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Ss Model Ans Booklet2


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Please View the SEQ Booklet taken from the follwing website What a great resource. Credit to the Author.

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Ss Model Ans Booklet2

  1. 1. Arriiroar'no Chdnoe and Strnno Rcrevr 9'dnaon o! o ot' bl oro is .< bc!drse bv cntic'par,r9 i hange rld sldv'.9 smq@de d_ bor roaard lo l4 chdl€nqp< of the llrure w h cont den" " 'er*trr. r" t"l" orruture roNard ookinq n antcpaton "i".*..r ..,;;";"" , .r,. "nd make dec aions lhal are -;;i."".. "J.i. ':;,;-". ,.;;" .-."r hi.;r ucr-. <.pp, n '.-*"'e .-o^,- !ro 6'aidlpe^ouooe o^ | oro h'de 'o ""..* trn." onoi"" o ::;;","i;".:;;" .". oooldp ro FP .."*m nimat- q.o'pFr'o dr'' o.'du"re" ;;;;";i"i". ., a o",h.FJ'.e'"nd o"Fn"" o-r b.r,, 'noo,obda-o o b 6 o' € a o '-'"J*u'", ii.a*"r''.i'x""<J'Faioo-elqUo''qpn'plAo'qo'p-J l.*i- ir'"".*' r'"* I"t"""ri ro o. *',"t i. 'iq"t p'opre 'han *'rcr '< popurd' so tar/evpl 'u't'"' s ft rhen slon deus'ons irev -"i i'J" i' ii"""'r' *oones, a'e dbre ro lor tle good ol ln€ roLnlry' lhe'pbv su<irrnrnq ' popula' tt'is ;e maoe ca,.y the touqh and 'Prs iri--.. ..* '. *.'. p *.i. -- r"*"- " ao" o d; o- !!d nd oi ! bdlr b 0 .:-;;,; ,.""""-"". ;";";, *- - *" i c d po rld paoc no o i odoo'" b d e'1' o re' o o ";,'i"; 'eoo' >e'o'oo€Dp do iii-p"n""r "--" " " l" -nlinue lo prosperand lace up io the crralenses thal mqhtcome 'ts ",.";* is"q"p-. q''o.ep'r 'ocorqo Fln"n th'sF [1"*-" -o *.^ ", Rewaro d 'ypor" ro wo'r nard Lo help sinqdpor ''*.'. orinc Dt" .'w"s rr"' p{ dereloo dnd Jav rh;dd o' rhe lompontion 'hP'ebv susb'n rq sinsaoor' s rulJe suc("'s . d . 'En rc 64rd! I o'd ;d-.;'n; -,. p'- -,oFra-"q Joooo-. 'or.!''F'e' i".,""i- v-. "., "ro.oo,"",-^boo cuiicuar r,,"i"i","J rn"" ror exampe hardwo ,is stude;ts who exce! n trier srud es rhis co esD€cia Lv 3nd ,"i",1""" ,-" **a. rt" t"m or Ed!;ve p and Medt Bu6ares s ;;odant ". in peooe Lnled" sinoaoore wher€ there is a need to deveoo each ofhe' cilizens to the lul est of his ab Litv 'A slake for Evervonc. Opportunities forAll'is 01lolsrei'e anolhe. imponanl gu dinq prncp e Trls E $ffi by allowlng ttie people nore opportuhities lo partic pate in important de.i5 on -rronger oo.a i builr bcrween the ocople and thP cou ry Ths *"1 lclp ro reep rre peipe "crviry involved * h the sorerinentnd ' 'ppodNe o' the dP'isiors ."u" i,v tt'" !*.-.*i t-t sustai.ins sinsapore s rlluresuccess Th s means aLlownq ;"";@ -r"'! qe ;b."d "*bv oz Pdo ^o rd ";- o o"*" a-nq a m+: .e sF o o-lo 9r d o' --,. *o consuLled the publc on the ssue of hav nq cas nos es part olthe Rs 1(bL-1!9 "q"r"s p"p4ft9! 1" lr,*d ;+ .1! E governmenl Do vou aaree? Expall td,trsw4 government s mponanl wlh ageino popualion n because as the caretaker nirslv€ to make aws and
  2. 2. inkoduce measurcs to orolect the inl€€sls olthe senor dlizens and lo orevenl them irom beinq a ouaerro ttejit on .no ts resources. Forexampe the govehmenl has nlroduc€d measur€s such as |re cPFjd reief pub ic hous ng :nd the Inbunal lor the Mainlenance of Par€nls to supporl lhe agenq popuaton. The CPF sacompusorysavngsschemeforal empLovees cPFmemberscan wi|rdras ther savngs on reaching the age of s5 years However thev mlsl eave a mnimum sum n tllen Reftemenl Account sa that lhey can recelve a monlh y sum lom lhis accolnl iiom age 62 Ih s s to ensure lrl3!!t?L!!al9!!9!& The oovehment also introdlced lhe Tribunalforthe Maintenance of Par€nls Farentscangel lhe ou; ep o+". "n, c s-pporkonrhF . o'e ^ ore doroeo suooorns en o- ce or oonq o hF go.e o dF ol ede parents grcndparenls or qreet g@ndparenls and lhose who aie conirbulng lo lher own or their eldery dapendants'cPF retiGmenl accounts Ths s 1o encouraoe more oeoole lo take care ol lhe aoed and lo orepare tor lhen own relirement The govemment aso provides plblic housinq schemes to en.ouraoesinoaooreans to lake care oflhetr oarenls Firsl_lime buve6 of gov€rnmenl ralscan getahousing gGntiltheybuyanattr tiLeareawherelh€rparedts ve Eg i preparnglhe counlryto.ope wilh agerng popuLalon The communily has an mporGnlroe I.eq!F.f-nl !t!! !:r: !! raleo -r< r.:__gj!J,c oro. ite o, oona 'uopo f ono:o a '' cr ro eelpe "degovernmenl enabed-ooo.p'hFd organzllions lo tun communitv based subsid€s ftom the vountary welfate seruices for senor cilzeis Some community orqanizallons also offer rree health checks and Ecreal onalactivl es for sen or cit zens These h€ o (hem lo remain ohvs Gllv menlaLv and soca v 49!jve. c. -.,o. d pan no H' r' ro &!e - .-- ltv "and nol relv onqlhe -u r ''o qh.otlllreo qoov€rnmenl's are "i."u personsl€sponsib oovernment becauselhe lmiled The ndvdual s encouraged lo ma nla n a heaLlhy leslyebywllchLnghsdiel exercsng reguary golorreguarmedca checkups and be linancLa y prepared for life in then old aoe Bv attend ng ia ks aid read n9 relevonl a p ann ng malerials rie can earn more aboul €tremenl 2(al To wha( extent has lhe sov€rnnenrs efiods n anlcipatnq conlribuled to sinqapore s economEptosperly? Exp a n your Refer lo 1{a) tor mosl ot the expanalion Beff n m'nd haL rrls queshon siressed on conrrbutng lo singapore's econom c prosperity ) You need to brnq n relevant examples such as Ihe on how this foresqft ol the governmeil etc etc can managing heallhcaE in Sii9aPorer subsides supponseryces helplu in meeling lhe needs or peop e? ErpLa n your answer Med sav€ s one way lhal manages healthcare n sinqapore This is because by rav,ng a Medisave accaunt, the jndivi.lual shares the casts ol health.arc with the governn@t and lightens the sbvemhent's butden of Paying fot heallhcate seNices fhis hetPs the people to neet theh own healthcare fin.nciat needs. sin]apore lakes the stand lhal ndvdua plays an important r.le in managng healhca@ To encouraqe sel_re ance lhe as a savngs sclreme 1 endourages singaporcans to b€ €spofsibe forther own healh A €rGin amount of noney (6 - 3'lt irom worke.s Cenl.a
  3. 3. far do vou aqree thal the govemments decis on dL. io;conomicraclors? Expla n vour aN* "i#K#ii1*ffi,n ,oo,tat'npolicv"sp'onptedbvth"!""""!'::e,',*P!!':^!!,li.ii l::i,11ffi1;"J;:;;,;;;ii; .i., ir'""] '*ia -i o*"*g" I:'19 "19 1ll.1."iJ:j::",',:: l:ffii:'1"';i;"";.-li:i:'"; i;; iiii"iiv i'"* ,tt-t' rn""-:-"ll','l:: :::::"":,::i""*:'j:: J:;;:' ;;;:;;i,q,e;;", - ."^,-,":,+.+:**::j*t+;1#:H#j"l !i:""];;i'i',1ffi;';: ::'-, a- +geg+--], r!!s.t rsllgE 3 od ' d'rolc 'o +r'aL on o -6_'ou.'r .1'i3:.1';::,,ii^:l:?""i:f:,1 ^ -s
  4. 4. resDonsb r! s the host mDonant laclor @ration H ow lar do you agree lith lh s slaleolllLqlPqin v9u!4!!!9l! 4 (a): surelyyou o.e w€ll€quiPPed ro dnsw€r su.h d quation bv how! on le6i vou b€rter b€ The sToP AT TWO po icy was more a hindraice than a help to our economc develoPmenl DoYou agree? ExPlain {13) No do nol agree The polcy was actualy a hep 1o olr econom c deveopmeil This is because S'nodoofua; ,nitiallv rar'nq a rdpid popularior g'odh 'n lhe 1950s W(h r 'aprd oopulatio" oro;;sinaaoorewaila''nq o so-ialaldpol'lralprobensrsa'osuhorrlal "',oo ooo.':ror or. lhF'-oo d F''rdo_oao-s qp'o'r'o o99e' r- ,r ttr q o por r d r.o- ad4< o'ooc lro' *r^"m-es,*'- STOP " l " ;;a;u;; nvestosr,m i esl no in s noaoore r rhat had haoD€ned. s noaoore wr tace a rack oi lunds to devello seconomv Thus the oolcvwas ar€soundino success Yes agree that sinqapore s po icy was merey a h ndrance This s because a lot of the counlry s rcvenu; a.d efiort has ro be channelled inlo providhg for the elde v instead of focusing on other importanl areas ol developnent such as economv, educalion and derenceThe STOP AT TWO polcy discourages couples ffom havlng bables such lhal our rep acemenl levelfel beLow the dea repb;ement Ere or 2 r with lhe popu al o. nol eplacins lselr, Sin!.eleiqls !!! lnqllllic imp€nd nq oi.bem of an aoeno ooouLaton bv 2030 twasthls a hftrance as aoeiio ooouatonwl ;n v o,ove to be dra nina on the countrys resourdes s nce most ofthe.ountrus revenue wi I now have tobeahannered nro Ren?nbz. vou need to 9ve borh tdei of rhe 5rory Governanco in SingaPore s a Agoin, sureyyou kno{ th5 bynow! Ls an ageing pop!alon more delimental ihan beneiicia Sngapore?EPlanY.ur t13l An ag€ng popuaiion s delrimentallo singapore This is becaus€ as singapore's aqeing populati;n increases, there is an increased stress on medical inlrasttuclute and govemment reso!rces which will increase govel,nen! spending and lead ro lewet funds iot our econonic developdat. Singapote woutd hence face decline and stagnation drc ro this divergqce of resources. As peop e grow o d they w llbe mo.e prcne lo c€dan aqe Gated healrh probl€ms This ncudes loss of hearng falng eyesght and rheumalsm Much morc medical resouEes have to be generated lo accommodale these issues irore commundv based setoces such !s day ca.e cenlrcs afd home nursing care wl also be needed to he p fam, esLookafterod€rrelalves A arg€ poolol wellare slatfwi a so be needed to lake ca€ of rhe ncGas.s number of seiior c tizens singaporc s pub ic areas wilhave to be equipped wlh more raciies s!lab e for sen d clzens ke suopod hand bars n pubLic toiels.nd ifts al MRT twoud aso mean a reduclon on our econom c codpeitveness This is because an ageinq population makes us r6s aliracltve lo tnvesrors as they p.efer younqer worke6 who are more energaric and productiv€. There woud arso he insutficrenl tat-pnts t sustain developnerr i/NCs wilrnd I more expensve lo recrut Sngapo€ais due lo ou, smal abou.
  5. 5. d nolbe sze and we aG less anradive because ofiis sm! ler donsumer mariel s nqapore wou :hLe10 comoele w'ili other nalionswlh vounoerand affecl ou oroducliviwand hence moacl nur orooress n#*-:rentrml"t"" h"s contribuled more to snaapores p'osress Due to a ;; i;; bi^" rri p opo",on or '0" ;:i;.;, "." '":" ;';.' o"ne ,a r; qap;- c dc oF dopFo c ooo oropoorF -r,""" * .r. ""- '. atp" e ure t ^i" rn" p.ovdes i;valabl€ "eioerence lhal loc6 blsinesses reouie n order to """"*t"" i.""" v,"".": "i;;;q;"d"r"- . . 761 rhd d F 'o'd 'o 'e ''d ;, ^:.; .; " *. * ,". ^i,.'""0 "", -^-:.;: oolnsJFe "odonort r-'<u-eao' "-,b, . ;" " ;;;". ".'.; -u, oh" ^d.b.": i. ";'--.-' "r"..,b-d.noaoo- ^dr" ''. conldbutlo to s na&oEs mmoelitv€ness and orcqress Chaoter 3 - lltanaoho Healthcare 16 To wha(e{entwas promolinq a hea thv ifestv e among S ngapo@ans effect ve manaqing healhclre nS ngapore?Expain ioul tterh e do.. Dd a.olc n .a'dq-9 6rr -, i",i-,i'.i "i -r,.", *." 'oo:"1 es,o 'npnaq';":-e np"o rona'ndrnF F<oo bi o ,.l^r.r'." or'"ioo ."" o"- 6rhd' ep'opFcl' sooo 'crn rr^e "i"'--.. medra rhdt mav rcdu'e rhP .'""".* ,i..,..a ." tt'" nd'v dud s a;d w" iTpa'r ldvourablv on rhe sovc'nm'nt as thav ne;d notsubsidisero a lalge exr€nt ;;_ i." ,",,..- on or Med<a'. - naacano a c n 1d"po e rhF ""-'-*. *tr-*t"*" * the leople share fte costs ot hdallhtdrc * h the qovcrnmeni ;;;;:;,:;"r;' ro rorrtm rr." qo'iemr-'. bu,dcn or pcl'ns 'o' hpahhcare <ani-es healthcdre b;(ome ; sl.r€d irv hcrebv rhe govP'1merl need not dcp4d o1 r:'sina Lares to Dav lor ris fq 1 'esponib r ! '","i"ii.",lpr onrio-ion' "n 'o h.rv6d.cFd o(nq ,^;.;;,;;; n".,.- " -. ".* .a-*" , diemoiherapy(or cancer patienls) aid medicaiion lo contro hiori bood prcssure r. Resructurino nc" G- r ''qapot " o orq ro pero -rn ' -." '.a -,.i.t. ^o - ; .. " " -" "' h idou'o spLrhopitals ro 'mprovewdv dpp'nderce onquahtv orsedi' e l_etr nandqemenl ir€ govp'nnent and c;nlnue ro cut dow" on -rncccs<arv cosr' ln tlB ro. help rhen m'n'mised. -o F ne1 noeprdrc a''e -'o po Jed i^"".i-".'s""a *.a* or d,'cro q orere' -" qh c nonp ol olD''o o n"'"oFd b ha ;. .,.... 'o"n -," 'hoso'"rsooroo o e o' Hoor" d_d -.o, qo.o ra 'an!ra'oq rlrio q6^ '!
  6. 6. h ndran€ (han help lo lh€ Brl sh i"*. rn"r rn" e'l"t NHS is more ol. hndrance.s the lnancLa .onlrbltons to |re Naionar fsurance contbdons has ndreased snce 2oo3 That ncreased the buden for everuone .nd r did n lhe qualtv ol lhe NHs Ali are requiGd ld cont;ibule bul nota Equre medica lreahent so lhe compusory conlribulion can be a ong tern linancia burden afd lhe sluaton s worsened as lhe contbutbn rncrcased .ne'eoo, nes "_Nl. . r"fl.e,p-ol 'd nrh€.I'ats-1"rcr a B o 'l "", b' i" -ar,m B al ^h s no^ pa,nq'o r .l' - ' o b' rreared abroJd There ae many slores aboul Brlans undeFequipped and overburdened D,,"o ee b€.c rF 1"B s 'l, 1<l'o'oorF hFato d *.--.-". "noFaoed " "prorh€B i pdop''^|d^or' 'B hearth.are n many situalons lhe NHS s always avarlab e lo prov de lhe ftst hand bas c r€arhenr and t ever lhe oalents a€ nol satsled, |rev can lurn io prv6te but more costLv med alh€ p .Referlo your lexlbook for lunh€r delais ll Thercro,e. lhe Aritsh NHs s lery b€ierclal to lhe people. especlalv the owerincome whal exlent is try.g (o conlro spending on lreathcare a drfllcull.hallenCe of he Hea lh SeNice n Brlain? Explain youranswer Trying lo 99!trql$e!di!!,qlhc4L1h@I9 is a difiicu t challenae oithe NHS in Brlain. This is because under lhe welare system lhe govl is expecled lo make heathca.e avalable to everyone free ofcharge Ths meanl lhal peope do nol havelo pay forlhe medca lrealments lhal they receive when lhey are atlended lo by doctors al c nlcs or hospilas Even though the Brtish govt has put in more monev nto the NllS. I ls nol enough to meellhe needs aflhe peope Brlan s expenencino an increase ln the demand lor heallhcare wth the srowing fumber oithe eldeny Popualion growtlr has sLowed down and the numberof peope payng tares also reduce overlime Togetherwlhthe advanceme.t n medicalscence and slate_ollhe an medlcai equipmeni used n clrnc and hosptals the costs oihealhcare are sp 6ling Ths requires a ncrease ln NHS spendinq by the go!'1 This s going out or contro Whef heallhcare costs ncrease the qolt has lo co ec( more laxes lo payfor heallhcare Thus to contrcllhe increase rn spend ng bv the qovl in heallhcare there was an increase nlheNatona lnsurance cont butions in 2003 ncrcasind efticiencv s a dificu I challense as the NHS n Brilaln This is because lhe grownO numberofelderlv wil def.leyrequrean ncrease in the demand ior heathcare Atthe same lme peope expect belter treatmenls The NHS has Srown very alge bul lhere are stiL nol enough resources lo cope wilh lhe demand Forexampe there are
  7. 7. lnsufiicienl doctots nurses and faci I es in hospitals for surqe'es Th!s Io ...'r.*r o.* I a d'1 -r 'l'arc op n'PS o jn rdorlo. o ovoinq """p". selr'6 s r o 1.u r 'na reroP loo !P 'r.a ""eo I n ease n demdrd;ver r-- vpo " po rosndr peoplc'Fltw.. ooohave to sl;n;;s w thin the N Hs F; example the people or B'ilain onen ;;itr.r a Lona iime before.ecevnq medical trealment' Thls the _o * i"o'-i'.".'q,"'". qitor'"o'r. r ' s"i,in s"t'ths " 'rleng' 'o'r'onr r ne.,trc r e.,o'o.u" o- p'ov o nq quar r. eN ce ro .,,*. o6LdFon h'irotn ", " " ;* d o t plrn o op !6, ourr'rv,eN re D ourrinq tr' ;",i."*,;d. "'-".-." ;;e.' ol lne Dd r"lrs d' lr " rop p o r/ 'll'-ase m'a'L'e' how .:","inq"r'' 'e" r".0oo 'orlqa dI qdtu'careo{ Lh hd6'ge the o5i fdctor You.selfl) 2(b) Encouraqinq sel!.e iance s to manage Sinsapore s hea ht**y.t"",I j aaree with ths statement' Ths is somewhal s miar to o!r Prelm paper. Reie'to vour prelim exam handoutror answers ltwas qiven oulwhen we wenl throlgh the sEQ section Chaptei4: Conllict in Multi_Ethnic Socielies CND: d n sri] ro rhe onn does the lack of oPPoduntlles ror unNec ry edu.atLon.onrrbure I "' sn d6'ad d 6 ,-- r",.li t*-* r;eairned rhe tPnsons beMeen rh! r:ro orcyor ..- ir,! 't'" -rai' i".rrit"rr '.t o.v @ 'ntensi'Gd ;;ii;;;;"8"J---ij c.n was b*ed m fr*r.q,'''the,::alTl':::,1:i: d r FoJc ;;; ffi-:;" -;, or rar 5 io.i- dnd <n oeqd'rLoe' crYo "hc -iL -* "" .*."r-". q ,r+i.o...* ;;-".i;it;h",;." "" +m*.4 aas -0, p.oolo re.o,ha' nb-'. n'q. ,i.i* n-, .. o_o -6.ou.c o po r€ Fdd" lonou or'o ran .-^.' -."rrr,- rr" n rhe -' "^ le5 e ,; ,i." - ;;'; . r" ' /o rh<'hF o '' € ,; ",.i ;.'. r"r' truden>r'oa''eao-dc .drces;iie more sinharese voulhs were abl€ to enler the universties Ref€r roydur sec 3 f e(aLlrR - 4 in dsrdop .€h€hber2) fo' rle orher fa'ror3 l(b) consequendes of the .onfict n sri seforc lhe connd SriLanka seen as one ofthe roLe mode countrv for manv deveiopng counlries ;;-M ;;i; Yew n the l e5os wanted lo model sinsapore aner sr Lanka This altracted a ol of ioreo- nr"'- en q ro e-'*i"-,-"o!."..rt lo'e'q.Interuenrion Th6lon '4bc$Fdn hb(i hd6€c d 13m cdnmun ^" lies ed lo the nvolvement or Lndia One or(he reasons was lhe Tamls n Sr Lanka
  8. 8. Quc ls llc !!!lllq! rore sn nvestors ost conridence n sri Lanka rhev were arraid or os ng lhe r irveslm€ni in Sr LafkaTlrey decLded lo ook e sewhere lhan Sr Lanka lor nvestmentsThe economy suflered bady due to lrr s Eefore tlre poiaid many lob opponunites were avelabe n sr Lanka as louasm rndustry was rlruirg flregn countres and loca s were rnvesling n s. Lanka Due lo Julv 1943 conl cl manv facroras and .ompanes were burni rrlany busnesses especaly by foregn€rs cosed down lher Thrs meantthat llrousands ol taclory workerc and planhtof work€rs ost the rlobs Belore lhe conflct one of the malor source ol revenue for SriLanka came trom lourism Tou sm thus was a key p aver in lhe qrolvth of lhe economy Due lo th€ .oin d counrries discourased ther pedple irom travelng io Sr Lanka Toursls w€.e a os heslant lo come to Srl Lanka Thls llrerc was a d6slc fal ln lourish'induslry resu llng n unenploymenl and os1 !r in.ome for Sri Lanka The €conony was affected badly larkans Sh Lankan Dnveh aDt ofthen hames Esr'rate.r 65 0r0 Sn shtt rcrnain as efugees A HSZ (Hi.Jh Secunty zonas) was set up by lhe S, Lank.n amvta k"ep a'rtrh€rl7E lhe ao.ess is c.ntrclled In lhese.tu.s fhe Sn Laokan a,ny.ccupied tarye p.t1s at lhe Ianitdaninated ateasn the nanh and easl atSn Lankaand h 1995 nany Ianlts tted ||hen lhe Sti L.nkan amy cane 1 ilany peaple naslly T.nts arc stiltliving in oveEt.Ndad canditions in Egugec catnps at wth etaliv.s an.J leaLn.nt af the Tanlls increases h.sntiq .anbbuling t. the vialence tn sn Lanka Anolher outdome ol lhe conlLicl was loreign intery€ntion The conil.t betueen the Sinhaese and Tam commuiles ed lo the nvovement of nda One ollhe relsons was lrre Tamls n SriLanka had comelrom lnda nlhepast SoneTamls nSriLankahadfedto nd a lo take reluqe nom the lghnng whl€ some Tam s n lnda provd€d suppod and shel€r lo lh€ LTTE qovernmenl d€cided to inletoene Il senl ils ioeiqn minsler to sr Lanka 1! medale n a daogue belween lhe Sinhaese and the Tamis The dalogue, however failed n Odober rsaT wh€n the Tani T$ers faied to ruLy su(ender their w€apons the lnd an lroops took conlrc F6no.r.berlgsTloDecemberl9S3mostorthecashesnlhenonhafdeastorsriLankawer€ q'orF"drl'e c i o" Tefsons behv€en lhe snhaese and the Tem s ed to thc formation or the LTTE The unwlingnessoflheSnhales€edqovernmentlomeetllreiilalpeaceluldemandsoftheT!mis resuLled nthe formllion ol Libelaton Tigeu of Tam EeLan LTTElelthalonyamedstrugge aqansl the sr Lankan sovetument would enabe them lo acrrieve lrre lormalion ol an rndependeni Tenl homeland in the nonh and east of the country Besdes atl.cknq lhe S nhaese lhe Taml IigeG aso altacked Tamilmembers ofthe poLcefor.e TamlmenbeG a.d supponers of lhe rulng parly and lami polltcans who did nol supponthe proposed separele stale vmenceddnolcome ony nom the Tamils The Snhaese.Lso showed ther hoslily lowards lhe Tamls sometrmes rhroughvi!enceThereweremanyncidenlsofviolencebeiveenl93landlga4DurnqlheJuy 1933 rols 13Sirraesesoldersw€rekledbytheTan Tigers rhe rols spa.ked a dng.tued confict beftveen qovernmenllorces and the Tami ligerc 'Ihe !]]9I9-!9iE!5 !!!!!9!tC of lhe conai.l s the fomalion of LTTE. FoGigi nledenton led na nly lo a como.onise ol Sr Lankassovercontvwhlearned.onlictledlomassvebGakdown n Law and order n sr Lanka The ndian government intefrened manly due lo the unrcsl n lhe counrry Thus Lnlemsollhe mpact amed conficlwoud have atlecled a lol more peope whicrr hake ir a moG hahlul efiect lhan torelgn nleru€nlion ror lhe vioence ol armed contli.l spur€d greater vloLence and h.sliily wh ch ed to many p€op e being k lled a.d p.operly d€slrcyed vioen.e aso hampe€d loursl adva s nc€ touism w.s one ol lhe man income earne.stor sr Llnka, re la r n lourisl arvas led to a oss of lobs n sr Lanka and a laLl n earn ngs
  9. 9. lrie Un versity adm ss dn c.iteri! respons b e ronlibuln9 o 'n Lafka? EXPL. n You.nswer Pefz. ro 5ec 3 f' "! 'our to the callrolc cause n i llii",n",n.,"" lh. rn.q s mo,e or a threat as the RA was radical and woud no reslate -d.nqorn.-r6atb€o.opd o'I'P'p br o "-..'"" 1""'i; i,- .'-"" .r-o ,,:;.': ";" ;'. ,.","." "r a ok -' r;'o' o"t iotaF81<u" '-,odF coooro rd Fd bno ..,,...,* "- . @ oFo qro ro d PoF'ra-n a lhF 'o ' or d"r'r ' o"-a"irn. Jrc"rnl ; ioo rhus such lrorent acts drsrupt peace and stabiritv as werr -i ..,iri- ""x",.t,r" c,ihorics hoser€vPnqelul rd'd< suppo*d blomes awarenc<sro priqhi rRA was idise bv lhe ts'{ sh u.,.-,.'. *"n .a*t *t' "l<o reluJ rn o' Cdtho ^ r,.y u" 6n" u"t "r uiot"nc. L"ads to anothera.d therewould not be anv p€ace ":lil"ll" ,".,"" ", ,". asains h' ccrhorir ,r'"" **,"*-*" '^^ rhe hole *ord ro fte o'scnminrt'on -". ;,;;;;;i,;i";; "ii1.i.i ; * *- a-' . " or ' ii",.i.'"r"."'"' "rr,.q o-' dd b rhee'I Ia' d-d i'n€, roms of d "" ' 'i".'".1 ir'" rdr *" t'ao to raise r;solvethe problem in a peacerurmannerasthevare i' Lr"ii"J-x'"qJ.. o"r"-ui"rce itto 'publicitv" shich would be an embaiiassment to the ir'" p"oii"i,v". rr,. rar *t"o a rav or hope or an avenue to th€ cathoLics to 'elease th€ir lij' r""*, "o*,0"*,n" ooLcvorminoritvrepresentaron Expla yo!r answer t12l n sinsapore? n and coheson ln Sngapore This is idod6-o tinonw,eo'.."nruton ensures socralequaltvarc nade known to the sovemnent beM;;;*rems aid reeds or be ninontv groups sociat equatjtv and cohesioA in iiii i",ia n'., *ag'*a tneir inielesrs. rhis e,sures qrp<,ro'/qo,P o.c t.,*'i*'". .,i"Li-,.,* a-.,,a,n".no,r. oo.o l'e"- o'_"' ou' orv"on oo , ocvP -nd,nc 'o DReorernu or CoD(vo Go c61o'oaodqof o^n'eo"'a'orio o-6 l'..en., .'-",", q".p ,<" F.ed l-. ron nt qroupsl ri e.ises tat no raca or relisLous sroup s dcadvantased ".a a d "iqo as a resuLl or a aw that s n-<ccd n PJ Lmenl Ine -P "n. re. rhc a "" r o"e d r" GRC syslem ensureslhallhe n norty raclaLgroups are eprei'n B"ld!g4ja!!!?!!€d!! * socia equ:itv.nd coheson ii slnsapore This is because ta-;" " *tionar identitv, we a.e united throush the strons bonds and will "nslres "h-. be more dindlul of the imporlance ot racial hamonv and the need to maintain lovallv lo singapor€. For nstance m! limc aLism promoles equaltv amonq races where everyon€ has $e --n,",r.t".* r.qro'e..ooatqouot-p'.'^one',re6-a'adu'd .-,>- ol "'iond oe r" a. , gooo da-' " sdcarcohesonlcomrlonoractcessuchassingrngnalronaanthenandtakngthepedgenculcale oy.ry and nalional pnd*lrLcri rn lurn lostersdda cohesion in mur elhnc Sngapore Moreover
  10. 10. sociarcohesron No one has an advanlage over as English sanofnalv€ arcuageforal ethnc groups Hen.e. rhrough rhe above ways buidinq a naliona idently can effectvely fosler socal etlin d s nqapore rcfers lo the l ne and prace rhat peop e come logerh€r Th s common space provdes opporonties for sngapo€ans lo nteracl Through this inleraclion, undeEtanding anong singaporeans from lhe difierent races can bedeepened and the more open communicalion takes place,lhe ess the chance of fights between peope, lherefo.e helpinq to ensure Educational nsltulofs such as schools and teniary rnst(utons are opef to €very Singaporean reqardess of lhen race, language or rcigon. Sludents rrom d fierent reces and Gigons sludy logether Thedaiy nleraction lhatlakes place among studenls durng essons:nd schoo actvtes provd€san opponunitiforfrendshipsio beculivaled and slrcnglhened The imp ementalion ol Co n schoos heps lo promole coser bonds among youlhs from a races Trr€ variety ol aclvl es conduct-Ad durng CCAS prov des opporonites for sludents to work close y wi|i Sludenls trom difteGnl races come logelher lo pay qames and work on atask Triis herpsto buid reamwork amon! rem Here are tliree areas rhar have mpacred Nor.hern rreafd as a resun or lrre Calho c conflicl poltcal nslab lny econon c deciie soca segregal on Expta n yoLr answer Poilca nstabllv Poirca nsrabirly rias beef very derrmenrar ro This s because rhe gavemnent now has to lace senous thrcats fron the terotjsts. thE ts devasiatirg tol N ketand as conriiued fishrjig teatts ta danag* to propeny & toss of tives. li has also niliErised the conflict & preven6 a peaceful solution to the Naahem hetand 6sue. Th€ Catho 6 decided (o padcpate n civi ighls marches lo put pressure on lhe N reand govemmenl The slualon worsened when a peacelulmarch nr9T2wassholalby rheBrirshArmyTheAloodySundayresulrednl3cvrransd4dTheCathoichomeswer€ a so sometmes perror'bombed by Prorestanr mobs Busnesses aid pubswhclr be onged ro Po ce who witnessed these ncldenls dd notdo anrhinq to srop Ihem t hevefalh nlhe Nodhern reand governmenl Some de.ded lo slppod m ilanl groups such as. the IRA who are prepared to useforce and v olen The con,lcr has aso affected Nonhem ker.nd's eclnomic stabfty oomestic, foreiqn lnvestment and lourism decrined .s peopre were arraid ror their safetv and tosr confidence in the economy of Northern kerand, as Nodhern keland lost irs €conomic competitiveness down tor Northem lreland. Shoos aid pq!! wlrich beong€d 1o Celho ics were aso burnl and bombed and the ocarpolce did nol do an,4hifq to stop t Fore on-owned lactores shul down when vb ence inc€ased operatng cosrs in Nodhern keland. The consianl threar ol cosl ol securly aso resulled nlhe ossollounsmrevenueforNodhernl€landseconony Fufthermore thehgh cosls or mainrenino the Bnlish Armv and orovid na compensaron ror the vcrims of lhe contlcl aso added a huge strain on ls economy Soca Seoreoalon N rcland has aso suftered lrom socalseqr€galon as a resut ofihe Prolestanl Catho . conflid People in Nofthern lreland have grown up in an atmosphere of tens on and violence. This has led lo the lack of understanding between the cathotics and Protestants, making it harderlo achieve peaceful solutions despite peaceagreements in1993.TheProteslanisandCarhocsreceiveddfierenleducalon€achplasngthe.own and condemning the deeds oflhe other Both Calho ics and Prctestanls have prejudrced or fa se op nions and vews abour each other lor exampre, Protestant ch rdGn miqht think rh.r II
  11. 11. ar catholcs supp.n lhe IRA or s a member ol lh€ LRA SimilarLl] some rsh calholc chrdren rhnk ttut a LBril sh sodi€rs are bad or.ruel Ch dren like these wilOrow up wilh prcludces and stereotypes of th€ other groups probably passno it down lo th€r n ' BXV you aqre€ lhat lhe confLict ln sri Lanka was due to the snhaa surelyyouo.edn zxp..t n rhis by nowt oth€& se, vou know wherero look ," .o^@ !--lr, . "ra!r Chapler s Bond ng Sinqapore AQS 1 (a) To what eneni was ihe un vers ty admissron dteia polcv the cause 'r Lc a T pcr o d 5rb Aqdin youore dn zxp.d in tils bynow Othe.wis€, ydu itu) Hqs'e three wav= n wrr crr sinsapoG can encourase socra bond nq Sinqaporeans a) Erhn c Lntearalion poLicy n pubichousng b) opoo''on i'es prcuded bJ €du.rtonal ns rulons .r Rae oaved br nterPaoa] oaoo'F"n''o"r'o n*. ',**,^".t o'qa'oq ^"." ord ffe€nL rar a gdups a drm.uft.halenqe'n m!ti-ethn c sinqaPore? vardqnq p. -oron or ofl.F oo.p b odooF Ihs is r""",i:"*r" uir or ,.aeiir,.oi.g 'a monq the qrouo< can crcaie s-spL'on a-d Dle lcaa'nq ro outo'eal. ol s can be;,{ly tro.e. *t'.r tre pe'repiions ol d'trerelt rac'al sroups d'e nol 'qa;-. mari'aiea property.,ror i,.stance. lhe ant PAP campaLgn orsanized bv some uMNo eaders n 1e6a;ou;d mh;tp res amonq slnsapore Malavs towerds the PAP Even with 'easslrances nosnrdbeen'q oi a'" " 'or I ee a "doc'ao"roo'ooer' and't / ** -; - o opc ad cD6rd o -. dffer€nlEcL! sroupscanbeabgthGatloSnqapore TransnalionaGrorsmisalsoabigchal€ngetosinqaporesmuli_elhncsocetvThissbe'ause itlinG"t tt*iut uo.a. or sinqapore rhis must be handled 'arerulrv as it 'an cause social division wher race and religion mav be used lo creata disharmonv among the ditfercntethnic qroups. For nstance dunnglheJemaah samLvah {J )aresls n 2001,th€rerc€ mred reaclons;mo;q lhe peope n snsaporc rhese showed an u.genl need 1' ensure lhat snqaporesso.ia doh,sonwasiolaftectedbyfteJ arcsts Hence lheaboveclearvshowshow iransnarona letronsm can be abq threatlo sng.por€ Manaqno perceotions ol differenl ieiaous orouos s aso a bg ch.l€nge to siigapore This is b*"" dlr{**n" religious b€liefs and pE.tic6 e s$6 that €n d4te tereion
  12. 12. afrong the people in Singapore. lr relig ous issues were n01 hand ed carelully, hoslilily and distrusl dou d occur, lhus afiectins the relauonships among the dlfferent reliqious graups FornslancerheMaraHeroghriotsnl950Ledlovroence.deslrucionanddearhsTrreMaaysrei lhat the Brlish eqa system was unratr to Mus'ms and eta aled aganst (h€ ELropeans and Eu,asians Hence the above c eady shows how mproper managemenl of d ff€renl €ligous qroups can b€ a bLothreallo snqapore 2b Buildng a naliona idedtly js crlca n mafaging ethnc diversily rn Snqapore Do you asree wlh th s sratemenl? Exp a n your answer Buldno. nationa denlitv s crtca n managrng elhnc dverslty n Sngapore rionaL identity, we are united lhrough lhe strons bonds and will be more mindful of tbe importance o{ acial hamony and the need to maintain loya ly to sinsapore. For nslance mull4aq!"tr0 pEmoies eqlaity smons mces wherc everyon€ has thF opporlunly (o sLc.eed lhrough merl €gadess oJba.koround sinceeveryone rsseen asavaued memb€r of sngapore. a sense of nalonal dently as singaporeans s crealed whch alows for socra coheson connonoraclressuchassngngnatonaLanlhemandlaknglhepedge ncucate lDyalty and nalion:lprd€.wrrLch nlurn fosler socia coheson nmu$€|rncsno.pore Moreover w lh bi noua sm Eng ish s used as the anquaqe inkinq lhe d ff€rent elrrn. sroups lhus r.slernq socalcoh€son No one has an advanlaqe over il as Enqlsh s a non nel v€ anguageroral e(hic qrcuDs Hence throuqh lhe above ways buiding a nallona idently can eftectvey fosler soca cohes on n mul-ethnc sngapoG sarequard no the nleEs!! ai !!c 4t!!r is a so crlica n manas ns elhnrc d v€rsily Ln sngapore lhis is because ithelps slngaporeans to cope and competewith each olheron an equal rooung, thus promoting a healthy social .ohesion in Singapore.,The poLlcy ol!]lre!1! represenbton rrrrough the Presd€n(ia councl of Mnorily R€hls (Pa/Rc) and Grcup Reprcsenbldi Consttuency lGRC) alows for llre con.ems and needs ol mrnonty qroups lo be known lolrre govenmenl.@ 'nade qta_Ie&]! slq lq!t! St!! Self-heLp,-gl!!!! Lke lh€ CDAC and Meidaki help m€mbers or lhenowncommuntywhoa€essloronat-atoSeiadandsupporllhsensu€slh3tpeoperfom rhe m norly groups s lbe ab e lo mprove then socia lnd econom c pos liois n the socely Hen.e rhrough rhe above ways, salequardng the nlerests of the minoity g@ups can eneclv€y rosl€r socarcohes on in mu I elhnicsnqapore relers to lhe lme and place ihat peope com€ logether Ths common space p.ovdes oppoirunties fo. Snqaporeans 1! nte,acl Tbrough this interaclion, undeGtanding amonq Singaporcans lrom lhedifierenl Eces can be deepened and thc more open communication takes place, the ress rhc chance of fighls belween peopc, lherefore helping to ensure socia cohesion. Educal on. nsrrur ons such as schools and led ary nsllulons are open to elery s ngaporean. regardess ol their race. anguage or GLigoi Studenls irom dillerenl races and re gons siudy rogerh€rThedaiynteracronrhalrakesplaceam!ngsludenlsduringLessonsandsdiooaclvtLes provides an oppoduiiry fdr niendshlps ro becurlvated and slf€ngllrened Th€ mplementalon ol cocuiricur Aclivlles n schools heps to promote coser bonds amon! youlhs irom aL The varely of actvlies conduci€d durng CCAS povdes opponlniles for stud€nls lo work closey wth and understand one another Sludenls irom dfieEnt,eces come roqerherro pllysamesaid workon stask Ths he ps to buildleamwork among lrrem
  13. 13. Revision lvoles tr'Epress) Th e he : M a n aqi n q I nte rn atio n al Re ! atio n s ideo ogical difiercnces lhe mal. cause of confi.i (GEs) countrieswith difiorent ideolooi€s are usuallv suspicious orone another as rhev rear thal lhe other side wil lrv io chanoe lhe r wav of ile The confl ct between Norlh and Soulh Ko€a tookpacewhen Nofth Korea suddenty invadedlhe South wth the aim oI reuhiry ng the lwo sides. Nonh Korea is @mmunist whi sr Soulh Koea Ls democratic. Trr s red to the USg6ivanizing the Uniied Nauons into defending Soulh Korea, as theywere afEid lhai itSouth Koreaierl thjswoutd Lead to an expanslon and spread ofcommunism inAsa Thereiore the Korean war o@urcd because both colnties wilh difierent ideoloqies see thal lheir ideotooical Conflict amona countries haopens because of disaoreem€nts over sfu !9999999. This is esp@iallv it these scarce resources have an ihoacl on the muntry's economic developme.t o. survival An exampe is the conilct between lcea.d and Brlain ariiain and other European counties @re oveFiishinq near lceandic walers lceland was very woiiied about this as she has few naru€ resourcs ahd depended on ihe lishing industry for he. s!tuNal. The conl rcl arose when celand e{ended ils zone of conlrol over the fishing grounds cetand was altempting lo co.hol the numbe. ot lrawleb in the waier m order lo prolect the rishing supply Britain did not asrce wih tceands exlension and rerused lo acknowledge lhe new boundary as it fetl lh.t rcetand had no riqht io enend their sonF,e o co.,or B r! n. r; h,e"- . ,ni-.-- ,r,,s rea ro clashes between rceand s ". Coasl Gua.d and Brilish iishins lrawl,ers Both bamed ois each olher fo. llre colhs cetand f na iy broke ofi dip omat c I es w lh Bria. Conflictoverteiiilo.ies lReter to out schoofs Mid yeat exan papet
  14. 14. Twh:texeni G reqio;alsjlEis-glsltb dependenl on ASEAN oopla on r 'o aivfun *e DN oi,"-..^,""',d<F^era're o rnsr 'e aoo n ' onom ! aconomic srosth to the reqion ?' q,rg h;i " 19:l.:t::lll^:l:::.."- ,^,," ."" ASEAN rsearl i! idiiiG i. 'or6s a-oout "" nrn are raoe w ^ I'e ;;;""' ."' '"' -'coop";red wr"'ac" orner ro'dc'r ,.; o;,.."N . " dso asraoisr"eo r6s wrl orns trres ad a Porn ASFAN drrs^ o Japan lot nstalfts ned ",.--. i,o" . n ,he; "ou'rts lave bere ireo I om'vpreo ;";;.;;-. i",., t"" '"0'"" rhe r€n{o' or rP'hlorosv rr.. -r.- r"-. {sFA 's af6cnve 11 oa.orng rbo-r economrc growrh o lhF ;;,.;;;","*,"'@ anlit lnviiiiiand lrese investors have neloed to sustatn tre r*ions economc s!ss$. AseAN is not etf€ctive brinqing about economic qrowth to the region ll s i. poi .iro''pute',mong reabe count Fs nrl' "."4*" ' L"-r-s -ror ,'"i^," '-"*r."lr" e.onom( o oqr,n me res or 'orF a-ol' r'orqoinq "o' ;-n., dsolG beNee Srnqapo'e rro ,la'cv:d 's ovFr P6o d Brarca odoblems todor .. --r,l't.-*"0. rheie dFao'ee-elF choo'e Io dr' J' I en ir,-uon -"qotraro* a.o ec1.g!. lhey.omelrmes ieeo'o see lne hFp oIolhP r*.-.' ;' I'e Nd,o'nle| r'onal !o_i or -Lsu''lc l '"i.."., -a oio .e _la.c" Ihic q' ow_ Ihal AcFAN rr_fs lFe powF lo dealw h . . r" ." "'cn .e' or,5 ss-es l;al ir"M n"a!:r !9l]Jrres ls J4r qL !9!ce ureqs Fates il v In I n ro.*.. err"-re rlrlqo.rc* wl"rchwir:gr'crrfp'K n" dqcEion pohncal '"roi. :i;t"4!e:eg'.. suot ;$]?ple rurmaie ' vesloB 6@ binqDsabgq!!!a!s!143lq!4[19-1!gCai9!,nd reoton.l relatrons ihrough ASEAN is not the only medts ro dchreve ."""..i'" or"*rt''o, 't'" Forging brlateral and ihte.nalronal relalions ro achie;" econom'c growrh Fot ")rmpl. sinsaDo'e s "i. "t'", i.""'. "qion. ;ilateral relations with chlfa have opened up new trading opportlnlles ls bilaleraL retalons wlth Gemany have iacilllated lEnsler of skils and technoLogv ;en4een lhe 2 countLes Thus. bv estabhshino ooodwilihrouqh b laleral relatiqns asLAN -ounrrFs t'au. o".r aore 'o .e.ure o'tFr 'raoe oeals a4! !9!a!i!!!!. ol rE t'qhlv pe "ond ndr-te ot s- 1 reldrons'D seco'dlv "..;+ riLernationat retatlo s torseo through Lhe ASEAN counure UN membetsh'p 6lso sionificart in bir;qing aboul economrc growln to the teg'on To 's ;en S,noaoo-.i.5 rcn6orF.J'r rgbq wa.ove Pp hpror'F nFDandddrre ","-"te11 ",p"-. on econom( de,-oone1, r" ou 1;E i ro I'noroores I ddrnq eE.ot rn. rs ne€loours 'n A5LAN dhlh I er pro_o"_ e o"no_c arowrn o .ne 'egrcn l!!3 !] lra!l!l!!! i:-E!r?!!!al-gclion ;6uoh th;r UN membershia, ASEAN counl.ies can be ensured afd oi oeace ]lllc!9@-liir i. t,," h" 1"" ".
  15. 15. On (3) Her€ are {hree ways in wh ch Singapore can deter iolaldelence Which oilhese s the mosretiective way oiderenino aqgression? Expa n Volranswer (JJ) craqaoorcd.lenceindustrvI. a rnporalto-'Frpl A"ooror!ff; e lo rey on olher peope for ourweapons we need to be abte 1o make the k nds ot eq!ipmeni lhat are suitable forourpueoses. and to upOrade ourequiphent ke ourFs-Erighlerjels Ourenemieswit lhen knowthal whatever rraooen our forces w lbe welleqLioped and wi be a lormdabte opoositon lo them ifrhev lrvlo attack fence thev wil rhl.k Nvice beiore anack.o S noaoore as thev knowrhar lhev wllsufier heavv conseqLefces fthev werero afiack xs llowever.lhe citizen armed force s also an etfecl ve wav otdeletrtnq dl .r. rF c, r.5l ". at dDtc boo eo r -. rp. -,.e miilarytra n ng, and even allerthey have fnished theirn tt me NS. they gel more tra ning over lhe nexl lhirleen years So n addito. to its smat recular armed lorces Sinoaoore has a taroe ooo of peoo e who are .eadv lo fiaht I needed which means lhal t rs m l tar lv se f re ianl. so anvone lh f k nc ot atlacki.o us wou d deinitelv have to th nk iwice Total defence is an mportanl detetrent Srgaporeans have to be p.epared afd sef relant n ant emergency The whoe popLtaton and noillsr the amed torces have a pan lo pay I Singapores security Totatdetence is pan otoursef retance lhrough: millary soca economc. civi and psychotogca defences l orcvides a comprehensve and inlearated resoofse lo at kinds of threat and chatenoes Flenc9oote!@ tEl 'a. - 1- p ,t14 h6, Ele l!!l!!Ie dton o -s( tne drmeo ro e "t Nalion s invovemenl in maiaging youranswer usi s examp es strcnaeAi;stioL.... '- on (s) 'Ee]!Ec{EE!!! 6lhe on yway to ensure lhat Singapore,mainta is her sovereianlv 'Do you agree? Expla n youranswer (sss) Self sLffiqiencv s in thewa! we can depend on ourseves Tt ;itzer armeo rorce citzen armed force the lormAabe Srnaaoore Def lormidabe SrncircE o@ncE norsrry a.d TolatDeierce roe, - 6[.Ln,.ie.i ooeenq onorF, c .F .. .j -qra .o e,pol - o d .,1d. o rrt d.o .r -nq6 L tsence oolerll]ql4gqeslqs th Ee !!!!!,-!419'llrql4Sqess!ls wi th nk tuice aboul alr&k na SinaaDore O; altack 0g Sinqapore O;r
  16. 16. Herce. ootenl al aooressors w lLth nk lvvice aboul altackino S nqaoore Our lom dable SAF is made up oi pemanenl as well as national seruice men AIL bodies maes in Singapore a€ €quned b go lhrough a compulsory 2yearc or miLllary ira n ng to keep themseves lpdated in miilary wafare and strateqies b times ol crisis these men are able to dele.d Sinqaporeirom anv ootenlal aaaressoG Rese0Fl trainrnos ensu€ thattheir skils and knowledqe are alwavs uodated a.d refreshed learlv ntimesofwar Sinaaporewilbe able lo rela n her soverelontv as our m ohtv armv wi be able to defeat anv aaoressors (Camnentabout sinqaporc's Defence industry an.r Total Defence) Dioomacv is anotheawav to ensurelhat S noapore mainiains her sovereiantv because onlJ bv b! ldinq mutua lrusl and respeclwllcoL.tries coooeralewth one anolher Thiswil e.sure lhat Snaapore wilhave frendswhen I s conlro ed with a crisis Exampes such as BLLATERAL relalons/ASEANI UN are on (6) wh:t eyrenl was.6nfid.ver leriiories the most the lraq I uwa I War (1990 - 991)lE,prnyolr Conllict over territories was ihe main cause oi lhe Gulf Wat fherc wete lensians aver the nqhts al undercoun<l alJesg!!99s ?!7jl as the bg!.ies tnhqited lrcn lhe Bnltst were nol well'defrned claimed lhal Klwail was depelng the Rumaila oilfield tlrat tedlorialy was of kaqL slde of lhe boder Kuwail.eflsed lo compensate raq ior ts economc loss as t claimed llrat it had only driled oi their sde of lhe field raq aso claimed some oi Kuwails letrilory (Bubryan and Warbah islands) and wanled lo ease the sands n order lo creale bener tdnsporl possbillres riom lraq Kuwail refused as il ieared hE r49!rEl!!e! lie door for lu.lher letrtorial dehands fiom lraq.FaiLng to reach any slilabe aareement lraq decided to alla.k Klwaillow n back Ihe iands H istorical resentmenl was a cause ol lhe Gulf War Alhough aticially ltaq had rccaghi2e(1 KoNalt as a savercign country nnevet.eallv acceble.l lhe state of 6!!!?!!ltaqstillfelllhalKu||ail@ashlslaicallvoaftaflraaand||anledloeclainil as ils otrn Despile q vrng up its claim on Kuwail after tac ng pressure from ns A.ab neghboursandrecevnsa slm of mofey frcn Klwait thereweleslil severa inslances where lraq lsed m ilary powerlo threaten Kuwat over border conflict overoilwas aiother calse oflhe GulfWar in lhe Middle East /rao was ohaqpt vtilh Kuwart fat tananng the quala set by APEC as il caused atlp.ices la plonnet llfellthat Kuwait s action was equivalent la waatno an ecan.ntwaron naa and lett thteatenedby 8!!94 raq had hoped to pay offils debl through the saleoiol fowever Kuwal had produced oilwel above ts assrgned lLmts Asa resut raq osta lol of €venle as 90% ot ts fcom€ czme frcm oi sale Bvcaim no lhal Klw3rltry4 l95!!!5thl9 [pI redlcinq the oi pnces. wh]ch lead to economlc d ffculties for €o raq decldqdlg a@!L&l!d!
  17. 17. fo fli-mdroJtraqnq rpacrolre Iaq lo4lc ao/o zqc-r'1 hF.F{_ L.p"' ,oLrrn.^'l The lEqi m ltan/ capabiltv was badlv desl.oved as coaltion torces had ullised stale ofthe an weapons in th-An campaign aganst lGq troops The heavy losses suffe.ed by lhe lraq s resulted in a loss ofmorale among lhe €ma n ng toops Polrca ingta,biltv in raa arose as Kurds tried lo ovedhrow Saddam as lheylell thal hspowerwasof lhe decline. llowever Saddam deat harshly wllh lhe uflsngs aqainsl him As a resul. lholsands of Kurds were massacred and amost one milon Klrd sh refugees f ed lEq suffe no of lraois was aso apparcnl ope.ation Dessen Slorm resulted n the deslruclion ofa large part of kaqi nfrastruclure A so. lhe kaqi peop e suffe€d as thev could not ca(v oul lheir da iy aclivilles due to a distupted supply oi eleclrc ty They also suffered irom a sp.ead ol diseases as the water supply n lhe colntry The Regianal an.t Envrcnnentai tnpact was anothet .tanaging resuft af the ||at The GurWat crcaled an envionhental Rtastraphe and also resuted tn. sevete dtsptacenent al fo.elan warkets which created areal sufietiho lat then lanilies ba.k b9A9 The haqtforces set frre ta Kjwaitiol wells dunped about ll nthan barets af orl nta lhe Percian Gulf, thos oreatlv lhtealeninq nanne hle and cost n ians of douarc ta pul oul the:le'jrc! 9E?! h9 9J tlbL fhe displacenent ol lateqn wo&ers was so seve.e that nealy 2 nllan foeign vtarkeE fron (nane sohe cauntries) fled taq when wa. brckE out Wokerc suppantng large lanilies back hane sDffered sudden tass al incane and created.treal solfernlt lar Towhal ertent s the worsened realiohsh p belween taq and Kuwat dle to the econom c problems n lraq ? (H ) Ecanodic p,oblens ia haq trcs o e o rle d lo hr '6d io a ad .pr io1 belween lraq and Kuwail bul il was not Ihe mosl impodant ^o lEq suilercd lremendous Losses durnq the War belween 1980 to'1989. Nol only did raq lose a ol oi lves t.lso owed US$80 bilion in debls 1o ils neighbouring couniries as we as US and Frafce The reconst.uclon oi the waFlorn lraq required US$230 b lion lo rebuid the country Thercfore lEq started lo envy Kuwat as I was a icher stale as wel as lhe fact lhal Klwall dd not want to w linSy hep raq n ts.econsiruclon angered Lraq thercby worsening relatons The issue of oil prcduction w as also anotherfactor that led kaq had hoped lhar by ea.n ng more revenue rrom the sale
  18. 18. colnt es ove. prodlced such as Kuwat and llAE and they gnored lhe quola sei bv OPEC and produced oil wel above lher assqned limts Oi prices fel as a €slllandthsmeanlthal raq osl a lot of revenue. Ihus. lraq fel frlslraled when the over productm ol oiL by Klwail caused lraq lo ose profits and lhs furlher worcened the relalionship belween lraq and Kuwail rRe,e, ro ou, s hoor 5 rorF( fo' the lastfaaa,) ne,l{ryi'. trrmlcrinies ttrat came about as a resu I of terforism: Wh ch do you lhink sthe mosl serous oulcome? ExpLar your (tl came aboLl because acls of teirorsm woud have create rl suspicon and lension amonq difierent and rclao.s n 2006 due 10 the reirorsm becomins imh nenl n ihe nternationalscene S ngapore s Prlme Mlnisler launched ihe Commun ly Engaqement Programme to ensure that S ngapo.eans are betler eqlipped lo mantain socialcohesion and harmo.y nlhesoicrss t aims lo brng togelher Slngaporeans from differenl communilies logether to strengthen nleFcommuna bonds Thereiore the socia mpacl oi terforsm had created an envro.met!.9[ dislrusl and misundersrandino thal _re-slilte!|[ aolernmenls havrno lowork out oo ces lo helo mainla n harmonv The nell impodanl faclor s oolitical impact Due 1o ler.orism. oovernmefls had lo l ohten varous conhols such as stellino uo border secur lv to ensl€ lhal lenorsts d! !S!9!19!1!!l!!qC!!ry, The borde. securily measures involved qrealer checks on travelers dentites and belongngs slowng down mmigralon cea.ance in lhe prccess litrusile eg s aton a med al counter ng teiroism lrad been ntroduced as well AE ! resu r or this poL lica m oacl or teroism. oeop,!_e- !!! 19!! 1!!rd and the.e was ntefse securitv creatina a sense of sLspicion afd dislrusl amonast The least rmporlant fa.lor s lhe economi. impacl The Seplember'llatlack had a lremendous mpact on the US as weL as the wodd lnsu.ance company had lo accounl for a tota loss LJS$40 bil of I relaUon lo loss ol propeny and rfe Funhermore lhe s!11!9..truLqsrL1!!L4OLqL!!qE!!! tic li! tq!t!! tE atlack as peoole were afraid offvina Because oilhls the covemment had lo slep n to orcvrde economic hep to the a ne nduslru to prevenl airline cornpanies im S!!!LnLag!r! t[]!e !]U-lUC!lt!!e ?t!!O?l[ To add on Io the sever ly or the s llal on the Balbombing took pace n 2002 Ths broughl aboul a huae loss n fcome earned oi loursm Many Ba nese osl ther ivelhood and once again I was Ihe governmenl thal had lo come in to Iry lo releve the economrc lradsh ps laced by the Balnese Theretore lhe economc impact of lercrsm lrad creared a sl@lo where lhe qovemments oJ afiecled counlnes had lq dilel! Lls reso!rces lo he p the
  19. 19. eco.omv recover and lhis brouohl abour a linanci: .rr: n aovernmentircmsoendinomonevlorotherourposes 'ncreased governmenl spend nq is lheworst conseaLer ee L -r,or sr rlo^ xdoyo.igee L,pa. Jo-," s,e (lrss) you,setf (No answer prcvided)..... _,: On (11) "Fore gf inlervent on was more a hindrance than a he pln tE tGq rwr r, oltr.l jo rou dgrce -,pa,.rourri we (sss) lwas a hindrance because the United Nations ileNention had brolahaupon erven more oroblems which could have been avoided (Made mattersworse) (Focused on the neqative consequences and retatethem to the potiricat, economic and social impact whenever possible) 'Operation Desen Sbrm Economlc and mlllary sanctions - US s bombng campaign agafst the tEqigrolnd troops Politrcal nslablily in Lraq duelo encouragement from coa itron eaders durng Ope.ation Dese Storm lA/eslern troops taken as hostages I was a !9b as lhe ioreisn inreoenton had broughl aboutsome peace and reso ltion (Focused on the advantages/ benefits and retatethem to the poljlical, economic and social impactwhenever possibte) Arab solulon lraq rcsponded iavou€bte to allempls by sooeArab teade.s to cal fora reso ution to rhe..nlli.t Operalon Desert Shield:sees more tha.30 coufl.ies lak fg paft in lhe coa rt of by providing lroops mi aryequpment and money use oi iorce managed to qet raq oul of Kuwal
  20. 20. on (12) elolo hpa or r r. drion.l le ro - devastal nc on counlries? Explain your answer (YTS) Teriorist acts brinq about an economic impact when there s a teiiorst altack 1ry991!at be ost buL dinosleropenv deslroved and businesses aflecled The qovehment has to soend huae amounls of mo.ev to rebuLd the couftN. and lh s neans lhat olher areas ol development I lhe co!ntry wou d be affected lhe a rlne ndustry and tolrisfr were also badv h[. as maiv oeooe were af.aid of flvina Moreover. the.q is oss of earninqs ior mafv oeooe invoved n the trave and lourism lrade as man! lourisls avQd lravellino lo a counlr! thal has 9ltllered a Ietro.isl altack Th s cou d lead to a ioss oi emplovtEll ?! ]4ell !5 !!!!qc !l !!9rlesse! Teiiorist acts put additional burden on the qovernnenl whch s expecled lo he p ndivduas adversely afiecred by terforst acls Tetrorsl acls can create a psvcholoqica lmoacl on the oeneral ooouLation Aiier. letrorlsl act such as lhe Sepl '11 allack. people are shocked and mighl be feartulol !ong about doing lhen daly aclvilles They nay be wor€d aboutJob securily as therc woud be a ial in business/ nvestmenl/tolr sts elc Excessive iear and pqGug-a.mav caLse a oerson to be ovenv susp_L9tals ?!d !3!1!9!! that hs abillv to ead a norna lfe mav be comoromsed Fe.ce aifectina Drodlcl v ly and effc ency al work or ever h s shess lelel and lhus qua!{t qL@ lnL ."n ro,er,e. rde he oLnr^ o5 ta_ a b' " orF prcdLct&tv ^or[for.e ferorisi acts resuli ln oss of innocent lives FahrLles lose oved ones and lh s cadses !ule-!se, 9!Ig!!g Teiiorism can have an impact on communal !9!e!9!S_E e qau l may cause susp c o. a!t!LG!sia! !t!!!gttic t?!!!s ethnLc and relo ous grouos f u.checked. lhis cou d have the oolentia ol deveopino into rols between difierent ethn c oroups Such tetrorisl acls aso have lhe polential to cause cedain elhfc groups io fee la€eted as lhey mghl be snged oll for ncreased secLrly checks or vewed slspcolsy by others n the commun:ly Ths miqht calse a ieelng oi a ienalon and u.happ ness amonq this qroupoipeope whch coud laLe a tolLon nalion b! ldina/rac a harmonv
  21. 21. Rev,sto" Nores f4EYpress) f h em e. S ustai n i n9 Ec o n a m ic Dev el op n enl Here arelhree slraleqies used bV Sinqapore opporl!n lies and overcome chalenqes n a -Dive6itying the economy Nurturing the gro!!,th ol smal and medlum ente.prises r 1 '1- morl rroord. sror.o lo er5. e cnqjpo-/o. ,ryh(h do u<rarn 16'6 o.omr ce dlopne ,l d 9 ood s-q '1 Eipanyoltq!9lyq on (2) impact of q oba sation outweiqhs wth ihe slalemenl? Explainyour (AE) frv it voutself (Similar to our Prelim eamiqation Gtobalisalioa brcraht aore harm than sood)........ Qn (3) Towhatextent s Slnsapores abiLly lo suslarn lls econom c aF.elopm-nrrn olob"l o ordduelo' F rrrrol F mdi " d1d vFd r F1l6 Dr.6 r<VT )) E Dld. /o. cn-Jer (JJ St!'lEs pay an impoda.l roe in S noapores economy Toda! SMEs make uo a @ ToensurelhatsMEs can conlinLe 10 conlribule lo the growth ofthe singapo.e economy. there are many schemes n place lo assist lhem. Banks hale varous oan schemes cate. ng lo lhe needs oJthe SMEs ln addtion lheAssociallon of Smalland lvled um En(erp.ises (AsME)was sel up in rsa610 provde assistance to SIVEs New companies are also granled lax exemplion on theirnrst $100 000 ncome for up tolhree years. Nurlurno lhe arowlh ofSMEs promoles S deveiopmenl as these oca businesses wlllbe able loqenerale emplovment for lhe cou.try. Diversilvinq the economv ensu€s thal ihe S nsapore econohv €marns stabe n the evenl of lhe downtlrn of one secior oflhe economv A slabe economv wolld ensure susta nabe econom c develoomenl Singapore aims to promole technooqy'ntefsve, higher value-added manufact!r ng activ tes in the e ectro. cs. chemicaleng.eeing anrl eng neerins rieds n addl@n. Singapo.e rs lenturng in(o areas like Llre Scences. whch involves lhe study ofgenelcs afd developmenl of new medical treatmenls us ng gene lherapy newdruSs and food prodlcls ihal have been geneticaly nodifed Havlng v branl setuce sectors such as educaton. heathcare tourism afd ba.king a so plays an mporlani role . increas.c SingaFores competilveness S noapore s also be ng promoted as an eriucalion and hea thcarc hub Manyforeg. un ve6iles have set !pUeir bralrcles !g!er Atthe same time people rn lhe regiof
  22. 22. t are coming to s nsapore ro seek medica l€almenl due to our hish standards oi Venturinq abroad is anolher slralegy lo slsla n Sngapore s economLc deveopme.t n a globa zlng world !ryith lm(ed 3nd and abour €sources Sfqapore has to ook bevoid lls nalonal boundarv Ths s acheved lhrouoh rea onalLzaiion. wh ch nvolves inleslinq in nearbv colnties thai have ab!ndant land, lower abour cosls and new markets The S.gapore gove.nment and Singapore based compan€s am to provde the lnfraslructure, expedise and money lo develop fdlsl aLparks n host counires ln relurn,lhe host counlrles provlde and and labou. iorSingaporean companies. Vent!.ng abroad helps to suslan Snsapores economc deveopmenl as t opens up new markets and allow us to overcome ourphysical im lalions such as sma a.d area on (4) llere are lhree neqal ve effects widen na ncome gap belvveen envir.nmental.le.radario. iil;;;i;;;ffi;;;;, serous etfecl ofolobalzation? Expla n ql (J G obalisaron has raDrdv ncreased lhe income qalbe!4ec4h4lqlt a!!l p99I natons t has esulted in rapld developmenl ln hany counlres However t has aso nc.eased the spread ofpovedy n 6any other countes The deveLoped nations are experiencing rapd income grcwth as lhey own mosl of Ihe manufacllrng aclLvlies on the olher hand, the deveLopng falions often iace kade barers mposed bylhe deveLoped nalons They are not capable of prodlcing quaity goods which command high p.ces and retch alge €ve.ue The situation ofa widen nc income oao ooses a seious oob em lo the colnlries thal emb.ace olobalzation as il nav adverselv affecl socialcoheson fnol prooenv ma.aoed i ma! ead to manv olhersocia oroblems such as an ncrease n tsowever globalizalon oflen leads Io a loss oflocalcuLture Globalsation has rcsu ted . g obalbrands such as Siarbucks and McDona d dominating lhe consumer markel n deveoplng countries These corporations wlh the r standard zed melhods of operation have oltets lhal are denlica n appearance n this w6y. these carporalons have created a homogenous culture ac.oss the word and ercded the oca culture The loss of loca cultLre ooses a se ous orcbLem to ihe counlrv because when the cullu.e 6 eroded I woud be d ff cU! !o re create Assuch lhe de.tilvorlhecount.v destructive iorce to !he natural environment When difierenl parls ofthe wo d many of them use
  23. 23. NatuE resources such aslimber oiLand melals al a Epid rale Atthesame deveoping counvies are eaqerto ga n lhe economc benefits that cohe with globaization Very ofien, the nat!€l envnonment suffe.s because .r.6s. dd.etoping .o. rt es arA n o e -or.p n6d w.h Fronoa, dev€lopmenllhan envnonmenla proleclon. Envrcnmental deoradation ooses a se.ious oroblem to the colnlr es concerned aswel as lolhe.esl of lheword brino no aboul orobens lke olobalwaminq which has far reachino conseqLences. Fulure oenerations w lsufier as a resu t ollhe i.responsible actiofs oi lhe present qeneratiof on (5) necessafr lo ensure economic (uss) on (6) Ercbi> nq niche induslres loeLralr/alion in devF oping sper rir induslresd.ounlryisqoodat) c h-b--r^d,.o rtrrd a.o10-1[,6adopro 6.o.orr d-v-too e I todrd.da/ou asree? Expiain Vouranswer (USS) rry ityoursetf (No arswer Frcvided)........ on (7) s able to help Singapore overcome chalenges Do you agree? Expla n vour answer (sss) Lbqst!s3!s!9 s9!E Cnlole because berno lhe caretakers or lhe cou.lrv- ihe qovernmeit must know howto pan and alocate limited €sources and come uDwth Dractca and lono-teh soLulions ioi chalenoes n a a obalisna world A Knowledge Based Economy {KBE)requnes the S nqapore workfo.ce lo learn and appy knowedqe as Singapores competilveness w I depend on its people s knowledge crealvit, and innovalon With R+D Srnqapore is abe lo develop ils own talenl poo aod lechfoogles and create new and belter prcducts The panfe.ship oi S.gapore ocal enterprses with natona research inslilllions wllcreate new ideas methods and prodlcts lhat can be so d in the world ma,kel. lnternallonal padnershlp bendee. S ngapore and China, tnd a and Germany promole Science and technology exchanges. which n turn strenglhen Singapore as a KAE. as vitaland useiu resources and infornalon are needs the coopeEtion ofthe SMEs - need brave new eade6 io venlure oveBeas need the qhl lvpe olforeiqn talent tEIEq4t!9 lllportance ofthe remainins parties above) lr
  24. 24. on (8) 'GobaLLsation is more a hindrance than a heLplo S noapores economic suNival ' Do vou aoree? Expain youranswer Try ityourself (Similatto ou.Prelin exami.atio": Globalisatior brcught norc harm than good but the focus ofyout answet sholld be very much Sihqapo6base.l- Must look at Sinsapote's vulnenbilities Es Snall & Open econonv and aDDIvlhe aclvanlaaes & Droblems oI qlobalilalion accodinal ' r iTFr€yement in the 6radards 6. ivinq i6 tl.e biqqedtimFa6l6l 9!9@lE4roF+dy99 ag€€@YoKs) To whal extenl isdversifyng the ebnomy the mosl eilective wayto ensure thal Singapore remains competitive in a globalising wond? cGs Readthesptendidanswetptovi.led......,........(Donthavetoptovideallthe examples. Just pick o.e example for each splanationl) on (10) givsifo rFqlhe€soFri6 rh+bes{ sl.€leqyl6ssuresinsap6ret Explai+yH 'ln assessng iheefiectiveness of globalisalion. there is a greater impacton ihe economy ihan on the environmenl.'Do yo! agree? Expan yo!.answer (CGS) Read the sptendid a,swer provi.ted,,, .,..,, ,....,.-(Don't have to provi.le all tha exanples. Just pick one exanpte fot each exptanation!)
  25. 25. on (9) rAn ]RFl]rt€rrsli4th€ slsdarrls oi livic€j;ri€+€€€s+epa€t€i I cl9bSliialrg!+yole9€!:4qF ro Jj|lwer- (ye(q To whal enent s diversting the economy the most efiective way (o 6 rurc,tdr. nodporo p c .orpp tE n"9oo"h.r1q(o,o, (ccs) Readthesplendi.tanswerprcvided............-...(Don'thavetoprovideallthe e1q'ples. Just pick 9!e exanpleforeach exptanation!) Bindq{. p'o rr*3r6nPeo ai5wA ^x{do co we;6'reman@m@"{ nton Eduy siven rador aEdher6dors lNo h _l 9A oesqi6ds qivei racro,. Alq orher bcrors tNo ni ro quesr onar Erp ahs qivddracro,, qaotherhdors l"- 4totutcrqLalL rA srar) E!: :d up b b!rd !p sns: ponord r!0 esard resois 0qt w be btr r n Maia 3a! aid
  26. 26. fheeta'e di!43 ritebe eMt s decrve lay ro marc !r!l 9E .p,1,"trd 9A SiBlteE Eanils le
  27. 27. s! aqEemc s c-rat !ir dss coudros srqaDo4 [as aiso mmnred AE Deleopned ao3i.y (wDA) tr6 sb oa! c .ur o(,!n + s 1l:,,H,ltil;'1,ii.'riiii:i l".,iT. " aono 0s$* sm$ ao &Ls o€l4 b e,r' nq; oyDNirr Lt
  28. 28. @btAgGbhrmlF":€adybh440%d dl'h!str'.iGLd:shJ5!Fqneq wr;rci! hd ce p irc shs 'ihs s b msre sd tutc @ rddfi !F bn d b*aL* bnd rea o qbi ie5 i De emtrr tse A]]he'nkfJlDr . -,... h1.n'd, he ! rridtr* --"n,ed ,;dvdr-mts src ., ,; , --" rcLur! ras dm4 te Frc6 pb. ';fros AsqEy INEA) rqdh.r t h e re b re @!@j!stete!Eet!@!u 1,
  29. 29. an {r 0) 'D{FbA4€+" -.'{rJ5€4 r tqe+e$ s reqJ_eesr+._+!rp4 l'+€o!€qr3rew+zFs ta{€ }1Hqr;! +*b lo.( I Exl@qrgret ",l.l.$€i{, 1Y€r<9 n,sse rng tr- er-.r' sfu q obc or her- r. q.ea.-l 'mpd ro I'aF.oror) llrlon r",nFrr Doo, .g.e". " Read the sptendid answer prcvided........----trbon t, lqqs) eaoN@idaaike exanptes. Just plck one exampte rot each expt,nation!) I Dcstrbes i sidelNo iik b quod ond $e sndt Bo'hffi r. t{o h. d. ;sr. ';qJ.{,o 7 aars bt 4r exdandtan a, lstd,a ^wad ndlcd is r buya podd;6c
  30. 30. rie daleropedcou ,6 a Gbbd'suq lrtiE?lra ,t) )
  31. 31. idemlaienomolsquadlyol re eiiaroi: Eie,q, Aqeicy (EA) oipeds 8ieioy Lse to srcv ty fhereto.e dobjtjqtb! has a oreat j4@e1 e! tnEquj,rla@1 ido ood 3... A .o ,r t. -:'
  32. 32. Reursion Notes laEpress) Thene: Facinq Challenges and Change an (l) To what exlentwas good leade.shPthe nost impodant reason lorlhe R se olVenice? Expain yquranswer (UN) Yes, qood leadershio was the mosl imponant.eason Vencewaslorlunatelo hale had a number of very good and capabe lop leaderswho took steps lo make herstro.g and weahhy F rcI. there was Doge Pieno lorceolo who brclghl peace by reconciing the feudrng ciles negotrallng lrcalles wlh malor powers a.d subdu nq lhe p rates n oamata Nen. Doge Enrco Dandolo. bv d reclng the Founh Crusade n lhe 12ih cenlury and capil. izing on crclmslances. weakened lhe Byzantine Empne and caplurcd Constanlinope Th s broughl lecognit o. irom the other slales and he ped Venice to contrclsofre otlhe Lmpodant tetrilones whlch had once beonged to the Byza.l ne Emp re Fina v Doge Petro Zani lollowed a. exFansbnst poLcv and extended Vefice s controLoverthe Meditetranean Sea As a resLll-due lo lhe work ofherlaLsiahted leadets venicewas svstematicauv ttansfomed from a snall citv state into a hude poweiul and weafthv matitime emone. otlreriaclors forlhe rse olVenice such as lhe relorms in oovernmentlhal were lnderlaken Frcm the l2i'cenlury onwards cha.ges were made lo the slruclurc oi governme.l One chanqe was the crealon ofthe Grell councL made up olmen lrom lhe mosl powerfu and nfluentia Iam es in Vefice This councilhad mutipe roes io perlorm rncuding lhe eeclion oicapabLe members to aL co!ncls and the pass ng oi aws ltwas aler reorganized. wth lhe formation oflhe Senale. n lhe 13"'cenlury so that il could focus on the more mporlantdules Forexample t oversaw iorer!n relalons matters commerc al matters a.d lhe operalons oi the Venelan fleel These changes we.e necesstaled by lhe newchallenges lhal wee Dosed bv ven.e s qroMh To ma nla n a syslem ol checks and ba ances on power held by lhe top ofiiciaLs. ihe Counc ofTenwasformed tcouldeven im l lhe power oflhe Dose and deatwllh crlLca matleB such as lhose concernlng the nlernalsecurily oflhe slale As a rcsult ofthese aovelntuental chanaes venice bLiltup a svsten of daretnmentthat was well bteaaredto meetthedemands ofthepeoble and the drowina citv-state. fhus this was an imponantreason Various trade developments and expansion also payed an Lmpodanl parl ln the ise ofVenLce Foe instance. Venlce displayed a hiOhly poslNe and aggress ve aluludetowards trade lwas sk fu al obla n ng favourable ternrs oilrade compared lo lls compet106 such as Genoa andsohad.iedgeoverlhem Funhermore the Vef el ans showed an enterpns ng spir l whLch look them lo d sta l nr: ni i3r lands . search of new routes and.ew ilems ol lrade as we I rs.ew markets Ths helped venrce to erow n tEde Addilonaly ven ce nrade good use of advances rn rna l me lechrology ( n the ire ds ol iav gal or and we:po.ryl These qale venet an vessels lo voyage even nwinlerlhe ven ce s superb ship. b! Idin! sk ls led to lhe construction oi vessgls ll9!!t9r! superor to those 91the{
  33. 33. f competilors The arhed Venetian great Oalteyswere abte to ranoeludherthan before rnd so help expand ts kade reach. Added 10 thiswaslhe states efticienl manalemenl syslem lor alLvoyages made by Venel an ships fhus.lhe sttonq, positive ahd aaarcssive aditude that Venice looktowatds trcde, aided bV innovatians in mailime technolodv antl an efficient svst.m.f hanaqenent of tra.|e, hetped oush Venice ahead of its tivats and to rise to ProtuinenLe and ueatth. I'was because oi ts i.dlstrial devetopment thal Ventce.ose up These developments werc prompted by the expanston oiVenice s trade For nstance,the 'd- ,hob.ildila o-.ry -e rop-od.r-F^r)dndt --p pa.e d{h rt - o-mdlo io'o6rioJl6rsirf d'l --ur) par-rrroFld er1eba,.ooneot 6n,c5 marillme lnduslry and power As Venelans grew wea lr er, they began to demand forgoods such.sgassware Ths in tuh led to the growth ot manuiacrurnq p l,rF$ rno sti" <,1as' ep rins o s,.dt VA "- oi . edr o o - abs r!!t !!!!t!!E!p!9l9pI!!!L!eJp9&3!r!AJ9 nare emplovmentwhich attacted even foreiq. talents to venice. The industries heloed crc4e mote waatth fot Venice and in that wav hetDed itto 4!q af (2) Ma lme compellon was lhe mosr serous cha enae ta.ed bv Ven ce n the pe.od behveen the 14lh and 13th centures -uw,r !o you.gj::lt! 11 -r' trswer i l'ror/ qrlgrou q9r9!t{!![ ![qv eqE]d!]!l.!r r-we (u) (uN) ,'enqF , r:- 5 ri., ol the Portuglese succeeded I pioneering a few sea irade roule to lhe East. As a rcsult, thev destroved Venice s nonopotv of the lucrative sbjce thde and areatlv teduced the lafte prcfits which the Venetian traders had eaned o* nJ"o,o ul.ron ". a-;;re;re1;T;;;!G- Medlleranean Sea Ven ce also expanded ts trade to the Nodh Sea Flrther Trr i .Fdllarc6 j .d-e .on,r-t, teDJk1".o he, nghs, to.. - he -' ^toaom ns rhe Venerans T.r! rooroa- tpr)rppr6, thus bjpasr This aftecte.t venjce's position asan e;iebot p94 The Oulch and Britrsh had betler desgned shps than the Venetians too esa Lesult otthese naaitime challenqes, Venice imposed a prctectionist potjcv. Ihev iOboie.r hiqherduties on roreidn tattets. This poticv d/oi;i;e;- awav from Venetian pons. Thus Verice last some ot itsttadind partn* Anolher ser ous crralenge faced by Ven ce was lhe io€isn threals coming toh three sources Fisty lher nvovemenl in the ma n ard was brolght abo;r by ther desire lo protecl rhe I tertores a.d commercial tnre€srs Th s th;y d d by taiins advanlageofthe valry among the maint.nd states Ve.tce constanliv swlch.,ad 'q ar6 rhr atlacked)and soVence had 'to buid up a mercenary army Anotherthreatwas ^o
  34. 34. from lhe Olloman Empirewhch compeled wLth Vencelor conlroloi lheAdnatic Sea Vencehadlouse ts preclous galeys to lghtthe Oilomans This disrlpled iis use oigalleys for lrad ng purposes Aso, to conlaf lhe Ottomans Ven ce tred to strke a baance of powerwith the Onomans and their European neighbouB al lhe same I me. This action calsed itsE!!9p9?!r Dejsbb9llslq dey hostilitv towaKts venice. enice s growng inluence in lhe reqion made t unpopular among the varous main and states This led them to creale a m litary aliafce againslVen ce llwas known aslhe League oi Cambra ll foughlwars agalnsl Venice and had some slccess n laknq oversome ofVenices tertories As a rcsuh ol the manv wats foudht bv Venice adainst its various fareidn threats. venice's reaources were weakened. This forced venice to take the unpopular steo of raisina taxes to tinance the emolovmenlol its nercenaN Politicalchallenges also posed a serous challenge toVence Prosperily brought wth it aweaken ng oithe governmenl. rhs gradually led lo Ven ce s poltica dec ne For exampe. the shrlnking numberofnobiily as olderfamiles ded aflecred lhen appoinlmenl 10 the hghestofii@s Polc es were created nollo serue the inieresls oflhe ciiy slate bul the seflnleresls oflhe nobiLly From lhe 16i" cenluryasmall grcupof rch noblesdominatedthe government Asaresut renewa of eadership became a cha lenge and coruplion became nevrabe Due lo lhe poicy oi.otation oldulies, evef when tlrere werc no competenl oflicets ava able 1o take over power was handed lo incompelent oriiceF. Ths led 1o disastrcus consequencesforVen ce Ln ilswars againsl lhe Ollom.ns fro example There was a so qrow ng conlption in thegove.nmentas poor nobles sord the r ates al a hgn pi.e. This meant that leadership was determined bv wealth and nottalent ot capabililv. fhis led to incomoetent leaderstakina oositions in qovemnent. Duero its snal population and nanv enemies. Venice becane over-dependent on mercenaries to fiohl itswats. This was a cos v decision as the lovafty af these ttoops was quesircrab/e. CE5) Do it yoursetf( Refet ta yout notes on Venice)........ On (4) llere are lhree.easons rir. -Corupl on n lhe govemmenl The discovery oia new hade roule Which orlhesewas more responslble for Venice s dec ne? oo ityoursefi( Refer ta youtnates on venice)
  35. 35. on (5) Doyo! aqree lhat lheVenelanswere responsble iorthe r own dec .e? Explain yo!,answer 0!A!e!Y!E49t!91 (cvs) e responsible as the "J") svstem of The Venetians were resDonsible lor their own dectine ?5rll entire then aovernance became weak and co(uoted All these were lhe result ol ooor inlernal pann na and superulsion lhat escaaled Lnto senous ooltical. economlc and soclal prob ems that brouoht about lhe ercd!4 dlrlllqlL Sl !!!taq The.e we.e fewel peope lo choose from as Venice faced the cha of a shrnkng poo of nobilty With fewer peope lo take up posito.s lhe quaily ol eadershp weakened As more power and wearh were n lhe hands oi a iew iamlies lhey used lhe qovernmefl as a oo to fu.lher then own inleresls al the expense ol lhe cily-slates The rolalon oi dulies also meanl that a compelenl officer wolld leave offce aJter one lerm. n unfonlnale cases. an rncompetenl office. would be chosen An incompetenl leade. or oflicer woud nol be able to pan or mpleme.l polcies to -ansur.ave.l..a's s! Co.ruplion becanre lhe nor;irom the rsrh cenlury onwa.ds Eectons were rigged throuqh the buyifg oi votes There were also nstances of pos I ons being sold to rarse funds for lhe governmenl 10 fght wars At the core of lhe governmefl. coirlplrcn added lo the ineflciency of the clyslale This was due to ilre appo nlmenl of incompelent eaders who were less concerned wlh lhe development of lhe cily slate wth irs smar popuation. Vence was unable lo form a sizeabe amy ior ils expanson n the manand lt therefo.e employed mercenaries As lhe VeneiLans becanre more weathy and compLacenl lhey slarted lo beieve that lhey could depend on mercenaries to nghl lheirwars and became depeide.l o.lhem withoul ihe commlmenl ol its peope Venice coilnued lo depend on mercenar.s Ths was unwise because I ed to increased erpendture In addtion venice's weath o.onorb.,or!,e..omTa- lo 'lPmE - oi4 Veice oile. look ldlanlage sta(es and oifered lo hepone right againsr Ihe orhe. Vefices lnvolvement n the frarnland draied lhe clly slales ina.caland manpower resources as t had lo employ a mercenary army 10 fighl ls balt es I was a so cof slanl y al rsk ol be ng atlacked by aeer states as there was no certainty wh ch a iance wou d ultrfraley beneiilVenice Conslanl balles touqhl .lhe region also afiecled vences overland commercal Ihe Venetians were NOT responsible for their own decline as develooments outsde ther countres lexlerna deveLoomefts) whch are bevond ther contro beqan to affect them polticarv econoncalv and 99rq€lly. The Oltoman Empre expanded ts .iuence bolh by a.d and by sea Al sea t cha enged lo lake over oulposls belonging to Venice A mlllary campaign agansl tlre Otlomans was launched in 1463 l-owever Venrce fouoh( againsl lhe Ollomans on ts own A lhese reduced lhe ledtora power and inflence of Ven ce as a grcal cily slate By conquerng ands aong the coasls ol the Mediteifare.i aid Adralc seas lhe Ollomans colld €unch altacks on Venel an sh ps As a resL t. Ven ce s lrade was bad y atlected and thal afiecled Venices economy badly
  36. 36. on (7) How farls nilialve and roresighl oiihe Venelans an imponant !9qq9! iorihe olvenice? E,paln your answer se (ossl Do h youtself( Refet to you. rotes or Venice)........ on (8) Wh ch is the more imporlant iaclor thal led to the dec tne orVenice : Fore dn Thrqql!!4l9!9!challenses? Explain your answer (oss) Do it yourse4( Relet to yout notes on venice).,....-.Make use or the infomation from Qn(s)ta explain the Foteisn Threats (Extemal Facto) and Soc ial Chal I en s e s (t nte rn at Facto 4 on (9) Towhal ertenl waslrade monopo y rcspons be it increase in Venice s kadeT E,pla n you answer. (sMs) (Factors that improve Venice's economy) As Vencewas strateqlca ly located at lhe nodhern tip of the Adriatc Sea. centra rnd Soul Fl lLop- ph-do-rF.e elcn)'o goodc r'on l- Lo>t .., d sprces, sugar and even d anronds usrng a comb nation ofovedand and sea.outes they were abLe to buy and aler selllhese goods to olher slales. These ooods wer. sold al a verv hioh prrce. endblinq the Venetidns lo reap ta-ae o/otits. Unlike Genoa and the Hanseatic Leaque, Venice was able to provide a tarqer varielv ofooods from th€ East. The European states had verv titUe choice otherthan to buv from Venice causino theirtrade lo increase Tre Venelans aso possessed an enlerp.s ng spnt To slay ahead otrhe compeltion fortrade lhey expored new lrade.oules, slpp es afd markets by lrave ng to unknown ands Forexampe lhe Poofam ly took catcutated rsks lo extefd lEde furlher from beyond the Midd e Easl. Their exotoration ofthe alqrland kade route to China earned Venice qood relations with counrries the Far Eastenablinq itto increase its trade. Wlh lherextensve knowledge in shlpblildins. the Venetiansdesraned and buir superiorvesseLs to meet then sailng needs Therefore. untike traditional sail ng sh ps, the Ve.etian feet was prope ted by bolh oa.s and sa s Therefore th--y did notdepefd on wind aofe This enabled them to travetfu.ther. thus. facitirarin the erpansion of 1.ade and ter.itorialqonirol.
  37. 37. --n (1dt T rh*ysrm oi swment was more ot a n rdrance thaf a he p to Venlc; How rar do vo! asr-'e wlh lhLS stalement? Exp ain vour *n lffil. "to*.me ,*.o@ or,h.drc rn"n " r'"rp r"- + {sru9 ".*" r." . ,*,a"i-oc.,-. n t--o"q'11-qb ^ano'rbr" o ^o/-d overcome some chalLenqes as lime passed The rotalon oldlties ensurcd lhtt no indivLdua o. famiLv coud domLnate the governmenl tslaw s lhatcompete ofi.ers woud halelo leave ofiice after onelerm This meant that incomtetent -"6ole could be saiected to replace and in times ofcrisis this was nota qood Mo,eov",, many not." who were p€vrouslv scholars compeled lo serue as ;;lcommande6 in thewars againsl lhe Oltomanselen rhoush thev d d nol have ol>-oi--, e, - '4ed ' "r., o e5 n ba "' Ihrs slows lhete weF lraws rn lhe wdv the V"n'lian ove;nment selected iis naval comru!dq$*!9!9l44sj! ! the leaders selected and theskills required -lOeg. rdraqree,a,l- 5-r o go/e m'nre.. 'd ho ooooFm abe''wc- d o po^,d. "" -;.", counc Lnlneoo,cnm6nr rherc s Ihe ..n ofTen th;lwould monitorthe acuviles oforganzatons and ofticals lo ensure lhal there were no coftupt practices or abuse ofpowerbvthe Doa"o d,"rqr'J d c01 _dce rplo .oo.arm6 wo d " o o J"ao," oe- L ea b. or- .o o d" '. rlr s lncluded the Dodge h msef There was Noo o ^r dooar'lr*dnd the Nominalnq Commillee added lo rha e e.l on Drocess to identilv slilabe mae candidales ior allelecled p.ocess to .reirfv surtabe male cand dales for a leiecled positions through the process of baLot;q Sqch a svstem ensured thatthe qovernmentwas efiicientand clean ll,lso ;etrithat the qovernmentwould workfor!he beneritof the counlrv and rlris is deiinite v a help