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Physical web inside and out final


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اسلاید ارائه تیم رادیکال در همایش "آی.او.تی میتاپ" با موضوع وب اشیاء

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Physical web inside and out final

  1. 1. Physical web Inside & out IoT meetup Tehran University Navid Ardakanian CTO and Co-founder Radical Proximity
  2. 2. In this meetup, we will discuss the Physical Web and Web Bluetooth: two unrelated but highly complimentary technologies that enable us to create signposts and pathways between the web and physical world.
  3. 3. The number of smart devices is going to explode, and the assumption that each new device will require its own application just isn't realistic. We need a system that lets anyone interact with any device at any time… [this] isn’t about replacing native apps, it’s about enabling interaction when native apps just aren't practical. — Scott Jenson, Physical Web Lead, Google
  4. 4. 1. A brief history 5
  5. 5. The Physical Web isn’t our first attempt to place digital markers within the physical world. Most older approaches in fact are still in use as they serve slightly different use cases.
  6. 6. QR codes (Japan, 1994) Invented for use in retail but rapidly adopted across industries. Advantages • Cheap to implement and distribute. • Can hold up to 1000 bytes of data. • Easily discoverable. Disadvantages • Hard to scan from a distance. • Many people think they’re ugly. • Most people (outside Asia) don’t have a QR code reader.
  7. 7. British Airways NFC + e- paper baggage tag prototype RFID, NFC (1983, 2002) • Both employ radio signals to exchange data between nearby objects. Advantage • Proximity often requires explicit user action, which improves trust, and makes these technologies ideal for payment and identification. Disadvantage • Poor discoverability. Must be signposted or rely on learned behavior.
  8. 8. Proximity marketing 1.0 (2004) • A small server broadcasts short messages, images, mp3s etc. into a space using Bluetooth. Disadvantage • Anyone nearby with Bluetooth turned on received the broadcast. • Was mostly used for advertising so became a form of spam (which forced many people to shut Bluetooth off).
  9. 9. Apple iBeacon (2013) • Small battery powered Beacons broadcast messages to iOS + Android apps using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). • Only the app that matches the beacon ID recognizes the broadcast. Advantage • Users aren’t bombarded with messages from brands they don’t already have a relationship with.
 Disadvantage • Users without the specific app that matches the beacon can’t discover/take advantage of the data or service it provides. * beacon shown
  10. 10. iBeacon On iOS, a user’s app will automatically receive a broadcast each time it passes by a beacon—even if the app is in background mode or switched off. Advantage • If a user walks by several beacons, it’s therefore possible track their path and use it to trigger location-relevant offers or notifications (i.e. a user’s gate number when they enter the airport). Disadvantage • Potential privacy concerns. • Even if the user likes a brand, automatically triggered notifications can rapidly become annoying.
  11. 11. The goal of the Physical Web isn’t to replace these technologies, but to address some of their challenges by leveraging the ‘super- powers’ of URLs and the open, flexible, decentralised and universally supported web.
  12. 12. 2. How does the Physical Web work? 15
  13. 13. The Physical Web (PW) is an open-source* project. Google initiated the technology, and has the most widespread implementation (~800m devices) through Chrome on Android and iOS—but there’s already a large ecosystem of other contributors. It’s all open source! *Visit GitHub to download the source and/or contribute to these conversations.
  14. 14. 1. The beacon (a thing that broadcasts a URL) 2. The scanner/browser (a thing that scans for, retrieves and displays a list of URLs) 3. Proxy (user advocate) The Physical Web is pretty simple—it has three parts The specifications for all three are open source. optional cloud service
  15. 15. many beacons also include some form of remote management app What is a beacon? This beacon is by Estimote (but there are many others) low-cost, long-life (~2yrs) battery or other power source many sizes and form factors BLE radio transmitter (intermittently on, sips power compared to regular BT)
  16. 16. A beacon’s (only) job is to repeatedly* transmit a signal that other devices can see. The message itself is transmitted using a BLE ‘advertising packet’, a standard broadcast format limited to 17 bytes. Once in range, Bluetooth-equipped devices like a smartphone can “see” the beacon and receive its broadcast (if BT is switched on). *recommended every 700 milliseconds What it does broadcast range
  17. 17. Unidirectional broadcast The Bluetooth ‘advertising’ function is by-design unidirectional. • A single beacon can advertise to multiple nearby smartphones but these devices cannot send data back to the beacon. • Beacons also cannot physically detect when clients scans them so cannot track passers-by.
  18. 18. smart (and otherwise dumb) things around us Permanently broadcasts “I love you” Turn me off from a distance Change my colour! …in the near future, the ability to broadcast URLs could also be attached or embedded into all sorts of Check what materials i’m made of when Craigslisting me. Understand how I work and where to recycle me
  19. 19. 2. The scanner/browser As the beacons broadcast URLs, the most common scanners are (and will probably remain?) web browsers. Chrome Android + iOS ~800M devices Opera
 (Labs browsers) Mozilla
 (Beta) Microsoft Edge
 (coming soon) Safari Mobile
  20. 20. Unlike iBeacon, there is however no background scanning. All scanning for URLs must be user-initiated. As the Physical Web is new, users will probably not scan unless they’re aware of nearby content, or notice the logo. (This is how the ‘normal’ web began as well :-)
  21. 21. …displayed in o Tapping the notification displays a list of all beacons within range, showing their URL, page title, description and favicon*. If there are beacons nearby, they will see a low priority (no vibration) notification. *see this article for details of metadata retrieval in each browser How do you ‘scan’ (in Chrome) (Behaviour varies by browser) A user opens their Android Notification screen or Today Widget on iOS.
  22. 22. And then…? That’s (technically) it. The beacon’s job is done. All subsequent interactions between the user and brand take place ‘on the web’. user taps to load the page (on the internet —the beacon does not serve the page)
  23. 23. The proxy sits in between the beacon and the user. A proxy is optional but serves two important purposes: improve performance and protect the user. The Chrome proxy is called the Physical Web Service (PWS). Other browsers have a similar (but probably not identical) service. 3. The proxy *more details on the PWS and its role
  24. 24. 1 What it does (based on Google’s PWS…each proxy is a bit different) parses the document to extract metadata 2 • final URL • page title • description • favicon
  25. 25. BEACONS BOOKMARKTOP SITES Haro Sushi and Izakaya Hons on Robson analysis + optimisation 4 Search or enter address 1 one-way broadcast What it does (based on Google’s PWS…each proxy is a bit different) parses the document to extract metadata 3 2 • final URL • page title • description • favicon
  26. 26. Masks the user’s device information from a web site until the user has chosen to interact with it. Ensures site doesn’t contain SPAM or malicious content. De-duplication*
 If several beacons with the same URL are used within a space the user's will only see one URL. Optimisation Augments and enriches the basic results to improve usefulness and usability. e.g. sorting, ranking and filtering for relevance User benefits *Chrome only (for now)
  27. 27. Miscellaneous FAQ
  28. 28. HTTPS only (on Chrome*) All communications between your browser and the website are encrypted. All interactions are ‘on the web’ Once a user selects a site, all subsequent interactions take place on the web so automatically conform to privacy-preserving behaviours such as opting-in to enable geolocation or web notifications. Q: Are any other user safeguards built in? *For now. Other scanners will hopefully emulate this.
  29. 29. No. There are many ways to broadcast a URL. Today, the Physical Web uses BLE because of its ubiquity on mobile devices today. Additionally, it is highly energy efficient—many bluetooth beacons today have multi-year battery lives. The hope however, is that other useful formats will be supported. Two strong candidates are mDNS and uPnP—transport protocols that enables users who are logged into wi-fi to discover beacons broadcasting on that same wi-fi network. Q: Will/does the Physical Web only support BLE? See Github for the latest discussions on mDNS
  30. 30. An outstanding issue with wi-fi based protocols is that the devices that are most likely to broadcast this way (e.g. TVs, printers, smart home appliances) will most likely broadcast a local IP address rather than a public URL. The (cloud-based) proxy will therefore not be able to follow this link to retrieve the page title and description, perform customary security checks, or further optimise the discovery experience. Challenges with wi-fi based discovery See Github for the latest discussions on local IP-based discovery.
  31. 31. Eddystone is a new open source protocol specification from Google that defines a BLE message format for proximity interactions. Eddystone broadens what can be done with beacons by broadcasting up to four formats (or ‘frame’ types): • Eddystone UID, EID and TLM—Which all work with apps and enable interactions similar to iBeacon. • Eddystone URL—Which the Physical Web is now based on and works with a browser. Q: What is Eddystone?
  32. 32. Does the scanner have to be a browser?
  33. 33. No. The browser is merely an app that incorporates the Physical Web specification. This specification is open source, so companies could build the ability to “see” Physical Web URLs into other apps.
  34. 34. “…the watches glow and vibrate when you walk somewhere in the real world that corresponds with somewhere in Pokémon Go's virtual world” Source: The Verge - Pokemon Go Plus hands on photos
  35. 35. 3. Three key use cases 40
  36. 36. Use case 1: Pure discovery (“A much smarter QR code”) Use case 2: Interact with moderately “smart” things Use case 3: Directly control an object
  37. 37. tadaslab on Instagram “Call a taxi” button attached to a tree #iot …the significance of technologies such as RFID and 2D barcoding is that they offer a low impact way to import physical objects into the datasphere—to endow them with an informational shadow. - Adam Greenfield
  38. 38. Part closure Part closure Service closed London Overgroud Northern Waterloo & City Tube, DLR, London Overground Average wait at North Entrance is 12 minutes Good service on all other lines you can also dynamically deep-dive to the exact content that suit a user’s context and location
  39. 39. …or attach URLs to a “thing” whose identity is more important Hi, i’m Narelle! Ask me anything about vikings (or join my class on Thursdays and Sundays at 14:00). REGISTER than its context
  40. 40. Miscellaneous FAQ
  41. 41. By design, the Physical Web does not push messages (and it will hopefully remain this way). You can however expand on its base behaviours by combining it with other web technologies. For example… Q: Is it possible to push messages or notifications from a Physical Web beacon?
  42. 42. Yikes, as you can see, we’re *really* busy! There’s about a 20 minute wait, but our sister location Oishii still has three tables. JOIN WAITLIST SHOW ME OISHII BOOK ANOTHER DAY Scenario: customers can add their names to a wait-list and receive a notification once the table is ready
  43. 43. Use case 1: Pure discovery (“A much smarter QR code”) Use case 2: Interact with moderately “smart” things Use case 3: Directly control an object 50
  44. 44. Most “smart” things we use these days are not that smart. While they can often be controlled using an app, very rarely does the app “speak” directly to the thing. A brief “smart thing” primer…
  45. 45. Instead, the app often communicates with the cloud, or a local hub (or ‘bridge’) which then relays the command to the device.
  46. 46. 1 Issue a command: ”Lamp on!” For example…
  47. 47. service API The bridge in your home receives the command via wi-fi. 2 For example… cloud 1 Issue a command: ”Lamp on!”
  48. 48. 1 service API The bridge in your home receives the command via wi-fi. 2 3 It transmits the command (P2P) to nearby bulbs For example… cloud Issue a command: ”Lamp on!”
  49. 49. 1 service API The bridge in your home receives the command via wi-fi. 2 3 It transmits the command (P2P) to nearby bulbs If other bulbs are too far from the bridge, the closest bulb uses a mesh network to pass the message along 4 For example… cloud Issue a command: ”Lamp on!”
  50. 50. 1 cloud service API The bridge in your home receives the command via wi-fi. 2 3 It transmits the command (P2P) to nearby bulbs If other bulbs are too far from the bridge, the closest bulb uses a mesh network to pass the message along 4 For example… smart pretty smart less smart less smart less smart less smart smart Issue a command: ”Lamp on!”
  51. 51. …by extending this pattern to the web we can create all sorts of rich and yet casual interactions while completely bypassing the friction of first downloading an app GUMBOT Bet you don’t have a quarter? Am I right or am I right? GUMBOT No sweat. How about one of these? That’ll be $0.25 please.
  52. 52. Now playing I Didn’t see it coming Belle and Sebastian VOTE FOR THE NEXT SONG Monthly special for Spotify members. Log in to redeem your complementary virtual jukebox credit and choose a song we will play in the next 18 minutes. LOGIN with SPOTIFY the music system…or the café itself? in this scenario, is ‘the device‘
  53. 53. Use case 1: “A much smarter QR code” Use case 2: Interact with moderately “smart” things Use case 3: Directly control an object 60
  54. 54. Web Bluetooth is an open web standard that enables users —in a secure and privacy-preserving way—to discover smart devices, communicate with them, and use a web page to directly control them.
  55. 55. Support levels The technology is completely separate from the Physical Web but highly complimentary. It is nearing launch on Chrome and is currently testable behind a Chrome ‘flag’. Chrome Android + iOS (behind Dev flag) Opera
 (Labs browser) Mozilla
 (Experimental) Microsoft Edge
 (coming soon?) Safari Mobile
  56. 56. Built-in security features HTTPS Only All communications between your browser and the website (and in this case, the object) are encrypted. User Gesture Required As a security feature, discovering nearby Bluetooth devices must be called via a user gesture like a touch or mouse click. FitBit Heart Rate Monitor GO9
  57. 57. Visit the thing’s URL
 e.g. shown on the thing’s package, accessible via QR code, Physical Web beacon Tap to connect. You can now interact with the device! 4 How it works: Device discovery and pairing 1 Choose device and grant permission to pair with the device. 2 Parrot Drone 3 CONNECTED success! PAIR Playbill candle
  58. 58. Come on, get your phone out and type this into chrome: chrome://flags/#enable-web-Bluetooth Enjoy!* *Not you dear Windows user, not you!
  59. 59. …one more thing
  60. 60. One neat thing about BLE—is that you can also use it to create new (personalized) web UIs for known devices*. *whose services are exposed with the necessary read/write permissions.
  61. 61. • A standardised way for BLE devices to advertise their services to the outside world. • Each device has services (e.g. battery service) which has characteristics (e.g. battery level: 0-100). • BLE has a list of generic services for common devices such as, but products can also create their own. • The value of a characteristics can be read, you can also write to it and request notifications* when the value changes. *the web app (not the user) receives the notifications and uses them to update the UI as needed Bluetooth (Generic Attributes) GATT 101
  62. 62. Each of these examples, taken by itself, is modestly useful. Taken as a whole, however, they imply a vast "long tail" where anything can offer information and utility. — Scott Jenson, Google
  63. 63. Tell us about Radical!! We are a service provider. Our target market are retailers and advertisers. We are business people, not geeks.
  64. 64. Eddystone / Altbeacon and Ibeacons! We have: Wardriving tool and database Beacon management and CMS
  65. 65. We are finalizing negotiations with Some of our customers and we will deploy the system soon! Our customers are large scale retailers.
  66. 66. Contact me Navid Ardakanian Tel: 0912 062 1065 Or contact, Hamidreza Aghighi Tel: 0915 653 7943