AWSOM: U.S. Army World-Wide Strategic Operational Maneuver
ARMY WORLD-WIDE STRATEGIC OPERATIONAL MANEUVER FOR THE 21st CENTURY Army Aviation self-deploys Airdrop Artillery Armored Gun Systems Alert, Agile Infantry Airland Army lease cargo RO/RO 747sArmored Infantry Carriers AF C-130Xs Air Assault AmphibiousAir-Mech-Strike: A-W-S-O-M! Mike Sparks. Feb. 2002
Purpose of this presentation:Articulate a way the U.S. Army can transform half ofitself to the most effective air-sea deployed fightingforce possible using primarily existing equipment,that is not vulnerable to enemy anti-access strategiesand surveillance strike complexes at the lowest costand shortest amount of time (under 12 months). ASurveillance Strike Maneuver Capability (SSMC).It creates a robust, 2D/3D maneuver force that canwin both short-range and long-range fights whileprotecting our men and women from harm, defeatingenemies by controlling the ground from them andcollapsing their will and means to resist employingthe full, accurate weight of Americas military might.
* Half $4B Cost of new-purchase armored cars, available NOW usingmostly existing equipment; 1/2 U.S. Army transformed in under 12months not just a handful of Brigades* Army rapidly air-deploys by both Army owned/leased and USAFaircraft dominant 3D ground maneuver forces to respond to worldconflicts, strategic lift shortfalls solved; overcomes enemy air/sea anti-access asymmetric strategems; avoids space-based targetingcomplexes, creates a Surveillance-Strike Maneuver Capability (SSMC)* Robust 2D/3D ground forces insures precision strike kills targets---not decoys/civilians, tracks more survivable than rubber-tired LAV-IIIs:RPG protection without mobility loss; band-track speed, O/S costs,noise/vibration, ease on roads same or better than wheels* Army 2D/3D maneuver forces based on primarily existing C-130/cargo747, CH-47 helicopter, air-transportable, off-road, amphibious, under11-ton TRACKED armored vehicles; can win both close combat as wellas stand-off fights with digital situational awareness, organic andsupporting fires; costly LAV-III 20+ton armored cars cannot do this* Rapid-deployable 2D/3D Army maneuver forces places hostilegovernments at risk, often precluding conflicts, mobile defends withour men under full armor, WMD protection, superior firepower* Collapses enemies by 2D/3D maneuver encirclement/dislocation notjust hoping for escalating firepower to make enemies submit*Plugs into Joint forces; insures full weight of American military mightbrought to bear on enemies, quickly and decisively
SIZE STILL MATTERS IN GROUND WARFARE: upgrades America’s existing mass- produced mobility platforms with new technologies since increasingly complex/costly new systems are hand-built in ever smaller quantities (Spinney’s “death spiral”)Pre-loaded and ready to fly-away! USAF C-130s M113A3 Gavins upgraded with upgraded with “J” band-tracks, C4I, RPG-resistant propfans/engines, applique’ armor, swim kits mid-air refueling Army helos upgraded to self- deploy using Piasecki VDTP/wings Leased 747s and reserve C-141Bs Off-the-shelf air-transportable AFVs
AWSOM: strategically and tactically agile 2D/3D ground forces that offer NO easy asymmetric weakness for an enemy to exploit Space/Air Cover by USAF/USN 2D/3D IBCTs CONUS Coast 3D Assault Combat UAVs Guard/USN Echelon (AE) NMD 3D/2D Follow-On-Echelon Border Patrol Helo SEL NG (FOE) 3D Winged APS-6 Cargo 747s, USAF aircraft, CH-47F Army helos (in C-5s or self-deploy) airdrop C-130X AGS ISB shuttle AZ OBJ APS-3 sealift airland Twin 120 mortars 2D Light Mech HumraamTBAMs = Theater BallisticArtillery & Missiles Crusader Patriot/THAADTMAMs = Tactical Mortars, Amphigavins speed HIMARS/ATACMsArtillery & Missiles link-up with 3D forces Deep rear Rear Close/Far Deep 8,000 km back to CONUS 250 km from enemy TBAMs 50 km from TMAMs 300 km in enemy rear All Echelons protected from enemy missile attack
UAVs/UCAVsROBUST 2D/3D BCTs win inANY situation Road Ambushes, Mines, RPGs, C4I verifies missiles, obstacles, data, CAS predictable = DEATH City Kills armor in Tracked BCT Quality infantry meeting defeats enemy x-country infantry engagements mobile avoids road threats RSTA verifies targets hit not decoys Wins far 5-50km 2D Force Scout dogs fight Swims across Wins close 3D Force rivers/lakes 1-5km fight blocks, Mobile Crusader, HIMARS, encircles EFOGM, Twin 120mm mortar fire isolates support KILLS verified targets severs enemy
ASSAULT ECHELONQuantity: Hand-built C-17s cannot be fielded in numbers tomeet IMMEDIATE year 2002 U.S. defense need of decisive Armyground maneuver IBCTs anywhere in world in 96 hours; USAFcontrol disperses C-17s world-wide and makes maneuver forcedelivery low-priority after delivery of USAF fighter-bombers/ordnance to attempt to win war by air firepower alone;no more Kosovos; ground maneuver insures targets notdecoys/civilians are hit by firepower, compels enemy to quitQuality: C-17s cannot direct-deliver airland to dirt assault zoneswithout damaging turbofan engines; only turboprop C-130s canSTOL into dirt strips; airdrop best option for forced-entry,anyway by faster massing of combat powerConclusion, AF: Upgrade all C-130s to “J” standard propfans,engines and mid-air refueling capable to strategically non-stopself-deploy to help airdrop assault echelon and afterwardsshuttle FOE Army IBCTs from cargo 747s and sealift vehiclesand men at the ISB to the Assault Zone.Conclusion, Army: Majority of IBCT combat vehicles must becargo 747 and USAF C-130 transportable into forward landingassault zones without refuel facilities = must be no heavier than16-tons and be TRACKED to not damage 747 floors
Light Mechanized Sapper Company (Airborne) IBCTs cannot land unless area is secured U.S. Army forced-entry units need an ArmoredCombat Engineer capability to succeed againstenemy Surveillance Strike Complexes A forced-entry Armored Combat Engineercapability could be quickly created using existingpersonnel & equipment Costs to create this capability are small as mostlogistics supports are already in place This is an urgent national strategic priority that 8has to be acted on immediately
U.S. Army XVIII Airborne Corps must be able to rapidlyair-deploy anywhere in the world to overcome enemySurveillance Strike Complex observation/fires--must beable to clear Assault Landing Zones quickly andwithout casualties: Light tracked armored vehiclesneeded so decisive follow-on-forces can airland
Bird’s Eye view: even a Short Take-Offand Landing (STOL) strip is a large areafor ground forces to secure and clear forairlanding
Army Sappers must clear a The Threatslarge open-area, minimally 3,000feet by 100 feet landing strip ofall threats, obstacles andforeign objects so rubber-tiredaircraft can airland follow-on-forces in just 4 hours... Foot Soldiers vulnerable to enemy fires *Small-Arms fire *Mortars *Machine Guns *Grenade launchers *Artillery *Mines *Obstacles
M113A3 Gavin Engineer Squad Vehicle: light tracked armored vehicle in U.S. Army service today...M113A3 ESVs leadway into Bosnia FM 7-7Goes U.S. Army Europe Immediate Reactionanywhere! Force uses C-130 airlanded M113A3s
M113 Gavin Proven in combat; on duty today all over the world by free world armies...Lebanon PanamaEast Timor Vietnam Iraq
M113A3 Gavin ESV Armor Protects Sappers fromenemy threats in order to accomplish the mission Tracks not stopped by fires
M113A3 ESV tracked mobility delivers Sappersrapidly/safely to clear large open areas; can pushaside, crush large vehicle-emplaced obstacleswithout time-consuming hand reduction (dozerblade, mine plows and bump guards can be fitted)
Current Light Airborne Combat Engineers DO MICLIC onM200 tracked NOT HAVE A WAY TO SAFELY FIRE THEIR trailer MICLIC/EMSC “Mongoose” mine clearing charges! Armored M113A3 ESVs can tow, then fire rocket line charges for Airborne LightHMMWV trucks Mechanized Sappers! MICLICDump trucksFMTV trucksSappers on foot =No in-stridebreach capability! M113 ESV with MICLIC in Desert Storm combat!
M113A3 Gavin ESV: 11-ton AFV easily Airborne, rapidly deployable to anywhere in the world by airdrop/airland airland airdropAll needed expertise ready at Fort Bragg and Pope AFB
Airborne-qualified Sappers on jump statusalready in place at Fort Bragg, North Carolinato employ M113A3 Engineer Squad Vehicles(ESVs) instead of rubber-tired, unarmoredHMMWVs: already successfully used at JRTC Airborne Sappers @JRTC with borrowed M113A3 ESV
M113A3 Gavin ESV: Air Assault transportable by U.S. Army helicopters Flies over enemy mines and ambushes to do CE operations on terrain of our choosing like British Army entered Kosovo in ‘99
M113A3 Gavin ESV: tracks off-road capable for boldcross-country movement to avoid enemySSC observation/fires, ambushes andsecure/clear key terrain for maneuver forces YES! NO! Tow cable to tracked vehicle to pull LAV out of mud
M113A3 ESV: amphibious capability forces entry across rivers/lakes Secures far side for safe Bridging under armored firepowerArmy maneuverforces cannot waiton near bank for acrossing underenemy SSC fires!We must forge aheadand secure the far ground!
M113A3 ESV: Sappers situationally aware, ready-to-fire = force protection, mobility enabledFirepower underarmor the enemyis hard pressedto stop--allowsSappers to clearareas of mines,obstacles and enemy 360 degree security
M113A3 Gavin ESV: plenty of space for CE equipment, supplies, troop gear and a full Sapper squad Extra space LGH behind spall linersSappers dismount with allnecessary gear to accomplishmission--no rummaging for gearstrapped to outside
M113A3 ESV: applique armor proof against small-arms fire, RPGs, autocannon and shrapnel: keeps on going, gets Sappers to their objective M113A3 LAV-IIIM113A3 ESV: Harder to hit
M113A3 Gavin ESV: UPGRADES C4I Band-Tracks Remote gun station FLIR camouflageRollers/plows to clear obstacles
“Leap Ahead” hybrid-electric “stealth” IBCTs by upgrading existing air-transportable tracked AFVs at a fraction of the cost of new-purchase, old- technology diesel engine/drive rubber-tired armored cars M113A4 Gavin Hybrid Electric Drive AFV * 600 mile range * 60 mph Quiet/Fast roads or x-country surprises enemy, avoids targeting * 24/7 sensor use * M ore troop space
M113A4 Gavin FAMILY OF VEHICLES (FOV) STEALTH ARMORED FIGHTING VEHICLES THE TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATOR Digital Dashboard Crew 2, Squad 10 Battery Bank • Diagnostics • Soldier Friendly, Ergonomically Advanced • Prognostics Interior Output Bank • Monitoring Systems • Enhanced Interior Face-to-Face • AC / DC • Joystick Communication • Rectifiers • Equipment Plug-ins 3 Inverters • (2) 250 HP Traction Motors • Regenerative Braking • Battery Management Prime Power Unit • 250 HP John Deere Controller / Inverters • 200 Kw of Power • Regulates Power Flows • 250 HP Generator Band Track SURPLUS POWER ADDED CAPABILITY • Continuous Band of Rubber• Extends Range to 600+ Miles Reinforced with Steel Cable(s) • Stealth Operation• Eliminates Separate Generators • Quiet Ride • 10 Miles (Operation) and Trailers • Reduced Vibration• Cuts Fuel Requirements in Half • 30+ Hours (Watch) • Improved Handling• Makes Forward Units More Self- • Triples Acceleration, 0-20 MPH in Reliant • Increased Agility 4 Seconds• Recharges Batteries (Directed • Reduced Noise Levels • Integral On-Board Power Tools for Energy) Maintenance Activities• Operates Weaponry Reduces and Transforms the • 50+ mph road speeds• Frees Soldiers for Other Tasks Existing Logistics Footprint 020701
Designated M113A3 Gavin ESVs: Twin TOWATGM launcher/.50 cal HMG pedestal providesbuilding and bunker-busting capability in MOUTwith HEP or FAE round, anti-tank self-defense
...or Bradley 25mm/7.62mm/TOW 2-manturrets can be fitted to designated M113A3/4Gavin ESVs to provide bunker-busting fire:still transportable in C-130 aircraft
Another option: 25mm/7.62mm pedestal gunwith TOW ATGM launcher for building/bunker-busting capability Singapore Armed Forces M113 ULTRA
ASP-30 30mm Autocannon Mounts on existing AFVsLethal to enemy troops,vehicles, aircraft, buildings Shoots same ammo as Gas-operated, Easy to AH-64 Apache, AV-8B maintain, clean, assemble, Harrier II dissassemble
JAVELIN “FIRE & FORGET” FLIR MISSILE“Fire & Forget”: Kills all tanksmissiles guides by top-attackitself to target to 2.5 KMusing infared Destroys buildings, Command Launch bunkers, Unit is FLIR thermal aircraft by imager capable of direct- detecting enemy heat No backblast firing attack if signatures signature selected
FOLLOW-ON ECHELON Phase IQuantity: Mass-produced 747s sit unused in U.S. southwest desert un-economicalfor daily airline use; can be modified/leased with Roll-On/Roll-Off(RO/RO) vehiclecapabilities inexpensively to meet IMMEDIATE year 2002 U.S. defense need todeliver decisive Army ground maneuver IBCTs anywhere in world in 96 hours; 50cargo 747s (C-33s) pre-loaded with Army IBCT vehicles in fly-away conditioncreates winged “Army Prepositioned Set-6” (APS-6); airborne version of APS-3sealift. AF is retiring entire C-141B fleet with t-tails/rear ramps for parachuteairdrop, C-5As too old to maintain/fly daily in limbo; preserve a portion of thisairlift capability by reduced use. Both C-5As and C-141Bs have strategic rangeand mid-air refuel capable. 50 x Cargo 747s deliver 1,273 short tons/day.Quality: 747s can fly 6 x M113A3 or 20 x Wiesel-2 or 10 x BV-206S type AFVs or400+ troops to extreme long ranges (8,000 miles) non-stop without refueling; largepool of U.S. airline pilots available to fly APS-6, AF bases and Yuma ProvingGround for airdrop in low-humidity SW U.S. available for APS-6 and monthlytraining flightsConclusion, AF: Transfer 25 x C-141Bs and USAFR crews to APS-6 to airdrop apre-loaded Battalion M113A3 AFV package to the assault echelon at the DropZone and 25 x C-5As/USAFR crews to fly Army CH-47F/UH-60L/M helicopters tothe 747-capable ISB to shuttle FOE Army IBCT vehicles/men to the Assault Zone.Investment in 10 x KC-33A tankers for APS-6 begins process to replace retiringKC-135Rs.Conclusion, Army: Majority of IBCT combat vehicles must be no heavier than 16tons and be TRACKED to not damage 747 floors, save $ by upgrading existingM113 Gavins frees funds to modify/lease APS-6 cargo 747s and buy M8 AGS lighttanks w/band tracks, UH-60 transportable AFVs (M973A2 BV-206S or Wiesel 2s)
3D ForcesWinged APS-6One 1x1 Bde set150 x M113A3s44 x M8 AGSs60 x M973A2s24 x UH-60L/Ms12 x CH-47D/Fs 2D Forces 123 x M1 Heavy tanks 164 x M2 infantry FVs 100 x M113A3 Amphigavins
Light Mechanized Sapper Company (Amphibious) Army prepo ships cannot offload unless area issecure of mines, obstacles, gunmen U.S. Army forced-entry forces need a sea-basedCombat Engineer capability to succeed againstenemy Surveillance Strike Complexes A sea-based Armored Combat Engineer capabilitycan be created using existing Soldiers & equipment Costs to create this capability are small as mostlogistics supports are already in place This is an urgent national strategic priority that 35has to be acted on immediately
M113A3 “Amphigavin” Low-cost kit adds AAV-like boat nose, extra floatation and waterjets to M113A3 Gavins, making them capable of swimming from Large, Medium Speed Roll-on/roll- off Ships (LMSRs) of APS-3www.arisspa.it/inglese/arisgator.htm
Option B: Amphigavins sling-loaded by helicopters fromcauseway helipad alongside TAKR-300/310 ship ? ? Ramps may not need lighters underneathOption A: Amphigavins swim to shore simultaneouslyfrom stern, port, starboard RO/RO ramps, speeds offloadby 50%…speeds link-up inland with 3D forces
A M113A3 Amphigavins driven by Soldiers off TAKR-300/310 port and starboard side rampsIt may not be necessary to havelighters under ramps designed tohold 140+ tons, 11-ton M113A3Amphigavins could just splashdirectly into water
Slewing Stern RO/ROramp up and beinglowered for M113A3Amphigavin drive-offinto the water to swimashore...
BArmy CH-47D/F Chinook helicopters could be stored onthe emergency helipad of each TAKR-300/310. A helipadthat the vehicles can reach could be created usingbarges on the ship’s sides for helicopters to pick-upsling-loaded regular M113A3 Gavins or surf-zoneAmphigavins and other under 11-ton vehicles ashore ifwaters are mined or other situations dictate a 3Dmovement to shore. Refueling point(s) will have to beset up on the barge helipads to enable the helicopters tocontinuously shuttle vehicles to shore...
How do weget 200 men tothe LMRS ships todrive off 100 xM113A3Amphigavins?
Modify one APS-3 LMSR ship with berthing for 200 men Before AfterFly Amphigavin crews to APS-3 ships then embark on LMSRwith berthing spaces for ocean voyage to objective
Earlier Boeing 347 Compound CH-47 Test Bed 1970s Compound 190 knot Cruise Speed CH-47GSpeedChinook HelicopterRework B-347 Project!* Low-Wing* Props or Ducted Fans Powered by Engines* 190 Knot Cruise* $ 8-10 Million per Kit* Ready in 2007 SpeedChinooks fly M113A3 Amphigavin Drivers/TCs and Dismounts to APS-3 helipads at sea
C-130 Floatplanes C-130J Hercules floatplanes land near APS-3 ships prior to off-load, Navy SBU coaxswains shuttle men by F470 Zodiac rubber boats to Jacob’s ladder to board
TACTICAL AMPHIBIOUS MOBILITY INLAND FIRE DECISIVE MANEUVER = VICTORY
FOLLOW-ON ECHELON Phase IIQuantity: Mass-produced Army helicopters provide a 3D capability to move Armyground maneuver forces if they can be delivered to the AZ en masse; the best wayis to upgrade them to higher speeds/longer ranges to self-deploy without beinglimited by the number of outsized USAF C-5/C-17 aircraft available.Quality: Army UH-60Ms modified with USN/USAF R&D project Piasecki VectoredThrust Ducted Propellers (VTDP) and wings to unload the rotors reducing O/Scost by 13%, provide forward thrust and lift to enable 200+ mph speeds and2,000+ mile ranges. “SpeedHawks” with H-130 mid-air refueling capability canalso carry Army troops or a Streamlined External Load (SEL) Wiesel 2 or BV-206Sprime mover or trailer as it self-deploys from CONUS. Upon landing, it can berefueled and take on troops/vehicles for 3D battle maneuver or be fitted withweaponry, rockets and missiles to provide Close-Air-Support to ground maneuverunits. As soon as possible, all other Army helicopters modified to self-deployusing VTDP/wings. Self-deploying Army SpeedHawks free the APS-6’s 25 x C-5Asto be pre-loaded with other important Army combat “slices”:* Lightweight Crusader Self-Propelled rapid-fire, 40km range Howitzer* Patriot/THAAD aircraft/missile defenses* HIMARS/MLRS multiple launch rockets/ATACMs deep strike missiles* Heavy M1 Abrams/M2 Bradley combat teamM8 Armored Gun Systems with 105mm guns capable of killing enemy tanksloaded in C-141Bs in the APS-6 force. Some M113A3s upgraded with AMOS twin-barrel 120mm rapid-fire gun-mortars as a second fly-away BN set.UH-60 transportable Wiesel 2 or (M973A2) BV-206Ss replace all HMMWVs in APS-6
SUMMARY* Cancel LAV-III/IAV purchase; upgrade M113s as IAVsfor Army IBCTs (band-tracks, applique’ armor, C4I etc.)* Use cost savings to modify/lease 50 x cargo 747 APS-6; pre-load with upgraded M113A3/IAVs* Re-assign 25 x C-5As to carry Army helicopters and25 x C-141Bs to airdrop a M113 Gavin Battalion for theIBCT to winged APS-6, designate LMSCs* Purchase M8 AGS light tanks, UH-60 transportableAFV for the IBCT RSTA and 101st Air Assault Division* Upgrade APS-3 M113A3s ocean-going Amphigavins* Upgrade Army UH-60s to Piasecki VTDP/wings to self-deploy with APS-6* Upgrade USAF C-130s to “J” engines/propfans, mid-air refuel capabilities
CONCLUSIONAmerica’s Army can better, more inexpensivelytransform itself with existing and some new purchaseTRACKED armored fighting vehicles to meet the goalof a 96-hour IBCT 3D air-deployment backed by a rapid2D heavy force sea-deployment immune to enemyair/sea anti-access strategies, giving America World-wide Strategic Operational Maneuver (AWSOM)Surveillance-Strike Maneuver Capabilities.The 4 Light Divisions and separate Brigades of the U.S.Army can be transformed to Air-Mech-Strike IBCTconfiguration in under 12 months to meet emergingworld-wide security threats. The 6 Heavy Divisions canbe configured with an M113A3 Amphigavin element tospeed APS-3 prep sealift offload and like up inland withthe 3D air element. The Air-Mech-Strike AWSOM planshould be implemented immediately.
Biography of author:Mike Sparksdynmicpara@firstname.lastname@example.org Michael L. Sparks is a 1988 graduate of Liberty University, has a Bachelor’s of Science degree in history education. He leads a non-profit think-tank, the 1st Tactical Studies Group (Airborne) originally based out of Fort Bragg, North Carolina that has field-tested and proven many of the equipment described above in this study, offering them for no charge to the U.S. Army. Details are shown at the groups website: www.geocities.com/equipmentshop
He has been involved in amphibious infantry, combat engineer,logistics, civil affairs, Special Forces, light M113A3 mechanizedinfantry, and heavy M2 BFV mechanized infantry units throughout his21+year career. A prior service marine NCO and officer, he is agraduate of Infantry Training School, Camp Pendleton, California,Officer Candidate School Platoon Leaders Course Junior and Senior,The (officer) Basic School, Infantry Officers Course, Israeli AirborneSchool, Combat Life Saver, Retention, and U.S. Army Airborne School.His numerous articles on military excellence have been published inU.S. Army Infantry, Armor, Air Defense Artillery online, SpecialWarfare, Logistician, the Rucksack, Armed Forces JournalInternational, National Guard, Marine Corps Gazette, U.S. NavalInstitute Proceedings, Behind the Lines, SOF, Mountain Bike, FortBragg POST, Fort Benning Bayonet and Military Review. He co-authored the book "Air-Mech-Strike: 3-Dimensional Phalanx, full-spectrum to dominate the 21st century" to critical acclaim last year,now in its 2nd edition.