CPV Summit USA 2009


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CPV Summit USA 2009

  1. 1. ( Área reservada a imagen ) TITAN TRACKER: the new concept CPV Summit USA 2009Hotel Sheraton Mission Valley – San Diego Carlos García García February 3rd – 4th, 2009 Engineer Manager - TITAN TRACKER
  2. 2. A CHANGE IN CONCEPT In 1968 Dick Fosbury invented a new way to do the high jump. He was the first athlete who used this new technique which led to him winning the gold medal in the Mexico Olympics In this way, he beat Russian athletes who had been improving the conventional technique during previous years. Nowadays, all the athletes use the “Fosbury” technique. 2
  4. 4. 1. BACKGROUND1.1. Evolution At first, solar parks used FIXED systems Gradually, different systems appeared, with TRACKING: 1-AXIS tracking •Mounted-pole 1-AXIS polar tracking 2-AXIS tracking (mounted-pole) 2-AXIS tracking (TITAN TRACKER) Mounted-pole system is the most common one but lacks reliability because of its own conceptual characteristics •TITAN TRACKER Due to inertia and a lack of alternatives, despite its shortcomings, which were even more obvious for CPV, an attempt was made to use mounted-pole systems in CPV 4
  5. 5. 1. BACKGROUND1.2. What would the ideal tracker be for CPV? Solar trackers are critical element for CPV installations. CPV technology needs trackers and vice versa. Nowadays, modules are being made that are adapted to the precision of the trackers and not the other way round. So what would the ideal tracker be like? RELIABLE ACCURATE COST-EFFECTIVE TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLE TITAN TRACKER fulfils these ACCURACY > 0.01º < 0.1º requirements. RELIABILITY ≈ FIXED << FIXED COST << >> 5
  6. 6. 2. RELIABILITY2.1. The concept of TITAN TRACKER What sort of structures have demonstrated reliability during the history The Eiffel tower was built in of engineering in the long term? 1889 during the Expo, with a weight of 7,300 tons and 300 m of height and was considered Eiffel tower the tallest construction of its time Electrical pylons Many examples All these constructions have been made using 3D truss using screws, exactly as is done in TITAN TRACKER This manufacturing technique and the geometry of the design mean that TITAN TRACKER is practically as reliable as a fixed structure 6
  7. 7. 2. RELIABILITY2.2 Structure based on 3D truss 3D truss based on cold-formed sections The support structure is based on a 3D truss using mainly cold-formed sections of steel: Cold-formed and rolled Normalized and standardized Screwed Hot galvanized These cold-formed sections have a perfectly tabulated and tested “C”-type cold-formed section behavior under extreme loads 7
  8. 8. 2. RELIABILITY2.3 Structure using screws Detail of different joint elements Structure based on screws, no welding, except when strictly necessary In this way, the following problems, which are usual in welding, can be avoided: Early corrosion Residual strain Specialized staff Discontinuous galvanizing X-raying of welding Screws, flanges and rivets TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLE STRUCTURE USES SCREWS WELDED 8
  9. 9. 2. RELIABILITY2.4 Five supports B It is an obvious but crucial issue to assure reliability: Five supports 1 fixed support in the center (A) 2 non-driven rolling supports (B) 2 driven rolling supports (C) C A Fixed support C “Driven” support TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLESUPPORTS 5 1 B “Non-driven” support 9
  10. 10. 2. RELIABILITY 2.5 No bending moments or embedding The structure works without bending If we assume the presence of a load, q moments, only compressions on the (wind effect) applied on the panel board in ground on the rolling supports and a vertical position, that load is transmitted to the ground through the structure and compressions, traction and cutting shared at the supports as the following in the centre types of stress: There is no embedding Horizontal cutting on support C TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLE Compression on support A BENDING MOM. NO YES Traction on support C EMBEDDING NO YES FOOTPRINT << >>Decomposition of the wind effect Equivalent System WIND (q) •<> A C B A C B 10
  11. 11. 2. RELIABILITY2.6 Minimal deformations in the structure Horizontal bar The panel board is tightly secured to the structure: On the top bar of non-deformable truss At one point (pusher- spindle) For this reason, with TITAN TRACKER all possible deformations Point- pusher (spindle) are less than about l2, where l would be a characteristic dimension. TITAN TRACKER support elements: one line and one point In the mounted-pole, the panel board is supported only at two points situated on a projecting beam and one of those points is also a Point mechanism. TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLE PANEL SUPPORT BAR + POINT POINT DEFORMATIONS < l2 l3 ONE-SUPPORT FAMILY support elements: only one point 11
  12. 12. 2. RELIABILITY2.7. Structural calculations Structural calculations of TITAN TRACKER Structural calculations with wind coefficients according to the standard NBE-EA-95, Basic Standard for Steel Structures in Buildings, much stricter than the EU Machines Directive: Calculations under unbalanced conditions in vertical from wind loads Calculations under unbalanced conditions in horizontal from wind load Calculated for the static loads in any position under the following wind speeds : 125 Km/h (78 Mph) for FPV 122 Km/h (76 Mph) for CPV. 12
  13. 13. 2. RELIABILITY2.8 High structural resistance High structural resistance, at any position of the panel boards, even in vertical. (1) Elevation angle formed by the panel (modules) and the vertical plane (see drawing) That way, we consider different positions 80º, 45º and 10º (the most unfavorable case) (2) Component is the part of the tracker considered for the calculations: the board (modules) and the body (support structure of the boards) (3) Average static wind load calculated for each m2 of the module in Kg/m2 (4) Vertical imbalance in wind load considered in Kg/m2 (5) Horizontal imbalance in wind load considered in Kg/m2 (6) Horizontal static wind in km/h generating the average load give on each m2 of the solar module with the indicated inclination (based on wind coefficients of the Spanish standard NBE-EA-95) ≈ means that the data are only extrapolated from other detailed calculations. (*) With the board in the indicated position, it would support this static wind and also the structure would support it (**) With the board in the indicated position, a static wind of 216 Km/h would exhaust it 13
  14. 14. 2. RELIABILITY2.9. High structural resistance High structural resistance, with any position of the panel boards, even Horizontal unbalanced wind load vertical. Vertical unbalanced wind loads Horizontal unbalanced wind loads Vertical unbalanced wind load 14
  15. 15. 2. RELIABILITY2.10 Independent driving and structure Support Support Driving The driving and structure are completely independent. Support In this case, with TITAN TRACKER each element fulfils its function, the driving system just moves and the structure just supports. Driving Support Support In the mounted-pole systems, the driving system also acts as a TITAN TRACKER: driving and structure are INDEPENDENT support and it is even the joining element between the panel board and the structure. TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLE Driving and support DRIVING and STRUCTURE INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT STRESS << >> Stress in the driving MOUNTED-POLE: driving and structure are DEPENDENT 15
  16. 16. 2. RELIABILITY2.11 No hydraulic driving Azimuth driving: pinion toothed-wheel The TITAN TRACKER driving is made using no hydraulics: Elevation: 2 electrical motor gears 120 W and pinion-toothed wheel with spindle (CPV) Azimuth: 2 electrical motor gears 90 W and pinion-toothed wheel. 1 drive-wheel is also an option. This prevents the typical problems with hydraulic elements such as: Loss of pressure Elevation driving: pinion toothed-wheel with spindle Loss of oil Replacement of elements Continuous maintenance Low temperatures TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLEHYDRAULICS NO YES 16
  17. 17. 2. RELIABILITY2.12 High resistance rolling supports Detail of a non-drive-wheel TITAN TRACKER uses high- Steel cores resistance technical wheels: Core made of steel Coating of high-resistance polyurethane Maximum capacity High resistance to abrasion Minimum deformations under compression High stock availability Global suppliers Detail of a drive-wheel 17
  18. 18. 3. ACCURACY3.1 General issues The accuracy of TITAN TRACKER is determined by the effect of the: Control system Geometry of the driving Structure TITAN TRACKER is designed to achieve extremely high accuracy, greater than 0.01º. TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLE ACCURACY > 0.01º < 0.1º 18
  19. 19. 3. ACCURACY3.2 Control system The control system sends orders to Optical sensor the motor gears at any time. TITAN TRACKER uses a control solution specific for its typology: closed loop strategy based on algorithm and optical sensor The control system has a characteristic accuracy of: 0.010º on cloudy days (analytical calculation) 0.006º on sunny days (optical sensor) 19
  20. 20. 3. ACCURACY3.3 Control system The Master control transmits to each The concept of TITAN TRACKER and tracker the results of the solar its structural geometry and driving positioning calculations based on the system allow for easy self-calibration data of latitude, longitude and solar of the system according to parameters time. that are customized by the user The Slave control of each tracker The accuracy and other parameters are analyses the information and takes the also easily customized by the user appropriate decisions based on the solar radiation measured by the optical Valid for any latitude sensor: If low (cloudy day) the sun is tracked based on the master control data If high (sunny day) it automatically tracks the sun based on the work of its optical sensor 20
  21. 21. 3. ACCURACY3.4 Driving with a long lever arm Accuracy of the driving in azimuth The driving system (azimuth) has a lever arm length of 10,000 mm (motor-gears on the outer sides) in the case of TITAN TRACKER The concept of mounted-pole systems uses only a lever arm length of about 200 mm. (50 times less) The accuracy is directly proportional to the length of the lever arm. Motor-gear Motor-gear TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLE LEVER ARM LENGTH 10,000 mm. 200 mm. Length of lever arm 10,170 mm 21
  22. 22. 3. ACCURACY3.5 Continuous movement TITAN TRACKER movement in azimuth (sun at 15º/h) With TITAN TRACKER, the long lever arm makes it possible to make a CONTINUOUS movement (azimuth) with only one start and stop every day Deviation (º) In the case of mounted-pole systems the movement is DISCONTINUOUS, with thousands of starts and stops every day. This leads to great stress in the mechanisms and seriously compromises its reliability. TITAN TRACKER is totally electrical and requires minimum power since it operates from the outer sides. 22
  23. 23. 3. PRECISION3.6 Comparative tracking Deviation (º) TITAN TRACKER movement azimuth/elevation MOUNTED-POLE movement azimuth/elevation TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLE MOVEMENT CONTINUOUS DISCONTINUOUS CYCLES/DAY (*) 1 12,000 •(*) Cycles / day in azimuth with an accuracy of 0.01 at 40º latitude 23
  24. 24. 3. ACCURACY3.7 High structural stability High structural stability: Illustration of the TITAN TRACKER structure Structure based on 3D truss with high rigidity which allows minimal deformations Under static wind speed of about 80 Km/h (50 Mph) the structure has a maximum deformation of about 10 mm in the corner of the panel boards, which is equivalent to a deviation of only around 0.05º Mounted-pole systems do not work under conditions of wind speed higher than 35- 40 Km/h (22 Mph) TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLE STOW POSITION Adjustable 40 Km/h 24
  25. 25. 4. PROFITABILITY 4.1 Dual-axis tracking (flat-plate) TITAN TRACKER can obtain up to α=10º 45% more energy than fixed systems, 40ºN latitude (Spain) Complete dual-axis tracking Minimum zenithal angle of 10º (1º in CPV) Most mounted-pole systems (flat- TITAN TRACKER: Starts from an elevation of 10º plate) have only partial dual-axis tracking since in most cases they start from an elevation of 30/35º TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLE α=30º/35ºELEVATION from (flat-plate) 10º 30/35º2-AXIS TRACKING (flat-plate) COMPLETE PARTIAL MOUNTED-POLE: Starts from an elevation of 30/35º 25
  26. 26. 4. PROFITABILITY4.2. Low-cost foundation Anchor bolts Since the foundation does not operate with bending moments, it is very small, and there are therefore important savings in material. Formworks are not needed, and thereby, it is not necessary to have specialized staff. Concrete Steel Track 9’60 m3 147 Kg Consumption of materials Footprint 3’90 m3 50 Kg Mod. 122-219 ATR PRECISION Total 13’50 m3 197 kg TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLE STEEL 1 Kg/m2 PV 5,5 Kg/m2 PV CONCRETE 60 liters/m2 PV 95 liters/m2 PV Detail of the foundation 26
  27. 27. 4. PROFITABILITY4.3. Low-cost foundation The plot does not require any excavation work (no ditches) and it is formed directly on the ground. It is possible to an uneven surface in the raceway (drops in level) ± 20 mm. (flat-plate) ± 10 mm. (CPV) Plot preparation 27
  28. 28. 4. PROFITABILITY4.4 Capacity and use of the land High capacity: 211 m2 (flat-plate) expandable to 219 m2 219 m2 (CPV) Optimal balance between width and height (flat-plate) to make better use of the land with no shade In latitude 40º N and with α=11,5º E-W and Detail of the separation between trackers α=16,5º N-S the recommended separation between trackers is: 44 m E-W direction and 31 m N-S direction For flat photovoltaic plates, in latitude 40º N, the ratio for land use is 6.46 m2 land/m2 panel, which is optimum for complete dual-axis tracking 28
  29. 29. 4. PROFITABILITY4.5 Structure made by CNC CNC machine in operation TITAN TRACKER has been designed to be manufactured mainly by CNC machines. For instance, cold-formed sections alone represent more than 70% of the total weight. CNC manufacturing provides a very high and flexible capacity, and even more traceability in the process Any metalworking firm can manufacture TITAN TRACKER with standard facilities and without specialized staff. TITAN TRACKER MOUNTED-POLE STRUCTURE USES SCREWS WELDED MANUFACTURING CNC ? 29
  30. 30. 4. PROFITABILITY4.6 Pre-mounted structure Pre-assembly of TITAN TRACKER in the plant TITAN TRACKER is usually supplied in the form of pre-mounted (panels already joined by screws in the plant) This makes transport easier and reduces assembly time on the site For assembly, only two non-specialized operators are required, assisted by a standard crane The transport ratio is between 1 and 2 trackers by standard truck On-site assembly of TITAN TRACKER 30
  31. 31. 4. PROFITABILITY4.7 Screw-less module installation (flat-plate) Modular installation of TITAN TRACKER TITAN TRACKER uses any kind of PV module technology, brand and dimensions The installation of the modules requires no screws in the case of a flat-plate. It is done on belts that are anchored with sliding staples, of the necessary width for the plate to be assembled. Since it requires no screws, assembly costs are reduced as well as the possibility of accidents to operators. 31
  32. 32. 4. PROFITABILITY4.8 Standard supply and maintenance-free The rest of the components are standard and low cost with a tested and fully guaranteed performance: Machined parts (pinion-toothed wheels, spindle, etc) Cables, screws, rivets Electrical panel Moreover, maintenance-free components are used at the friction points (bearings, flanges, etc.) All these components are easily accessible and can quickly be replaced if necessary, since the driving and structure are completely independent. 32
  33. 33. 4. PROFITABILITY4.9 Summary More energy production: complete elevation with start from 10 degrees (flat-plate) up to 45% more than fixed systems (40º latitude) More stiffness: five supports, supporting static wind speeds of up to 125 km/h (78 Mph) in any position More Reliability: using screws and galvanized 3D structure, no hydraulics Independence between structure and driving system: crucial for reliability High capacity: 219 m2 of net surface for cpv modules Low-cost foundation: savings in materials (80% in steel and 35% in concrete) Easy & quick installation: screw-less module installation (flat-plate) Reduced maintenance: using technical materials maintenance-free Extreme accuracy, greater than 0.01 degrees (CPV) 33
  34. 34. 5. BUSINESS MODEL5.1 General issues Licensing agreements: For construction or projects For territory/country Direct supply: Supply of solar trackers EX WORKS Transport to the site Installation (*) as an option •(*) It can also be installed by the client itself 34
  35. 35. 5. BUSINESS MODEL5.2 Licensing agreement Our business model is based mainly on licensing agreements, the most cost- effective option in order to develop a pipeline of solar projects. General issues of the agreement: Non exclusive right to manufacture, use and sell Territory or specific project Valid for 5 years, with an extension option Cost model: Fixed initial payment Royalty per tracker If you are interested, please ask for further details of the “Basis of Agreement” “Basis of Agreement” document 35
  36. 36. 6. REFERENCES The TITAN TRACKER concept was created in October 2006 Nowadays, solar installations exist that use TITAN TRACKER with more than 15 MW in operation. TITAN TRACKER has just completed a CPV project in the ISFOC installation www.isfoc.com Solar Park in Eruela, Pedro Muñoz (Ciudad Real) Spain 36
  37. 37. The value of technology•Carlos García•Sales Manager•cgarcia@titantracker.es•+34 608 23 25 50New website: www.titantracker.com 37