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ARE CHANGES IN FAMILY-FRIENDLY
POLICIES RELATED TO GENDERED
DIVISIONS OF TIME USE?
A STUDY OF SPAIN AND SWEDEN,
1990–2010
...
BACKGROUND
• Time allocation is a highly gendered process, and labour division is
an important factor in gender equality. ...
AIM
• The aim of this study is to explore family-friendly policies as a factor
influencing gendered time use
METHOD
• Spai...
POLICY DEVELOPMENT
Sweden:
• 1974: 6 month leave with 90 % of
pay
• 1980:
– 9 month with 90 % of pay and 3
months with fla...
HYPOTHESIS
Our hypothesis is that if family-friendly policies are important for
gendered time use, then Sweden’s data shou...
RESULTS
Year Paid labour Unpaid labour Child care
Fathers (SP) 2000 0.39** 0.13** 0.21**
2010 -0.38** 0.27** 0.43**
Mother...
RESULTS
OLS regressions of the difference between fathers and mothers in time use in
1990, 2000 and 2010, with fathers as ...
CONCLUSION
• The results show that changes in the use of time among mothers and
fathers are associated to changes in FFP d...
Division of labour, policies, gender
equality and the well-being of men and
women
Contact Details:
Emma Hagqvist
Mid Swede...
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Are changes in family-friendly policies related to gendered divisions of time use? A study of Spain and Sweden, 1990–2010

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Are changes in family-friendly policies related to gendered divisions of time use? A study of Spain and Sweden, 1990–2010, by Emma Hagqvist, Mikael Nordenmark, Glòria Peréz, Sara Trujillo Alemán and Katja Gillander Gådin, from Mid Sweden University (Sweden) and the Barcelona Agency of Public Health (Spain).
Presented at the WFRN conference (Work and Family Researchers Network): Changing Work and Family Relationships in a Global Economy, June 2014 NY (US).

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Are changes in family-friendly policies related to gendered divisions of time use? A study of Spain and Sweden, 1990–2010

  1. 1. ARE CHANGES IN FAMILY-FRIENDLY POLICIES RELATED TO GENDERED DIVISIONS OF TIME USE? A STUDY OF SPAIN AND SWEDEN, 1990–2010 Emma Hagqvist1, Mikael Nordenmark1, Glòria Peréz2, Sara Trujillo Alemán2 and Katja Gillander Gådin1 1) Mid Sweden University, Sweden; 2) Barcelona Agency of Public Health, Spain Founded by the 7th frame work SOPHIE project
  2. 2. BACKGROUND • Time allocation is a highly gendered process, and labour division is an important factor in gender equality. Being a parent often increase gendered inequalities in time use. • States play an important role in gender equality through the structuring of policies. • Family-friendly policies (FFP) – important for gender norms on both micro and macro level • FFP differ between countries FFP important for equality: generous paid leave, quotas, universal coverage, pooled risk among employers and flexibility at workplace
  3. 3. AIM • The aim of this study is to explore family-friendly policies as a factor influencing gendered time use METHOD • Spain - traditional welfare model and Sweden - dual-earner/ social democratic model • MTUS data from 1990, 2000 and 2010 • Sample: men and women, 18-65, married or cohabiting with children.
  4. 4. POLICY DEVELOPMENT Sweden: • 1974: 6 month leave with 90 % of pay • 1980: – 9 month with 90 % of pay and 3 months with flat rate – Paternal leave 10 days • 1989: 15 months • 1995: 1 month reserved for each parent • 2002: 2 months for each parent and expanded leave to 16 months Spain and Basque Country • 1980: – maternity leave 14 weeks with 100 % of pay – 2 days of paternal leave – leave without compensation • 1989: maternity leave 16 weeks (4 can be transferred to father) • 2007 paternal leave 13 days (15 for public employees) with 100 % of pay • In 2000 in BC a flat-rate benefit to either parent for three years after baby is born
  5. 5. HYPOTHESIS Our hypothesis is that if family-friendly policies are important for gendered time use, then Sweden’s data should show a successive development towards more gender-equal time use, whereas data from the Basque Country, should show changes towards more gender-equal time use after 2000.
  6. 6. RESULTS Year Paid labour Unpaid labour Child care Fathers (SP) 2000 0.39** 0.13** 0.21** 2010 -0.38** 0.27** 0.43** Mothers (SP) 2000 0.66** -0.31** 0.37** 2010 1.84** -1.51** 0.37** Fathers (SW) 2000 -1.28** 0.19* 0.06*** 2010 -1.03** 0.24** 0.25** Mothers (SW) 2000 -0.02*** -0.66** -0.38** 2010 0.89** -0.98** -0.39** OLS regression o of the difference in time use among fathers and mothers in Spain and Sweden for 2000 and 2010 relative to 1990 in hours per day, B value **p<0.001; *p<0.05; ***p>0.05
  7. 7. RESULTS OLS regressions of the difference between fathers and mothers in time use in 1990, 2000 and 2010, with fathers as referents, in hours per day, B values **p<0.001 Spanish mothers Swedish mothers Paid labour Unpaid labour Child care Paid labour Unpaid labour Child care 1990 -4.42** 3.92** 0.79** -3.58** 2.16** 1.10** 2000 -4.14** 3.47** 0.98** -2.31** 1.32** 0.66** 2010 -2.21** 2.14** 0.79** -1.65** 0.95** 0.46**
  8. 8. CONCLUSION • The results show that changes in the use of time among mothers and fathers are associated to changes in FFP directed towards more gender-equality. • The conclusion is that Family-friendly policies with a gender-equal approach could influence the division of labour between men and women, which is one of many factors affecting gender equality.
  9. 9. Division of labour, policies, gender equality and the well-being of men and women Contact Details: Emma Hagqvist Mid Sweden University E-mail: Emma.Hagqvist@miun.se Phone: +46 (0) 730 526602

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