  Cleanliness and maintenance are keys in preventing pest infestation. By nature food service environment is prone to problems with pests. Pest may be brought in when other foods and other supplies are delivered. They may also enter the building through gaps in floors or walls.  Have ongoing pest prevention program and regular pest control by a licensed pest control operator  Fill in opening or cracks in walls and floors  Fill opening on pipes or equipment fittings  Screen all windows, doors, and other outer. Keep them in good repair  Use self-open door that open outward  Inspect food supplies before storing or using them  Keep foods in tight fitting lid containers  Don’t store foods directly on the floor  Remove and destroy food that is infested  Maintain proper temperature in storage areas  Clean grease traps regularly to prevent drain blockage which causes unpleasant odor that may attract pests.
  36. 36. CHAPTER 5 CLEANING & SANITATION DEFINITIONS: Chelation - The action of an organic compound attaching itself to the water hardness particles and inactivates them so they will not combine with other material in the water and precipitate out. Cleaning - A process which will remove soil and prevent accumulation of food residues which may decompose or support the growth of disease causing organisms or the production of toxins. Deflocculating or Dispersion - The action which groups or clumps of particles are broken up into individual particles and spread out suspended in the solution. Detergents - Cleaning agents or compounds that modify the nature of water so that it may efficiently penetrate, dislodge and carry away surface contamination. Disinfectant- Usually a chemical agent which destroys germs or other harmful organisms or which inactivates viruses. Most commonly used to designate chemicals that kill growing forms but not necessarily resistant spore forms of bacteria, except where the intended use is specifically against an organism forming spore or a virus, in which instance the spores, too, may be killed or the virus inactivated. Dissolving - The reaction which produces water soluble materials from water insoluble soil. Emulsification - is a physical action in which fats are mechanically broken up into very small particles which are uniformly suspended in a solution. Penetration - The action of liquids entering porous materials through cracks, pin holes, or small channels. Peptization - Physical formation of colloidal solutions from partially soluble materials. Precipitation - Soften water by precipitating out the hardness. Rinsability - The action which will break the surface tension of the water in the solution and permit the utensil to drain dry. Sanitizing - a process which destroys a disease causing organisms which may be present on equipment and utensils after cleaning. Chemical sanitizer used shall meet the requirements of 21 CFR 178.1010. Sanitizing Agent - is an agent that reduces the number of bacterial contaminants to safe levels, as may be judged by public health requirements.
  37. 37. Saponification - the chemical reaction between an alkali and a fat in which soap is produced. Sequestering Agents - Compounds which will react with certain ions to form relatively stable water soluble complexes. Polyphosphates are often used in detergent formulations to prevent precipitation. Sequestration - The action of an inorganic compound attaching itself to the water hardness particles and inactivates them so they will not combine with other material in the water and precipitate out. Soap - is a sodium or potassium salt with a long chain organic acid. Soil - matter out of place. Sterilization - implies the complete destruction of all microorganisms. Suspension - The action in which insoluble particles are held in solution and not allowed to settle out onto the utensils. Synergism - A chemical used as a builder with a soap or detergent, which results in a detergency which is greater than the total detergency of the chemical and the soap if they were used independently. Wetting - Action of water in contacting all soil, helps to reduce surface tension, (wetting agents usually do a good job of emulsification). I. CLEANING Cleaning is a process which will remove soil and prevent accumulation of food residues which may decompose or support the growth of disease causing organisms or the production of toxins. Listed below are the five basic types of cleaning compounds and their major functions: 1. Basic Alkalis - Soften the water (by precipitation of the hardness ions), and saponify fats (the chemical reaction between an alkali and a fat in which soap is produced). 2. Complex Phosphates - Emulsify fats and oils, disperse and suspend oils, peptize proteins, soften water by sequestering, and provide rinsability characteristics without being corrosive. 3. Surfactant - (Wetting Agents) Emulsify fats, disperse fats, provide wetting properties, form suds, and provide rinsability characteristics without being corrosive. 4. Chelating - (Organic compounds) soften the water by sequestering, prevent mineral deposits, and peptize proteins without being corrosive. 5. Acids - Good at mineral deposit control; and soften the water.
  38. 38. When considering a good cleaner the following properties should be considered: o Quick and complete solubility. o Good wetting or penetrating action. o Dissolving action of food solids. o Emulsifying action on fat. o Deflocculating, dispersing, or suspending action. o Good rinsing properties. o Complete water softening power. o Noncorrosive on metal surfaces. o Germicidal action. o Economical to use. The factors that affect cleaning efficiency are: 1. Selecting the right cleaner for the job. 2. Increasing the temperature of the cleaning solution so that the strength of the bond between the soil and surface is decreased, the viscosity is decreased, and the solubility of the soluble materials and the chemical reaction rate is increased. 3. Increasing the turbulence “elbow grease”. 4. Increasing the time the cleaner has contact with the surface needing cleaned. 5. Increasing the concentration. Concentration is the least effective variable to change in cleaning.
  39. 39. The cleaning operation: 1. Prewash - the removal of gross food particles before applying the cleaning solution. This may be accomplished by flushing the equipment surface with cold or warm water under moderate pressure. Very hot water or steam should not be used because it may make cleaning more difficult. 2. Washing - the application of the cleaning compound. There are many methods of subjecting the surface of equipment to cleaning compounds and solutions. Effectiveness and the economy of the method generally dictate its use.  Soaking - immersion in a cleaning solution. The cleaning solution should be hot (125 degrees Fahrenheit) and the equipment permitted to soak for 15 - 30 minutes before manually or mechanically scrubbed.  Spray method - spraying cleaning solution on the surface. This method uses a fixed or portable spraying unit with either hot water or steam.  Clean-in-place systems (C.I.P.) - is an automated cleaning system generally used in conjunction with permanent-welded pipeline systems. Fluid turbulence in the pipeline is considered to be the major source of energy required for soil removal.  Foaming - utilizes a concentrated blend of surfactant developed to be added to highly concentrated solution of either alkaline or acid cleaners. It produces stable, copious foam when applied with a foam generator. The foam clings to the surface to be cleaned, which increases contact time of the liquid with the soil, and prevents rapid drying and runoff of the liquid cleaner, thereby improving cleaning.  Jelling - utilizes a concentrated powdered-jelling agent which is dissolved in hot water to form a viscous gel. The desired cleaning product is dissolved in the hot gel and the resulting jelled acid or alkaline detergent is sprayed on the surface to be cleaned. The jelled cleaner will hold a thin film on the surface for 10 minutes or longer to attack the soil. Soil and gel are removed with a pressure warm water rinse.  Abrasive cleaning - abrasive type powders and pastes are used for removing difficult soil. Complete rinsing is necessary and care should be taken to avoid scratching stainless steel surfaces. Scouring pads should not be used on food-contact surfaces because small metal pieces from the pads may serve as focal points for corrosion or may be picked up in the food. 3. Rinsing - the removal of all traces of the cleaning solution with clean potable water. 4. Sanitization - a process either by using heat or a chemical concentration that will reduce the bacterial count, including pathogens to a safe level on utensils and equipment after cleaning.
  40. 40. II. SANITIZING The primary reason for the application of effective sanitizing procedures is to destroy those disease organisms which may be present on equipment or utensils after cleaning, and thus prevent the transfer of such organisms to the ultimate consumer. In addition, sanitizing procedures may prevent spoilage of foods or prevent the interference of microorganisms in various industrial processes which depend on pure cultures. There are two generally accepted methods of providing for the final sanitization of a utensil after effective removal of soil, heat and chemical. 1. Heat A. Hot water an effective, non-selective sanitization method for food contact surfaces; however, spores may remain alive even after an hour of boiling temperatures. The microbicidal action is thought to be the coagulation of some protein molecules in the cell. The use of hot water has several advantages in that it is readily available, inexpensive and nontoxic. Sanitizing can be accomplished by either pumping the water through assembled equipment or immersing equipment into the water. When pumping it through equipment, the temperature should be maintained to at least (77°C) for at least 5 minutes as checked at the outlet end of the equipment. When immersing equipment, the water should be maintained at a temperature of a least (77°C) or above for 30 seconds. B. Steam is an excellent agent for treating food equipment. Treatment on heavily contaminated surfaces may cake on the organic residues and prevent lethal heat to penetrate to the microorganism. Steam flow in cabinets should be maintained long enough to keep the thermometer reading above (77°C) for at least 15 minutes or above 80°C. For at least 5 minutes. When steam is used on assembled equipment, the temperature should be maintained at 80°C for at least 5 minutes as checked at the outlet end of the assembled equipment. 2. Chemical There are a wide variety of known chemicals whose properties destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Many of these chemicals, however, are not suitable for use on food-contact surfaces because they may corrode, stain or leave a film on the surface. Others may be highly toxic or too expensive for practical use. When looking for an approved sanitizer the label must include: 1. EPA registration number. 2. States that the product may be used on food contact surfaces. 3. Does not require a potable water rinse. 4. States that the product will sanitize. If a product is a detergent/sanitizer, it must also make the claim to clean.
  41. 41. The most commonly used chemical sanitizers for food contact are: 1. Chlorine and its compounds combine indiscriminately with any and all protein and protoplasm. The mode of bactericidal action is thought to be the reaction of chlorine with certain oxidizable groups in vital enzyme systems. Advantages  Effective against a wide variety of microorganisms.  Not affected by water hardness  Non-staining.  Concentration easily measured by field tests.  Generally inexpensive  Non-film forming Disadvantages  Organic matter causes a quick reduction in bactericidal effectiveness.  Effectiveness decreases as pH increases.  Dissipates in hot water.  Corrosive.  Irritating to skin.  Short shelf life.  Some odor. 2. Iodophors are soluble complexes of iodine combined usually with non-ionic surface-active agents, loosely bound. Advantages  Rapid bacterial action in acid pH range  Less affected by organic matter than chlorine.  Non-corrosive and non-irritation to skin.  Stable - long shelf life.  Visual control (color) Disadvantages  Slow acting at pH 7.0 above, vaporizes at 120°F  Less effective against bacterial spores than hypochlorite  May stain some plastics and porous surfaces  Relatively expensive.
  42. 42. 3. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds are compounds that are synthetic surface - action agents. The most common ones are the cationic detergents which are poor detergents but excellent germicides. In these compounds, the organic radical is the caption and the anion is usually chlorine. The mechanisms of germicidal action are not completely understood, but are associated with enzyme inhibition and leakage of cell constituents. Advantages  Non-corrosive.  Non-irritating to skin.  Stable to heat.  Forms bacteriostatic film on surface after treatment.  Relatively stable in presence of organic matter.  Active over a wide pH range.  No taste or odor in use dilutions.  Broad spectrum of activity.  Long shelf life. Disadvantages  Not compatible with hard water and most detergents.  Forms film.  Produces foam in mechanical operations.  Selective in destruction or inhibition of various types of organisms.  Requires higher concentration for action than chlorine or iodine.  Relatively expensive. Factors affecting the action of chemical sanitizers: 1. Contact of the sanitizer - in order for a chemical to react with microorganisms, it must achieve intimate contact. 2. Selectivity of the sanitizer - certain sanitizers are non-selective in their ability to destroy a wide variety of microorganisms while others demonstrate a degree of selectivity. Chlorine is relatively non-selective; however both Iodophors and quaternary compounds have a selectivity which may limit their application. 3. Concentration of the sanitizer - in general, the more concentrated a sanitizer, the more rapid and certain its actions. Increases in concentration are usually related to exponential increases in effectiveness until a certain point when it accomplishes less noticeable effectiveness.
  43. 43. 4. Temperature of solution - all of the common sanitizers increase in activity as the solution temperature increases. This is partly based on the principle that chemical reaction in general are speeded up by raising the temperature. However, a higher temperature also generally lowers surface tension, increases pH, decreases viscosity and effects other changes which may enhance its germicidal action. It should be noted that chlorine compounds are more corrosive at high temperatures, and iodine tends to sublime at temperatures above 120 degrees Fahrenheit. 5. pH of solution - the pH of the solution exerts a very pronounced influence on most sanitizers. Quaternary compounds present a varied reaction to pH depending on the type of organisms being destroyed. Chlorine and Iodophors generally decrease in effectiveness with an increase in pH. 6. Time of exposure - sufficient time must be allowed for whatever chemical reactions that occur to destroy the microorganism. The required time will not only depend on the preceding factors, but on microorganism populations and the populations of cells having varied susceptibility to the sanitizer due to cell age, spore formation and other physiological factors of the microorganisms SANITIZE SMALL EQUIPMENT AT 3 COMPARTMENT SINK
  44. 44. CHAPTER 6 PREVENTING FOODBORNE ILLNESS DURING EIGHT STEPS OF FOOD SERVICE PROCESS This chapter explains how each step of the foodservice process affects food safety and provides guidelines for ensuring food safety in each step 8 Steps of Food Service Process: 1. Purchasing 2. Receiving 3. Storing 4. Preparing 5. Cooking 6. Holding & Serving 7. Cooling 8. Reheating A. 8 Steps of Food Service Process Step 1: Purchasing a. Guidelines for Purchasing Vendor:  Meet Public Health standards  Train employees for sanitation  Have a clean delivery trucks with adequate refrigeration and freezer  Deliver foods in protective, leak proof, durable packaging  Organize deliveries to separate raw products from processed foods and produced Purchaser:  Work with vendor  Food delivery schedule  Vendor standardized procedures in print  Purchase specification  Vendor sanitation report  Visit warehouse periodically  Reject all products that does not meet requirement
  45. 45. Step 2: Receiving Food Safety Guidelines for Receiving  Train employees for receiving duties  Organize space, equipment and lighting for receiving efficiency  Inspect delivery trucks  Inspect food immediately Criteria in Receiving Foods 1. On the receiving dock, receiving employees are the gatekeepers. You ensure that:  Food is safe.  Food meets quality standards.  Quantities and products are correct. 2. Receiving procedures:  Check food in immediately upon delivery.  Verify quality.  Check temperatures of refrigerated or frozen foods.  Check for inspection stamps and date codes.  Verify by color, odor, touch, and package condition that meats, poultry, and eggs are fresh.  Look for obvious signs of insect infestation and/or spoilage in produce.  Inspect canned foods for dents, swelling, rust, or leakage.  For modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) foods: check time temperature indicator strip, check expiration date, check for air bubbles (there should be none).  Refuse/return any foods that do not meet quality & safety standards. 3. Examples of quality for meat:  Color: bright, no discoloration.  Odor: free from sour smell (note: Kryovac meats have unpleasant odor upon opening).  Touch: not slimy or sticky.  Package: good condition, not broken or soiled. 4. Examples of quality for poultry:  Color: no purple or green, wings not dark.  Odor: should smell clean.  Touch: not sticky, especially under wings.
  46. 46. 5. Examples of quality for seafood and fish:  Color: no iridescence.  Odor: not excessively fishy, no ammonia smell on shellfish.  Touch: not soft or flabby meat.  Package: paper not slimy or discolored, carton should not have ice crystals. 6. Examples of quality for eggs:  Color: shells not cracked or dirty.  Package: check packing date for freshness. 7. Examples of quality for dairy products:  Color: cheese should be free of mold.  Odor: sweet smell, not sour or “old”  Package: check expiration date. 8. Examples of quality for fresh produce:  Color: bright, appropriate for item, no mold or wilt.  Touch: not soft or spoiled feeling, dry.  Package: free from signs of insects such as spider or roach sacks. 9. Examples of quality for frozen foods:  Touch: frozen solid, not partially thawed.  Package: no ice crystals, dry. 10. Examples of quality for canned goods:  Color: no off color or formation of foam or milky liquid.  Odor: no unusual odor.  Package: no swelling, leakage, rust, or dents along seal. 11. Examples of quality for dry goods:  Package: not broken or open; dry; free from signs of insects.
  47. 47. Step 3: Storage Food Safety Guidelines for Storing: 1. Dry storage-long holding for less perishable items 2. Refrigerator-short-term for perishable items 3. Freezer-long term food storage Storage temperatures: a) Dry storage: 10°C to 21°C. b) Refrigerated storage: 4°C or below. c) Freezer storage: -18°C Types of Storage Areas Dry Storage Foods Typically Store in Dry Storage • Canned goods, baking supplies (salt, sugar), grains (rice, cereals) • Some fruits (banana, avocado, pears) • Some vegetables (onion, potatoes) Guidelines for Dry Storage • Maintain storage temperature (50⁰F-70⁰F) • Keep store room clean and dry • Have a regular cleaning schedule for all surface and floors • Store all foods and office supplies 6 inches above the floor and 6 inches away from the wall. • Keep food in labeled, tight fitting containers with name and delivery date • Use the First In First Out method of inventory. Store new products behind the old products • Protect food from contamination with regular pest control • Store chemicals away from food • Discard or destroy all contaminated foods
  48. 48. Refrigerator Storage  Arrange food in refrigerators to allow maximum air circulation  All food should be labeled with the following (name of the food item, dater, time, temperature)  Store food in a clean, non-absorbent, covered container. Be sure  All container are properly sealed  Cool hot foods using an ice water bath, and stirring with cold paddles  Before storing inside the refrigerator. Never place hot foods in the refrigerator. This allows other foods under Temp. Danger Zone  Store dairy products separately with foods in strong odor (onion, Cabbage and sea foods)  Store fruits in a separate section in a refrigerator from vegetables.  The ethylene gas released by some fruits during ripening causes some vegetables to deteriorate rapidly.  To avoid cross contamination, store raw foods, uncooked foods away or below from prepared or ready to eat food.  Never allow fluids from raw poultry, fish or meat to come into contact With other foods  Don’t overload the refrigerator Storage practices:  Food must be 6” above floor on clean, slatted shelving.  Food should be stored 18” from ceiling to allow for air circulation and proper sprinkler functioning.  Avoid cross contamination. Example: raw foods are not stored above ready-to-eat foods in a cooler.  Do not line shelves with foil. This prevents air circulation.  Do not over-crowd foods.  Store in original packaging.  Keep chemicals in separate areas from food.  Monitor temperatures of storage areas; log; advise supervisor if you see a problem. Storage Tips  Label & date  Practice FIFO  Store refrigerated & frozen foods immediately  Ensure adequate air circulation  Ensure adequate lighting  Control temperature  Elevate dry storage: 6” above floor, clean shelving  Avoid cross contamination  Separate chemicals
  49. 49. Thermometer Thermometer accuracy: A calibrated thermometer ensures we are measuring temperatures correctly, and is required by health regulations. Types of Thermometer: 1. Bi Metallic Stemmed Thermometer - most commonly used in the food service operations.  Reads in 1-2 minutes  Place 2-2½" deep in thickest part of food  Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups  Not appropriate for thin foods  Can remain in food while it's cooking  Heat conduction of metal stem can cause false  high reading 2. Digital Thermometer  Reads in 10 seconds  Place at least "½" deep  Gives fast reading  Can measure temperature in thin and thick foods  Not designed to remain in food while it's cooking  Check internal temperature of food near the end of cooking time 1. Calibrating Thermometers 1) Ice Point Method: The ice point method is used most often unless a thermometer cannot register a temperature of 0⁰C  Fill a glass with crushed ice. Add water until glass is full.  Place thermometer in the center of the glass of ice water, not touching the bottom or sides of the glass.  Agitate the glass of ice water to ensure even temperature  Temperature should register at 0⁰C  Adjust the calibration nut by holding it with pliers. If using digital thermometer, push the reset button to 0⁰C
  50. 50. 2) Boiling Point Method: This method may be less reliable than ice point method because of variation due to high altitude.  Using a deep pan, bring the water into boil  Place thermometer in the center of the pan boiling water, not touching the bottom or sides of the pan. Wait until indicator stops.  The temperature should hold the temperature of 100⁰C. Adjust the calibration nut by holding it with pliers and set to read at 100⁰C. If using digital thermometer, push the reset button to 100⁰C while the water is still boiling. Using Temperature:  Clean and sanitize after every use.  Wait till rests; 15 seconds  Take three measurements  Calibrate Routinely  Insert thermometer stem or probe into thickest part of product  Never use mercury or spirit-filled glass thermometers to check food temperature Checking Temperature of Various Food 1. Packaged – insert between two packages 2. Milk – open a carton and insert two inches in 3. Frozen – insert between two packages
  51. 51. Step 4 : Preparing 4 Safe Methods to Thaw Foods: a) Inside the refrigerator at the temp. of 4⁰C or below. b) under cold running water c) in a microwave oven d) as a part of cooking process Guidelines for Pre-Preparation Pre-preparation usually takes place at room temp., this stage is one of the most common points of contamination and cross contamination. 1. Wash hands correctly before preparing foods. 2. Don’t prepare in advance if it’s not necessary. 3. Prepare food in small batches and place them immediately inside the refrigerator 4. Wash fruits and vegetables prior to peeling and cooking 5. Keep raw products from ready to eat foods 6. Wash hands, sanitize cutting boards, knives after every food preparation 7. Use batter, marinade in single use only and discard if there are some left. 8. Use single use gloves properly Step 5 : Cooking Guidelines for Cooking foods 1. Stir foods cooked in deep pots frequently to ensure even heat distribution 2. Avoid overloading fryers 3. Regulate uniform size and thickness of meat and vegetable to ensure even cooking. 4. Never interrupt cooking process. Partially cooked meat may encourage bacterial growth. 5. Use clean and accurate thermometer to monitor internal temperature.
  52. 52. 6. Always cook food to the required internal temperature and appropriate time 7. Use a serving utensil or single use glove to avoid cross contamination 8. Taste food correctly to avoid cross contamination. Place a small portion of food in a bowl and step away from the food. Taste it with a teaspoon. Wash hands before and after tasting the food. Cooking Requirements for Specific Food Product Minimum Internal Cooking Temp. Poultry (whole & ground) 74⁰C – 100⁰C for 15 seconds Stuffing, Stuffed Meat 74⁰C – 100⁰C for 15 seconds Dishes combining raw & cooked food 74⁰C for 15 seconds Ground Meat (beef, pork, fish) 74⁰C for 15 seconds Pork, Beef, Veal, Lamb 65⁰C for 15 seconds Fish 65⁰C for 15 seconds Shell Eggs 65⁰C for 15 seconds
  53. 53. Step 6: Holding & Serving Holding Hot Food Do’s 1) Only use hot-holding equipment that can keep food hot all the time 2) Stir food at regular intervals to distribute heat evenly 3) Keep food covered. 4) Check internal food temperatures at least every two hours using food thermometer 5) Discard potentially hazardous food after four hours if it has not been held at or above 140⁰F 6) Never mix freshly prepared food with food being held for service Don’t 1) Never use hot-hold equipment to reheat equipment to reheat food 2) Never mix freshly prepared food with food being held for service. Holding Cold Foods Do’s 1) Only use cold-holding equipment that can keep food at 41⁰F or lower. 2) Check internal food temperatures at least every two hours. 3) Protect food from contaminants with covers Don’t 1) Do not store food directly on ice. Place food in pans or plates first
  54. 54. Serving Food Do’s 1) Store serving utensils properly 2) Use serving utensils with long handles 3) Use clean and sanitized utensils for serving 4) Practice good personal hygiene 5) Minimize bare-hand contact with cooked and ready to eat food 6) Handle glassware and dishes properly. 7) Hold flatware and utensils by handles. 8) Use plastic or metal scoops or tongs to get ice. 9) Never use cloth meant for cleaning food spills for any other purpose. Don’t 1) Never stack glassware or dishes when serving. 2) If possible, do not assign employees to more than one job during a shift Step 7 & 8: Cooling & Reheating 1) Food being cooled in the refrigerator should be loosely covered. 2) Use shallow, pre-chilled pans (not more than 4 inches deep) 3) Stainless steel container cool faster than plastic 4) Use quick chill unit rather than refrigerator 5) Pre-chill foods in a freezer for about 30 minutes before refrigerating. 6) Never cool food at room temperature 7) Reheat food only one time at a temp of 165⁰F for 15 seconds 8) Never mix left over food with freshly cooked food
  55. 55. CHAPTER 7 PRINCIPLES OF HACCP SYSTEM (HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT) Concepts: 1) HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) – A food safety system designed to keep food safe throughout its flow in an establishment. 2) Hazard Analysis – The process of identifying and evaluating potential hazards associated with food in order to determine what must be done. 3) Control Point (CP) - Any step in a food’s flow where physical, chemical or biological hazard can be controlled. 4) Critical Control Point (CCP) – The last steps where you can intervene to prevent, eliminate, or reduce the growth of microorganism before food is served. 5) Critical Limit – A set range (minimum and maximum) limit a CCP must meet in order to prevent, eliminate, or reduce the hazard to an acceptable limit. 6) Monitoring – The process of analyzing whether your critical limit are being met. 7) Corrective Action – a pre-determined step taken when food doesn’t meet a critical limit. 8) Verification – The last step where you verify or double check that the CCP and CL you selected are appropriate. What is HACCP?  The HACCP system is based on the idea that if significant biological, chemical, or physical hazard are identified at specific points within the flow of food, they can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe level.  A HACCP plan for a product prepared in one facility will be different from the HACCP plan for the same product prepared in another facility. Pre-requisite Programs Pre-requisite programs, also called Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) 1. Proper personal hygiene practices. 2. Proper facility design practices 3. Supplier selection 4. Cleaning & Sanitation program 5. Equipment maintenance program
  56. 56. HACCP Principles:  Principles one, two, three help you design your system  Principles four, five help you implement it.  Principles six, seven help you maintain your system and help you very its effectiveness. 7 HACCP PRINCIPLES 1. Principle One: Conduct a Hazard Analysis a) Things to consider in conducting a hazard analysis  The ingredients used in the menu  Equipment and processes  Employees  Customers b) Identify any food that may become contaminated if handled incorrectly at any step in food service flow Grouping of Food by Process  Prepare & Serve – example: Juices, sandwiches, green salad  Prepare, cook, serve – example : French fries, pizza  Prepare, cool, hold, serve – example : fruit salad  Prepare, cook, cool, hold, serve – example : gelatin, potato salad  Prepare, cook, hold, cool, reheat, serve – example: sauces, stew Types of Hazard Could Occur in any point in a Food Service Process 1) Physical Hazard – foreign object (hair, nails) 2) Chemical Hazard – cleaning substances 3) Biological Hazard – any means microorganism grows and reproduces a. Time Temp. Abuse b. Poor Personal Hygiene c. Faulty Facility
  57. 57. Illustration of Hazard Analysis Hazard could occur in any step like in preparation, hazard may include the following: a) Cross contamination, time temperature abuse, in cooking may include the following hazard: b) Inadequate cooking, faulty facility and more. c) Thawing at room temperature d) Un sanitized cutting board 2. Principle 2 : Determine Critical Control Points After identifying potential food hazards, the next step is to determine to intervene to control them. Consider the following guidelines:  Any step in a food’s flow where physical, chemical, biological hazard can be controlled is a control point (CP).  To assess whether a control point is critical, you need to determine if it is the last step of controlling the hazard before the food is served to customers is called a critical control point (CCP).  Cooking, cooling or holding are typically CCP. 3. Principle 3: Establish Critical Limits  When establishing critical limits keep in mind that they must be:  Measurable (time, temperature)  Based on scientific data such (FDA Food Code)  Clear and easy to follow
  58. 58. 4. Principle Four : Establish Monitor Procedures Monitoring lets you know that critical limits are being met, and that you are doing things right. To develop a successful monitoring program, you need to focus on each CCP and establish clear directions that specify the following:  How to monitoring the CCP. This depends on the critical limits you have established and might include measuring time, temperature, pH, oxygen, water activity  When and how often to monitor the CCP. Continuous monitor is preferable but not always possible. Regular monitoring intervals should be determined based on the normal working condition in your establish, and depend on volume.  Who will monitor the CCP. Assign responsibility to a specific employee  or position and make sure that person is trained properly.  Equipment, materials or tools. Food thermometer After determining the critical control point for the chicken breast, and that the critical limit is 165⁰F for 15 seconds. Make sure that the critical limit is met by inserting is met by inserting a clean, sanitized, and calibrated thermometer into the thickest part of chicken breast. Make at least two readings in different locations in the breast, and the result will recorded in a temperature log. 5. Principle Five : Identify Corrective Actions Corrective actions are predetermined steps taken when food doesn’t meet a critical limit. Remember this is the last opportunity you have to ensure the safety of the food served. Corrective actions might include the following:  Continuing to cook the food the required minimum internal temperature  Throwing food away after a specified amount of time  Rejecting a shipment that is not received at the temperature you specified
  59. 59. 6. Principle Six : Verify that the system works After you have developed your HACCP system, you need to confirm that it works according to the plan. This is called verification.  CCP or critical limits you have selected are appropriate  Monitoring alerts you to hazards  Corrective actions are adequate to prevent food borne illness from occurring  Employees are following established procedures.  Critical limits are frequently not being met  Receive a food borne-illness complaint  Your menu, equipment, processes, suppliers or products change 7. Principle Seven : Establish Procedures for Record Keeping and Documentation Recording how food is handled as it flows through the establishment is important to the success of a HACCP system. Proper records allow you to:  Document that you are continuously preparing and serving safe food  Identify when your procedures should be modified due to food safety problems that have been noted. SUMMARY HACCP is a food safety system designed to keep food safe through its flow in an establishment. HACCP is based on the idea if the physical, biological, chemical hazards are identified at a specific points, hazards can be controlled and prevented.