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This presentation is from the course Personal Hygiene of the FAO
Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) Toolbox.
Readers are encoura...
Personal Hygiene in Food Production: Presentation
Objectives
The objectives of the presentation are:
– To provide an overv...
Personal Hygiene: Presentation Outline
1. Food handlers as a key element in the contamination
paths of food
2. Behaviour p...
Without personal hygiene there is no food safety
Foodborne illness outbreaks have been linked to food
contaminated by food...
A healthy human is covered with microorganisms
on hair (incl. beards
and mustaches)
in the nose
in the mouth
on the skin
u...
The human gastro-intestinal tract excretes microorganisms
1 kg
excretion
– The adult gastro-intestinal tract contains over...
Ill people shed pathogenic microorganisms
– People shed pathogenic bacteria and viruses before they have major
symptoms of...
Wounds shed pathogenic microorganisms
– Open wounds can shed high amounts of bacteria and the shedding will
continue until...
Only minute amounts of certain pathogens are
necessary to cause infections
Campylobacter jejuni and
Hepatitis A are two ex...
Both direct and indirect routes of contamination exist
direct
Direct contamination involves
transfer of microorganisms fro...
The fecal-oral route is the primary route of infection for
foodborne microorganisms
The fecal-oral route of contamination ...
The contamination paths of the fecal-oral route are complex
Personal Hygiene: Presentation Outline
1. Food handlers as a key element in the contamination
paths of food
2. Behaviour p...
Washing hands is the most important food poisoning
prevention
Washing hands the right way
only requires three elements:
– ...
Hands need to be washed regularly
immediately
• before working with food
• after using toilet
• after handling rubbish/was...
Gloves are not cleaner than hands
change gloves as often as you should wash your hands!
A special dress code is required for EVERYONE who
enters a food-handling area
cover hair
cover beards
no jewelry
clean pro...
Hairnets and coats for visitors must be available at the
entrance to production areas
cupboard with
hairnets and coats
If ...
Forbidden behaviour in a food-handling environment
No sneezing into food. No eating,
spitting, smoking, chewing gum or
tob...
Personal hygiene can only ever be as good as the
provided facilities
dirty facilities will
lead to lower levels
of hygiene...
Changing rooms, toilets and hand-washing facilities
must be provided and kept clean
Without adequate
facilities personnel
...
Personal Hygiene: Presentation Outline
1. Food handlers as a key element in the contamination
paths of food
2. Behaviour p...
Personal hygiene is a management responsibility
CULTURE
Financial means to provide
facilities and resources (human
and tec...
Actively communicate personal hygiene directives
The importance of personal hygiene as one of the essential parts
of a GMP...
Controlled access and instantly visible signalling support
personal hygiene behaviour
In addition to documenting and commu...
Maintaining control over the health of food handlers
Results of medical screening can lead to a false sense of
security.
B...
Hygiene management of personnel starts from day one
Employee health status should be brought up at the point
of employment...
Adequate behavior must be taught and controlled
regular training sessions
are necessary to create
a stable level of
person...
Training starts on day one and needs regular repeating
good hygiene
bad hygiene
frequent training will lead to high
levels...
Correct people BUT ALSO give praise
Praise personnel when
things are done correctly.
This part tends to get
forgotten and ...
Personal hygiene in food production: Conclusions
Humans shed microorganisms and can contaminate food through
unhygienic be...
You have reached the end of the presentation Personal
Hygiene in Food Production.
This presentation is from the course “Pe...
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Personal Hygiene in Food Production

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http://www.fao.org/good-hygiene-practices-toolbox
This presentation is from the course “Personal Hygiene in Food Production” of the FAO Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) Toolbox.
Readers are encouraged to visit the online resource for a full learning experience.

© FAO: http://www.fao.org

Published in: Education

Personal Hygiene in Food Production

  1. 1. This presentation is from the course Personal Hygiene of the FAO Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) Toolbox. Readers are encouraged to visit the online resource for a full learning experience. Personal Hygiene in Food Production
  2. 2. Personal Hygiene in Food Production: Presentation Objectives The objectives of the presentation are: – To provide an overview of the topic “Personal Hygiene in Food Production” as covered in the FAO GHP Toolbox. – To make trainers aware of how food handlers may contaminate food. – To enable trainers to identify potentially hazardous contamination paths in the industries that they support. – To enable trainers to guide food industries to improve the management of personal hygiene including development of relevant GMP documents. – To provide trainers with information resources to facilitate the preparation of training sessions on personal hygiene.
  3. 3. Personal Hygiene: Presentation Outline 1. Food handlers as a key element in the contamination paths of food 2. Behaviour patterns and facilities that improve food safety 3. Managing personal hygiene
  4. 4. Without personal hygiene there is no food safety Foodborne illness outbreaks have been linked to food contaminated by food handlers. Healthy humans are covered with bacteria. Certain resident bacteria are part of the natural skin flora. In addition, transient microorganisms reside for a short time on the skin after the skin has come into contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. Both transient and resident microorganisms can be transferred by humans to food and food production utensils.
  5. 5. A healthy human is covered with microorganisms on hair (incl. beards and mustaches) in the nose in the mouth on the skin under the nails
  6. 6. The human gastro-intestinal tract excretes microorganisms 1 kg excretion – The adult gastro-intestinal tract contains over 1kg of gut bacteria. – Humans excrete fecal bacteria with every defecation. – Gut bacteria are considered healthy and necessary for digestion but some of them are potentially pathogenic.
  7. 7. Ill people shed pathogenic microorganisms – People shed pathogenic bacteria and viruses before they have major symptoms of illness. – Food workers can become permanent carries of pathogens and yet exhibit no signs of illness. A known example are Salmonella carriers. – Ill people and permanent carriers are a major threat to food safety. time illness ends pathogens continue to be shed!shedding starts
  8. 8. Wounds shed pathogenic microorganisms – Open wounds can shed high amounts of bacteria and the shedding will continue until the wound is healed. – A person with an open wound must not handle food. Wounds must be bandaged to ensure that food are not contaminated. wound healed time
  9. 9. Only minute amounts of certain pathogens are necessary to cause infections Campylobacter jejuni and Hepatitis A are two examples of pathogens that are infective in minute doses. Infections can therefore occur easily when just one food handler does not observe hand hygiene rules. Even if someone seems to have clean hands they might be infecting the food they are preparing. Campylobacter jejuni on agar medium
  10. 10. Both direct and indirect routes of contamination exist direct Direct contamination involves transfer of microorganisms from people to food through direct physical contact. indirect Indirect contamination is possible by various pathways. In the above image the knife and the board might have been in contact with raw poultry harbouring Campylobacter and would then contaminate the tomato.
  11. 11. The fecal-oral route is the primary route of infection for foodborne microorganisms The fecal-oral route of contamination refers to contaminations where the primary source of contamination is human or animal feces. Due to unhygienic practices the contamination is spread to fingers, into water or comes into contact with pests. The infections then can quickly spread to everyday objects, foods, and utensils. At the last stage the contaminant is ingested by a person. The routes the contamination can take are shown on the next slide.
  12. 12. The contamination paths of the fecal-oral route are complex
  13. 13. Personal Hygiene: Presentation Outline 1. Food handlers as a key element in the contamination paths of food 2. Behaviour patterns and facilities that improve food safety 3. Managing personal hygiene
  14. 14. Washing hands is the most important food poisoning prevention Washing hands the right way only requires three elements: – running water, – soap, and – something to dry hands with. Careful washing includes scrubbing palms, back of hands, between fingers, under nails. The correct washing of hands takes time! Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
  15. 15. Hands need to be washed regularly immediately • before working with food • after using toilet • after handling rubbish/waste • after smoking, coughing, sneezing, using tissue, eating, drinking, smoking • after touching hair or scalp or mouth If hands are unclean, sanitizers are not effective. Sanitizers do not replace hand washing for food operators!
  16. 16. Gloves are not cleaner than hands change gloves as often as you should wash your hands!
  17. 17. A special dress code is required for EVERYONE who enters a food-handling area cover hair cover beards no jewelry clean protective clothing clean shoes EVERYONE:  food handlers  visitors  management  contractors  auditors
  18. 18. Hairnets and coats for visitors must be available at the entrance to production areas cupboard with hairnets and coats If you want personnel to wear hairnets and visitors to comply with your hygiene dress-code you need to have coats and hairnets available at relevant entries to production areas. Depicted is a layout of a food producing factory with hairnets and coats correctly provided on the way in to the processing area.
  19. 19. Forbidden behaviour in a food-handling environment No sneezing into food. No eating, spitting, smoking, chewing gum or tobacco near open food. Personal items such as jewels, watches, radios and telephones are a source of contamination. They do not belong in areas of higher hygiene.
  20. 20. Personal hygiene can only ever be as good as the provided facilities dirty facilities will lead to lower levels of hygiene clean facilities improve hygiene behaviour
  21. 21. Changing rooms, toilets and hand-washing facilities must be provided and kept clean Without adequate facilities personnel will not implement recommended levels of personal hygiene. Depicted is a layout of a food producing factory with adequate facilities that are correctly positioned. HW Office/ Canteen Office/ Visitors Production Bottling 4°C -18°C Water-Prep. Washing 2 toilets with sinks changing room 3 hand-washing stations
  22. 22. Personal Hygiene: Presentation Outline 1. Food handlers as a key element in the contamination paths of food 2. Behaviour patterns and facilities that improve food safety 3. Managing personal hygiene
  23. 23. Personal hygiene is a management responsibility CULTURE Financial means to provide facilities and resources (human and technical) to ensure GHP. Clear guidance about expected personnel hygiene behaviour (including how to deal with sickness, absence due to sickness, disregard of hygiene rules, responsibilities, etc.) Hygiene culture through clear commitment to GHP, visible support of QS personnel, requirement to adhere to hygiene rules for all hierarchy levels. Management is responsible for providing
  24. 24. Actively communicate personal hygiene directives The importance of personal hygiene as one of the essential parts of a GMP programme has been explained in the module Introduction to Food Safety and Quality. Directives on personal hygiene must be documented. Documents should – be concise and instructive – contain clear control measures and responsibilities, – be distributed, and if necessary read, to all personnel (including management, administration) as well as to contractors and visitors (in a shortened version) Documentation must cover ways of dealing with every day challenges (i.e. compliance with protective clothing) as well as situations of emergency such as illness and accidents. An example of a guidance document for developing good operating practice procedures in personal hygiene and behaviour is provided by the New Zealand Food Safety Authority.
  25. 25. Controlled access and instantly visible signalling support personal hygiene behaviour In addition to documenting and communicating expected hygienic behaviour the following measures of control to ensure compliance of staff, contractors and visitors with hygiene requirements are: – controlled entry into food production sites – instructions and visible signalling throughout premises. These control measures are further discussed in the Design and Facilities course.
  26. 26. Maintaining control over the health of food handlers Results of medical screening can lead to a false sense of security. Being afraid of losing a job due to health status will prevent people from being honest about their health. A vigilant supervisor is probably the most effective means of keeping ill workers from contact with food. WHO report "Health surveillance and management procedures for food-handling personnel“ provides current international guidance on managing personnel hygiene.
  27. 27. Hygiene management of personnel starts from day one Employee health status should be brought up at the point of employment. Inform new employee that sick food- handlers can transmit diseases to customers. Ask about: – last illness with diarrhea or vomiting – skin trouble anywhere on body – discharges from eye, ear, mouth – digestion problems – medical history re typhoid/paratyphoid Provide first hygiene training prior to uptake of work.
  28. 28. Adequate behavior must be taught and controlled regular training sessions are necessary to create a stable level of personal hygiene in addition, regular controls are required to monitor the compliance with regulations
  29. 29. Training starts on day one and needs regular repeating good hygiene bad hygiene frequent training will lead to high levels of personal hygiene infrequent training will lead to low levels of personal hygiene repeat trainings time date of hiring
  30. 30. Correct people BUT ALSO give praise Praise personnel when things are done correctly. This part tends to get forgotten and people tire of constantly being told what was done wrongly. A personal thank-you from a supervisor for correct behaviour works wonders.
  31. 31. Personal hygiene in food production: Conclusions Humans shed microorganisms and can contaminate food through unhygienic behavior. Food handlers need to be aware of indirect paths of contamination. Washing hands is the most effective way to stop the spread of microorganisms. Hygienic behavior includes the wearing of clean protective clothing and avoiding activities such as eating near unprotected food products. Ill people must be prevented from handling food. Personal hygiene is a management responsibility and directives must be documented in a GMP programme. Personal hygiene can only ever be as good as the provided facilities. Hygienic behavior must be taught and controlled.
  32. 32. You have reached the end of the presentation Personal Hygiene in Food Production. This presentation is from the course “Personal Hygiene” of the FAO Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) Toolbox. Readers are encouraged to visit the online resource for a full learning experience.

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