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  1. 1. Monitoring Governance in REDD Rosalind Reeve Forest Campaign Manager Global Witness Peter Holmgren Director Climate, Energy & Tenure Food and Agriculture Organization
  2. 2. Outline 1. Where are we? 2. A framework for REDD Monitoring 3. Review of governance monitoring initiatives 4. A vision for governance monitoring 5. What next?
  3. 3. Business climate in 40 countries in UN-REDD and FCPF • 80% of 40 REDD countries in FCPF and UN-REDD rated at B or below B = unstable, largely inefficient, company transactions run appreciable risks • 33% of countries rated at D D = highly risky, company transactions very difficult to manage
  4. 4. UNFCCC REDD Text Safeguards on Governance Safeguards to be [promoted] [and] [supported]: • Transparent and effective national forest governance structures, taking into account national legislation and sovereignty • Full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders, including in particular indigenous peoples and local communities
  5. 5. Monitoring Safeguards • requests that a developing country Party aiming to undertake activities referred to in paragraph 3….develop: • [A robust and transparent national forest monitoring system for the monitoring and reporting of the activities referred to in paragraph 3 above [, and the safeguards referred to in paragraph 2 above]….]
  6. 6. FCPF R-PP Template • How will the monitoring system address key governance factors? • How will it monitor social and environmental impacts? • How does it provide for establishing independent monitoring and review, involving civil society and other stakeholders?
  7. 7. A monitoring framework Emissions Safeguards National Reporting In-country Implementation
  8. 8. A monitoring framework – what? Emissions Safeguards Consistent National Deforestation Transparent & Effective Reporting Forest Degradation Governance Rights of Communities Conservation Stakeholder Participation Sustainable management In-country Enhancement Conservation Reversals Implementation Displacement
  9. 9. A monitoring framework – how? Emissions Safeguards National Reporting ?? In-country Implementation
  10. 10. A monitoring framework – approaches Emissions Safeguards National National level National Forest Inventory Governance Reporting ???????? Remote In-country Sensing Implementation Monitoring Independent Monitoring
  11. 11. Governance Monitoring Initiatives • Forest management, logging and timber trade • REDD
  12. 12. Forest management, logging & timber trade • Independent Forest Monitoring (IFM) – REM, Global Witness, CONADEH, SGS, Imazon (1999) • Illegal logging indicators – Chatham House (2006) • Forest Transparency Report Card – Global Witness (2008) • Forest Governance Integrity Programme – corruption monitoring tool - Transparency International (2009) • Analytical Framework for Governance Reforms – World Bank (2009)
  13. 13. REDD • Governance of Forests Initiative – WRI • Country-led governance assessments – UN-REDD • IM-REDD – Global Witness • Global Comparative Study on REDD - CIFOR • REDD+ Social & Environmental Standards – CCBA / CARE
  14. 14. IFM Country Programmes Cambodia Cameroon 1999 – 2005 2000 – Global Witness Global Witness SGS REM Honduras 2005 – Congo Global Witness / CONADEH 2006 – CONADEH REM (IM-FLEG) Nicaragua Brazil 2006 – Imazon Global Witness
  15. 15. Applied 10 years experience to REDD
  16. 16. IM-REDD What needs to be monitored independently? Transparency Policy Engagement Enforcement Regulations Accountability Goods & Services Revenue Quality of results of Benefit distribution C-MRV Rights
  17. 17. What happens if we don’t do IM-REDD?
  18. 18. Country-led Governance Assessments for REDD + Preparation Identify key Establish Identify national REDD+ Steering institutions or stakeholders committee CSOs to host the initiative Steps may have already been undertaken in UN-REDD quick start countries or countries with an R-PP Assessment Conduct multi- Organize Conduct stakeholder assessment, assessment and dialogue on framework and analyze the governance indicators results priorities Disseminate Conduct multi- Uptake results stakeholder consultation Informed by framework of indicators Develop policy Conduct policy Institutionalize the recommendations reform based on assessment to Use evidence conduct at regular intervals
  19. 19. A governance monitoring vision • Common base for governance monitoring – across purposes, policies, regions and scales – avoid complexity – avoid fragmentation (cf biodiversity..) • Context specific adaptation of methods and indicators • Ability to measure Change & Performance • Integrated with overall MRV system
  20. 20. Three elements to measure change and performance in governance? 1. Stakeholder participation 2. Legislation, implementation & enforcement 3. Accountability & Transparency
  21. 21. What next? • Process to achieve convergence and standards • Expand forest governance reporting in FAO Forest Resources Assessment • The bigger picture beyond REDD • Window of opportunity