Week Vii (Puritan Period)


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  • History of English Literature/Week III/Yusuf K,SS,MA
  • Week Vii (Puritan Period)

    1. 1. History of English Literature Puritan Period (  1620 – 1660) The History of English Literature, YK, 2005/2006
    2. 2.  Puritanism <ul><li>Spirit of Puritanism </li></ul><ul><li>Emerged in England after Protestant Reformation & Anglican Church in 16th century </li></ul><ul><li>From religious movement to opposing movement </li></ul><ul><li> Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>James I & Charles I  despotism towards their people </li></ul><ul><li>Charles I was punished to death </li></ul><ul><li>Founding Commonwealth government under Oliver Cromwell </li></ul><ul><li>In 1660 ended with restoration period –Charles II. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Literature during Puritanism did not have unity of soul </li></ul><ul><li>Gloomy, sad </li></ul><ul><li>Loosing its romanticism, gradually changed to be critical & intellectual. Tended to stimulate the mind rather than the feeling. </li></ul>The History of English Literature, YK, 2005/2006
    3. 3.  New Styles in Poetry <ul><li>‘ Metaphysics’  by John Donne (1573-1631)  signified by mind & expression, excessive metaphors, too-free imagination  difficult to understand </li></ul><ul><li>This exemplified others poets: George Herbert, Richard Crashaw, Abraham Cowley, Henry Vaughan. </li></ul><ul><li>The sources of inspiration: love and religion </li></ul><ul><li>The greatest poet: John Milton (1608 – 1674) </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare & Milton  two powers controlling human: emotion & faith </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare: emotion, love, hatred, jealosy & ambition </li></ul><ul><li>Milton: faith and unified goal </li></ul><ul><li>World’s lives are temporary & trivial </li></ul><ul><li>Early works: On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity, L’Allegro, Il Penseroso  describing beautiful sceneries </li></ul><ul><li>Moral-purpose works: Masque of Comus, Lycidas </li></ul><ul><li>Sonets’ themes: patriotism, obligation </li></ul><ul><li>Areopagitica  defence to free politics & free press </li></ul>The History of English Literature, YK, 2005/2006
    4. 4.  New Reign <ul><li>King Charles II came to throne </li></ul><ul><li>The return of Monarchy to England </li></ul><ul><li>Milton’s hope (country based on Christian) dispersed  his work Paradise Lost </li></ul><ul><li>Paradise Lost  Adam & Eve </li></ul><ul><li>Paradise Regained  the winning of man over temptations </li></ul><ul><li>Samson Agonistes  Samson (a blind Israeli who was the slave of Philistine) </li></ul>The History of English Literature, YK, 2005/2006
    5. 5. Development… <ul><li> Prose </li></ul><ul><li>Fancis Bacon (1561 – 1626), Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679) attempted to make the readers realize that the problems at the time could only be faced attentively & rationally. </li></ul><ul><li>The clash between Anglican & Puritan followers had impact on the increasing number of prose </li></ul><ul><li>The Authorized Version or King James Bible (1611) released </li></ul><ul><li> Drama </li></ul><ul><li>After Shakespeare, drama experienced a drawback </li></ul><ul><li>Theatres were closed down by Puritan (1642)  considered as the source of evil </li></ul>The History of English Literature, YK, 2005/2006
    6. 6. Restoration Period (1660 – 1700) <ul><li>Since King Charles II back to throne  extreme ecstasy in way of life  immorality </li></ul><ul><li>The absence of themes of Elizabethan period  realism & formalism </li></ul><ul><li>The artists were against the old styles & values </li></ul><ul><li>Simple way/ style in writing </li></ul><ul><li>Formalism: the obedience to follow the rules and orders in writing </li></ul>The History of English Literature, YK, 2005/2006
    7. 7. <ul><li> Poetry </li></ul><ul><li>John Dryden (1631 – 1700): Heroic Stanzas on the Death of Cromwell , Panegryc to his Sacred Majesty , The Hind and the Panther </li></ul><ul><li>He was well known for his satirical poems: Absalom and Architophel </li></ul><ul><li> Prose & Drama </li></ul><ul><li>Dryden: Discourse on Satire, Essay of Dramatic Poesy’ </li></ul><ul><li>John Evelyn & Samuel Pepys  their diaries which were written with daily language </li></ul><ul><li>John Bunyan: The Pilgrim’s Progress from this World to that which is to Come (The Pilgrim’s Progress) </li></ul><ul><li>George Etherege ( The Man of Mode ), William Wycherley ( Love in Wood, The Country Wife, The Plain Dealer), William Congreve ( The Old Bachelor, The Double Dealer, Love for Love, The Way of the World ) </li></ul>The History of English Literature, YK, 2005/2006