Food sanitation training


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Food sanitation training

  1. 1. Municipality of Labangan LABANGAN RURAL HEALTH UNIT Environmental Health Department Food Handler’s and EstablishmentOperators’ Training on Food Sanitation
  3. 3. General Objectives:• To train individuals who prepare and serve food to the public to become responsible food handlers by using safe food handling methods and food preparation techniques and promote worker health and safety.Specific Objectives:1. To emphasize food safety in the food industry2. To encourage prevention of foodborne illness3. To protect the public and workers from harm4. To apply safe procedures for receiving, storing, preparing and serving food5. To reduce common errors in handling potentially hazardous foods6. To encourage proper waste disposal
  5. 5. Why learn about food safety?To maintain guest safetyTo limit liabilityTo eliminate lawsuitsTo control loss of businessTo eliminate possible closure of standTo follow the law
  6. 6. Annual Food Borne Illnesses• High prevalence of food borne diseases, including those caused by parasites, in developing countries (Philippines)• Diarrhea is a major cause of malnutrition in infants and young children• These illnesses causes social and economic burden, hospitalizations, and even death – 1.8 million people throughout the world die annually from diarrheal diseases due to contamination of food and drinking water• IT IS VITAL TO PRACTICE FOOD SAFETY AT ALL TIMES
  8. 8. What causes people to become sick when eating contaminated food?
  9. 9. • Harmful chemicals getting into food through improper storage or excess concentration
  10. 10. • Objects that gets into food during preparation • Other ex: bandages, fingernails, parts of equipment
  11. 11. •Carriers ofdiseases
  12. 12. Microscopic organisms Natural part of the food or introduced into the food by improper handling
  13. 13. Bacteria •Can grow anywhere, can reproduce on their own Viruses •Ex: Hepatitis A, Norovirus • Norovirus – very easily spread, can cause a lot of people to become sick at one time; can be spread up to 2 weeks after the symptoms are goneBacteria and viruses are not simply killed by freezing, coldholding or hot holdingIt is important to practice Good Personal Hygiene
  14. 14. Parasites• Typically common in fish, pork, wild game• Cooking or freezing at specific temperature and purchasing food from approved sources is important for parasite controlProtozoan• Require a living host to reproduce• Ex: Giardia, CryptosporidiumFungus and Yeast•Require acidic environment with low water activity•Typically cause food spoilage•Do not typically cause food borne illness
  15. 15. Reproduction of Bacteria (FAT TOM)F -ood • Bacteria requires a high-protein, high carbohydrate food source • Ex: meat, seafood, poultry, cooked plant food (baked potato, pasta, rice)A -cidity • Foods that are acidic or slightly neutral • Bacteria can not typically reproduce in a highly acidic food (lemon)T -emperature • Bacteria rapidly reproduce between 41-135 °F (5-57 °C) – THE DANGER ZONE • It is important to ensure that certain food stay out of this temperature zone • Given enough time in the temperature range 41-135 °F, bacteria will start rapidlyT -ime reproducing • Maximum time that certain foods can spend in the danger zone is 4 hoursO -xygen • Aerobic bacteria– require oxygen to reproduce • Anaerobic bacteria – do not require oxygen to reproduceM -oisture • Bacteria require moist foods in which to grow (water activity of 8.5 or higher) • Plain water: water activity 1.0
  16. 16. What are potentially hazardous foods?• Foods that have the potential to cause food-borne illness if not handled properly: – High in protein or carbohydrates – Moist – Sightly acidic or neutral pH – Have caused food-borne illness outbreaks
  18. 18. Improper holding time and temperaturesPoor personal hygieneInadequate cookingContaminated equipmentFood from an unsafe source
  20. 20. Temperature Danger Zone – Bacteria reproduce from 41-135 °F (5-57 °C) – More rapid growth after 4 hours • “Keep hot foods HOT” and “Keep cold foods COLD” • Reduce the amount of time the food spends in the danger zone
  21. 21. How to keep cold foods cold?• Do not overfill the refrigerator• After purchasing food, refrigerate or freeze food as soon as possible What are the proper thawing techniques? • Under cold running water • In the refrigerator • As part of cooking process • Do not thaw potentially hazardous food at room temperature
  22. 22. Myth Fact RefrigerationRefrigeration stops SLOWS, but does bacterial growth not prevent bacterial growth It is safe to thaw Room temperature food on the thawing exposes counter at room food to the Danger temperature Zone
  23. 23. CLEAN – Wash hands SEPARATE – Don’t and surfaces often cross-contaminate 4 Core Practices COOK – Cook to CHILL – Refrigerateproper temperature promptly
  25. 25. Food Handler• Anyone who works in a food business• Handles food and surfaces that are likely to be in contact with food (cutlery, plates, bowls)• Involved in making, cooking, serving, transporting, delivering, packing food
  26. 26. What are the commonly transmitted diseases?Viral Disease Bacterial Disease Norovirus Salmonella typhi Shiga-toxin producing E. Hepatitis A coli Shigella
  27. 27. Practice Good Hygiene Take a bath daily Do not smoke while working or in food preparation and storage areas Report illnesses
  28. 28. Hand washing• Most important preventive measure food service employees can practice to avoid food contaminationHow to wash my hands properly?1. Wet hands2. Apply soap3. Vigorously scrub hands and arms for at least 20 seconds.4. Clean under fingernails and between fingers.5. Rinse thoroughly under running water.6. Dry hands and arms with clean towel.
  29. 29. Things to Remember When Using Gloves• No bare hand contact with Ready-To-Eat foods. Use disposable gloves, tissue, or utensils• Gloves must never be used in place of hand washing• Gloves should be changed regularly, especially when switching food preparation task or it becomes soiled or torn• Wash hands in between taking soiled gloves off and putting new gloves on
  30. 30. Reporting Employee Illnesses• If you don’t feel well, don’t go to work• If you do, report your illness to your supervisor
  31. 31. Workplace Restrictions• Restricted from working around food or utensils• Can still work in non-food or non-utensil related service (host, hostess, cashier) – Fever – Diarrhea – Vomiting – Sore throat with fever – Jaundice
  32. 32. Workplace Exclusions• Excluded from working around high-risk populations• Cannot come to work at all• Diagnosed with: – Hepatitis A – Salmonella – Shigella – E. coli• Regulatory authority must be notified• Medical clearance is required before an employee is allowed to return to work
  33. 33. The Story of Mr. Huga Wan
  34. 34. Employees and employersshould follow basic hygiene rules
  36. 36. Proper Cooking Temperatures • Thoroughly cook food • Reheating involves food that are already cooked • Ensure that foods are cooked, reheated, and held properlyHow to reduce food borne illness? • By properly: – Thawing – Cooking – Cooling – Reheating
  37. 37. Critical Temperature for Food Handling and Storage
  38. 38. Contaminated Equipment Cross-contamination • Transfer of disease-causing organisms from a raw food to a ready-to-eat food • Usually occurs when a piece of equipment is not properly cleaned and sanitized
  39. 39. How to prevent cross contamination?• After coming in contact with raw meat, poultry, and sea food, always wash hands properly• Always wash cutting boards, dishes, and utensils with hot, soapy water• Wash the surface before you sanitize.• Use one cutting board for raw food and another one for the ready- to-eat foods.• Never place cooked food back on the same plate or surface that held raw food.• Make sure all the raw foods in the refrigerator are sealed to prevent leakage of the juices• Use utensils when mixing and dispensing foods, not bare hands• Store raw meat in the refrigerator according to the cooking temperature• Sauce used for marinating should be discarded or must be boiled before applying to cooked meat, fish, or poultry
  40. 40. What is Sanitizing?• Sanitizers are NOT cleaners• They DO NOT properly lift debris and grime from a surface• They DO reduce microorganism numbers to safe levelsBest Practice• Clean with warm soapy water before applying a sanitizer.
  41. 41. What are the two effective methods of sanitizing a food contact surface?• Chemicals• Heat
  42. 42. 3 Chemical Sanitizing Methods • Chlorine or Bleach – takes 10 seconds to sanitize – inexpensive and very effective; corrosive – 50-100 parts per million (ppm) • Quaternary Ammonium – takes 30 seconds to sanitize – less corrosive; more expensive – 200-400 ppm • Iodine – rarely used in food establishments • READ labels and directions carefully
  43. 43. Sanitization in dishwashers• 160 °F (71.1 °C)For pots and pans too large for dishwashers• Scrape and rinse large debris off the surface• Wash with soapy water at 100 °F (37.8 °C)• Rinse in clean, warm water at 100 °F (37.8 °C)• Sanitize using the manufacturers recommendations• Air-dry the equipment• Store the equipment in a clean, dry place
  44. 44. When to Clean and Sanitize?• Surface is soiled• Switching between raw foods and ready-to-eat foods• Between food preparation tasksREMEMBER:• Storage areas are for clean and sanitized equipments only• Maintain equipment because it is hard to clean when there is too much wear-and-tear
  46. 46. • Meat must be inspected by proper authorities• Eggs must be from a regulated source• All food that is served or sold to the public must come from a source regulated by an agency• Choose whole fruits and vegetables over pre-cut and packaged• At receiving, the person in-charge should look at the label for proper hot and cold holding temperatures and expiration date• Keep an eye for spoilage and insect or rodent infestation• The person-in-charge should ensure that the food is safe and of exceptional quality• Store food in a clean, dry area• Cut or slice fresh produce just before cooking them
  48. 48. Disease Vectors – Insects (flies, roaches), rodents, and other animals that transmit disease-causing organism to the skin, food, or other objects• It is very important to control these pests before they become a problem• Clean and sanitize regularly – Deny them food and deny them access• Do not leave the doors to your establishment wide open – This is an open invitation to vectors to invade your kitchen
  50. 50. • Storage areas should be clean and dry• All food must be stored at least 6 inches off the floor and away from the walls• Follow the “First In, First Out” (FIFO) principle• “When in doubt, throw it out”• Mark potentially hazardous food properly – These are foods that are prepared on-site or half- opened – These foods must contain the date it was prepared and the date it will be discarded
  51. 51. Proper Food Storage• Potentially hazardous, ready-to-eat food must not be stored more than 7 daysChemicals• Keep all chemicals away from food storage• Label everything, even water• Always follow label recommendations• Do not mix own concoctionsStructure• Everything in the establishment should be built from easy to clean, non-porous surfaces• There should be adequate lighting throughout the food preparation and storage areas
  53. 53. Food Surveillance• Assists in the: – Assessment of the burden of food borne diseases – Identification of public health priorities – Setting of policies – Evaluating program performance – Prevention, detection and control of outbreaks – Stimulate research• May also identify emerging food safety issues
  55. 55. Types of Solid Waste Residu Specia Biodegradable Recyclable Waste al l Waste Waste Waste Non- Readily Dry Composit ReadilyCompost Paper/Ca Metals Plastics Glass Rubber Textiles e Compost able rton Materials able
  56. 56. • Provide adequate number of trash cans to separate biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes• Liquid waste must be disposed into a sanitary sewer
  58. 58. • Drinking Water/Potable Water – Water of sufficient high quality that it can be consumed or used without risk of immediate or long-term harm• Water contaminated with pathogens or unacceptable levels of dissolved chemicals or suspended liquids are not potable and may lead to widespread illness of used in food preparation
  59. 59. How to protect water from contamination?• Use clean containers with cover• Avoid hand contact with water• Wash containers after every use What are the methods of water treatment? • Boiling – Rolling boil for at least 2 minutes • Disinfection – 1 level of powder (chlorine) to 1 liter of water or 2 teaspoons of stock solution to 5 gallons of water – Mix thoroughly and let it stand for at least 30 minutes
  61. 61. Code on Sanitation of the Philippines 1975 (PD 856)• The Sanitation Code ensures the safety of the Water Supply and Food Establishment – By requiring regular examination of drinking water as to its potability; and – Requiring sanitary permits for food establishments
  62. 62. Inspection of a food establishment seeking a sanitary permit:– Water supply– Wholesomeness of food– Toilet provision– Hand washing facilities– Liquid waste management– Solid waste management– Personal cleanliness– Construction of premises– Maintenance of premises– Vermin control– Housekeeping and management– Sanitary condition of appliance and utensils– Disease control
  63. 63. Sanitation Requirements for an Industrial Establishment– Sanitary Permit– Location and setting of the establishment complies with zoning laws, ordinances, or policies– Potable water supply– Sewage disposal– All wastes of the industrial establishment are collected, stored, or disposed off in a manner to prevent health hazards, nuisances, and pollution. It should utilize the city/municipal collection and disposal system, if it exists– Maintenance of abatement program for vermin control– Adequate restrooms and mess halls for employees– All places of employment and all workrooms, including machinery and equipments are kept clean and sanitary
  64. 64. Other Laws: • Rural Health Act (1954) • Clean Air Act (CAA) • Ecological Solid Waste Management Act • Environmental Health Impact Assessment (ECHIA)
  65. 65. SAFE FOOD FOR ALLGood luck in your food- service career!
  66. 66. Prepared by: Dr. Mailyn Ontok-Manupac, MHO Mr. Garry Ermitanio, RSI-IIPowerpoint Presentation by: Mr. Reynel Dan L. Galicinao, RNContributors: Ms. Almaida Manupac, RN, NARS Ms. Marhainie Talumpa, RN, NARS Ms. Rohma Badar, RN, NARS
  67. 67. - RDG