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Zend Certification Exam Preparation
What This Course Is Not

  • Coherent coverage of all topics

  • A guarantee of success

  • In-depth

  • Accredited by Zend




                                      2
Aims of Today

 • FAST overview of certification content

 • Refresher/Reminder on well-known things

 • Comments on exam styles

 • Identification of any weak points

 • Provision of resources for further study




                                              3
Meet the PHP Manual
Most Important Resource: php.net

 • Main Page: http://php.net

    • Local versions: http://uk2.php.net
    • Many translations available

 • Cool Shortcut: http://php.net/[function name]

    • Redirects you straight to that page
    • http://php.net/array_walk
    •
        http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/function.array-walk.php




                                                               5
Anatomy of a PHP Manual Page

 • Description

 • Parameters

 • Return Values

 • Changelog

 • Examples

 • See Also

 • User-Contributed Notes




                               6
Description




              7
Parameters




             8
Return Values




                9
Changelog




            10
Examples




           11
See Also




           12
User-Contributed Notes




                         13
Boring Basics
PHP Tags

Many different ways to open PHP tags:

  • Standard Tags: <?php and ?>

  • Short Tags: <? and ?>

  • Script Tags: <script language="php"> and </script>

  • ASP-Style Tags: <% and %>

Only the first is recommended. Others are enabled with ini settings

  • asp_tags

  • short_open_tag




                                                                     2
Commenting Code

Many different ways to do this too!
// a one-line comment

# a less common format of one-line comment

/* A comment
which can span
a great many
lines */

/**
 * More common multi-line commenting
 *
 * @param string The variable for the method
 */

See Also: PHPDocumentor

   • http://www.phpdoc.org/


                                               3
Operators

 • Operators are how we tell PHP what to do with our variables

 • ZCE expects you to know many different types - look out for
   precedence to trip you up

 • See Also: http://php.net/manual/en/language.operators.php




                                                                 4
Arithmetic Operators

                               -$a   Negation
                        $a + $b      Addition
                        $a - $b      Subtraction
                        $a * $b      Multiplication
                         $a / $b     Division
                       $a % $b       Modulus

Example of modulus operator:
echo (17 % 4); // 1
echo (13 % 5); // 3




                                                      5
Shorthand Operators

A contraction of operating on something and assigning the result

  • $a = $a + $b

becomes:

  • $a += $b


The same thing works for - / * % and .




                                                                   6
Ternary Operator

This is a shortcut for an if/else statement.
$a = isset($_GET['param1']) ? $_GET['param1'] : 10;

There’s a contraction of it too, where the first two items match:
$pages = $_GET['pages'] ? $_GET['pages'] : 20;
$pages = $_GET['pages'] ?: 20;




                                                                   7
Comparison Operators

A great source of trick questions!

                            ==   Equal
                          ===    Strictly equal
                            !=   Not equal
                          !==    Strictly not equal




                                                      8
Comparisons: The strpos Trap

$tagline = "PHP Made Easy";

if(strpos(strtolower($tagline), 'php')) {
    echo 'php tagline: ' . $tagline;
}




                                            9
Comparisons: The strpos Trap

$tagline = "PHP Made Easy";

if(false !== strpos(strtolower($tagline), 'php')) {
    echo 'php tagline: ' . $tagline;
}




                                                      10
Data Types

PHP is dynamically weakly typed. It does "type juggling" when data types
don’t match.

PHP data types:

  • integer

  • float

  • boolean

  • string

  • array

  • object

  • resource



                                                                           11
Number Systems

System    Characters         Notes
Binary    01                 used in logical calculations
Decimal   0123456789         "normal" numbers
Octal     01234567           written with a leading 0
Hex       0123456789abcdef   used for HTML colours

http://www.lornajane.net/posts/2011/Number-System-Primer




                                                            12
Variables

   • Start with a $

   • Don’t need to be initialised

   • Represent a value, of any type

   • Start with a letter, then can contain letters, numbers and underscores

   • Are usually lowercase or CamelCase


Variable variables
$name = "Fiona";
$var = "name";

echo $$var;    // Fiona




                                                                              13
Constants

 • Represent a value, of any type

 • Are initialised with define() and cannot change

 • Do not have a $ in front of their name

 • Start with a letter, then can contain letters, numbers and
   underscores

 • Are usually UPPER CASE




                                                                14
Control Structures

We’ll look at examples of each of:

   • if/elseif/else

   • switch

   • for

   • while

   • do..while

   • foreach




                                     15
If/ElseIf/Else


if($hour < 10) {
    $beverage = "coffee";
} elseif($hour > 22) {
    $beverage = "hot chocolate";
} else {
    $beverage = "tea";
}




                                   16
Switch


switch(date('D')) {
    case 'Monday':
                      echo "Back to work";
                      break;
    case 'Friday':
                    echo "Almost the weekend!";
                    break;
    case 'Saturday':
    case 'Sunday':
                    echo "Not a working day :)";
                    break;
    default:
                    echo "Just another day";
                    break;
}




                                                   17
For


for($i=10; $i > 0; $i--) {
    echo $i . " green bottles, hanging on the walln";
}




                                                         18
While


$finished = false;
while(!$finished) {
    $second = substr(date('s'), 1);
    if($second == '7') {
        $finished = true;
    } else {
        echo $second;
    }
    sleep(3);
}




                                      19
Do .. While


$finished = false;
do {
     $second = substr(date('s'), 1);
     if($second == '7') {
         $finished = true;
     } else {
         echo $second;
     }
     sleep(3);
} while(!$finished);




                                       20
Foreach


$list = array(
    "chicken",
    "lamb",
    "reindeer");

foreach($list as $value) {
    echo "On the menu: " . $value . "n";
}




                                            21
Foreach


$list = array(
    "chicken",
    "lamb",
    "reindeer");

// make plural
foreach($list as $key => $value) {
    $list[$key] = $value . "s";

}

foreach($list as $value) {
    echo "On the menu: " . $value . "n";
}




                                            22
Break and Continue

  • break go to after the next }

  • continue go to the end of this iteration

Both can have a number to allow them to operate on nested structures




                                                                       23
Strings and Patterns
100 String Functions




Anyone want to talk about all hundred string functions?




                                                          2
String Functions

Anything you want to do with a string, there’s a function for that

Special terminology

   • needle: the thing you are looking for

   • haystack: the place you are looking




                                                                     3
Quotes

 • Single quote ’

     • contains a string to be used as it is

 • Double quote "

     • can contain items to evaluate
     • you can use (simple) variables here




                                               4
Escape Characters

Escape character is backslash . Useful when you want to:

  • put a $ in a string

  • use a quote in a quoted string

  • disable any special character meaning

We sometimes need to escape the escape character
echo "Escape character is backslash ";




                                                            5
Formatting Strings

Often we’ll concatenate as we need to, but we can also use formatting
functions

$animals = array(
    array("animal" => "cat", "legs" => 4),
    array("animal" => "bee", "legs" => 6),
    array("animal" => "peacock", "legs" => 2));

foreach($animals as $animal) {
    printf("This %s has %d legsn",
        $animal['animal'], $animal['legs']);
}

See also: *printf() and *scanf()




                                                                        6
HEREDOC

Ask PHP to output everything until the placeholder

$item = "star";
echo <<<ABC
Star light, $item bright,
     The first $item I see tonight;
I wish I may, I wish I might,
     Have the wish I wish tonight
ABC;




                                                     7
NOWDOC


echo <<<'ABC'
Star light, star bright,
     The first star I see tonight;
I wish I may, I wish I might,
     Have the wish I wish tonight
ABC;




                                     8
Regular Expressions

   • Often abbreviated to "RegEx"

   • Describe a pattern for strings to match


/b[aeiou]t/
Matches "bat", "bet", "bit", "bot" and "but"




                                               9
Regular Expressions

   • Often abbreviated to "RegEx"

   • Describe a pattern for strings to match


/b[aeiou]t/
Matches "bat", "bet", "bit", "bot" and "but"

Also matches "cricket bat", "bitter lemon"




                                               9
Using Regex in PHP


$pattern = '/b[aeiou]t/';
// returns the number of times there's a match
echo preg_match($pattern, "bat"); // 1

Many other string handling functions use regex, and there’s also
preg_match_all




                                                                   10
Character Ranges

We can use ranges of characters, e.g. to match hex:
/[0-9a-f]*/




                                                      11
Character Ranges

We can use ranges of characters, e.g. to match hex:
/[0-9a-f]*/

Upper and lower case are distinct; for alphanumeric: /[0-9a-zA-Z]/




                                                                     11
Character Ranges

We can use ranges of characters, e.g. to match hex:
/[0-9a-f]*/

Upper and lower case are distinct; for alphanumeric: /[0-9a-zA-Z]/

If you want to allow another couple of characters, go for it:
/[0-9a-zA-Z_]/




                                                                     11
Character Ranges

We can use ranges of characters, e.g. to match hex:
/[0-9a-f]*/

Upper and lower case are distinct; for alphanumeric: /[0-9a-zA-Z]/

If you want to allow another couple of characters, go for it:
/[0-9a-zA-Z_]/

To match any character, use a dot .




                                                                     11
Character Classes

There are preset ways of saying "number", "whitespace" and so on:

                          w   word character
                          s   whitespace
                          d   digit


When used in uppercase, these are negated




                                                                    12
Pattern Modifiers

We can add modifiers to our pattern, to say how many matching
characters are allowed.

                           ?   0 or 1 time

                           *   0 or more times
                           +   1 or more times
                        {n}    n times
                       {n,}    n or more times
                     {n,m}     between n and m times
                       {,m}    up to m times


/b[aeiou]*t/
Matches "bat" and "bit" etc, but also "boot" and "boat"

                                                               13
Anchoring Patterns

To stop us from matching "cricket bat", we can anchor

                             ^   start of line
                             $   end of line
                            A   start of string
                            Z   end of string


/^b[aeiou]t/ Will match "battering ram" but not "cricket bat"




                                                                14
Regex Delimiters

 • Regexes often contained by a /

 • Messy if your expression also contains slashes (e.g. for a URL)

 • Also common to use pipe or hash

 • Any matching pair works




                                                                     15
Regex Resources

  Brain exploding? Use this cheat sheet from
              addedbytes.com@

http://bit.ly/kiWlbZ




                                               16
Arrays
Array Syntax

Some examples of the syntax around arrays:

$items = array("pen", "pencil", "ruler");
$items[7] = "calculator";
$items[] = "post-its";

var_dump($items);

Outputs this:
Array
(
    [0]   =>   pen
    [1]   =>   pencil
    [2]   =>   ruler
    [7]   =>   calculator
    [8]   =>   post-its
)

This is an enumerated array


                                             2
Associative Arrays

Associative arrays have named keys

$characters[] =   array("name" => "Lala",
    "colour" =>   "Yellow");
$characters[] =   array("name" => "Tinky Winky",
    "colour" =>   "Purple");


This is a nested associative array
Array
(
    [0] => Array
        (
            [name] => Lala
            [colour] => Yellow
        )

    [1] => Array
        (
            [name] => Tinky Winky
            [colour] => Purple
        )                                          3
Array Functions




                   Only 75+ of these
                  (12 just for sorting)




                                          4
Functions
Functions

Declaring functions:

function addStars($message) {
    return '** ' . $message . ' **';
}


Calling functions:

echo addStars("twinkle");




                                       2
Functions and Arguments

Passing many arguments:

function setColour($red, $green, $blue) {
    return '#' . $red . $green . $blue;
}

echo setColour('99','00','cc'); //#9900cc


And optional ones:

function setColourAndIntensity($red, $green, $blue,
        $intensity = 'ff') {
    return '#' . $red . $green . $blue . $intensity;
}
echo setColourAndIntensity('99','00','cc'); //#9900ccff
echo setColourAndIntensity('99','00','cc', '66'); //#9900cc66

Optional arguments should be the last on the list


                                                                3
Return Values

 • By default, functions return NULL

 • Good practice to return values

 • Check if value is returned or assigned




                                            4
Return Values

 • By default, functions return NULL

 • Good practice to return values

 • Check if value is returned or assigned

 • Now check again




                                            4
Functions and Scope

 • Functions are a "clean sheet" for variables

 • Outside values are not available

 • Pass in as parameters to use them

 • There is also a global keyword

     • it was acceptable at one time
     • now considered poor practice




                                                 5
Scope Examples


function doStuff() {

    $apples++;
}

$apples = 4;
echo $apples; //4
doStuff();
echo $apples; //4




                       6
Scope Examples


function doStuff() {
    global $apples;
    $apples++;
}

$apples = 4;
echo $apples; //4
doStuff();
echo $apples; //5




                       7
Pass by Reference

By default:

   • Primitive types are copies

   • Objects are references


To pass a variable by reference, declare it in the function with &:

function moreCakes(&$basket) {
    $basket++;
    return true;
}

$basket = 0;
moreCakes($basket);
moreCakes($basket);
echo $basket; // 2




                                                                      8
Call-Time Pass-By-Reference

  • The & goes in the function declaration

  • NOT in the call

  • PHP 5.3 gives an error about call-time pass-by-reference


See also:
http://php.net/manual/en/language.references.pass.php




                                                               9
Anonymous Functions

  • Literally functions with no name

  • More convenient than create_function()

  • Called lambdas

  • Unless they use variables from the outside scope

  • Then they are called closures

Great explanation: http://bit.ly/kn9Arg




                                                       10
Lambda Example


$ping = function() {
    echo "ping!";
};

$ping();




                       11
Closure Example


$message = "hello";
$greet = function ($name) use ($message) {
    echo $message . ' ' . $name;
};

$greet('Daisy'); // hello Daisy




                                             12
Closure Example


$message = "hello";
$greet = function ($name) use ($message) {
    echo $message . ' ' . $name;
};
$message = "hey";
$greet('Daisy'); // hello Daisy




                                             13
Namespaced Functions

Namespaces are a 5.3 feature

  • Avoid naming collision

  • Avoid stupid long function names

namespace lolcode;

function catSays() {
    echo "meow";
}

lolcodecatSays();

http://blogs.sitepoint.com/php-53-namespaces-basics/




                                                       14
Files, Streams and other Fun
Working with Files

There are two main ways to work with files

  • All at once, using file_* functions

  • In bite-sized pieces, using f* functions




                                               2
Working with Files

There are two main ways to work with files

  • All at once, using file_* functions

  • In bite-sized pieces, using f* functions

For platform independence we have DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR




                                                        2
File Functions

Read and write files using file_get_contents() and
file_put_contents()

$words = file_get_contents('words.txt');
echo $words; // This is a file containing words.
file_put_contents('words.txt', str_replace('words', 'nonsense', $words




                                                                   3
The f* Functions

  • Use a file handle from fopen()

  • Read in chunks, using fgets()

  • Or all in one go, using file() or fread()

  • Write with fwrite()

  • Close handle with fclose()




                                                4
Fopen

Fopen can operate in various modes, passed in as the 2nd argument


 r   For reading
 w   for writing, empties the file first
 a   for writing, adding onto the end of the file
 x   for writing, fail if the file exists
 c   for writing, start at the top
 +   in combination with any of the above, to enable reading/writing also
 b   binary mode




                                                                            5
Reading from Files


$fh = fopen('lorem.txt', 'r');
while(!feof($fh)) {
    echo fgets($fh);
}

flcose($fh);

Notice feof() which returns true when we reach the end of the file




                                                                    6
Writing to Files


$fh = fopen('polly.txt', 'w');

for($i=0; $i<3; $i++) {
    fwrite($fh, 'Polly put the kettle on' . PHP_EOL);
}
fwrite($fh, 'We'll all have tea' . PHP_EOL);




                                                        7
File System Functions

Other useful file and directory functions

   • glob()

   • is_dir()

   • is_file()

   • copy()

   • rename()

   • unlink()




                                           8
PHP Setup and Configuration
phpinfo()

Call this function to find out:

   • What version of PHP you have

   • Which php.ini is being used

   • What your config settings are

   • Which extensions are installed




                                      2
Common Config Settings

  • error_reporting

  • display_errors

  • memory_limit

  • post_max_size

  • include_path

  • file_uploads

  • upload_max_filesize

http://php.net/manual/en/ini.core.php




                                        3
PHP include_path

   • Use get_include_path() to get current

   • There is a PATH_SEPARATOR for platform independence

   • Set with set_include_path()


Include paths can be useful for libraries, etc




                                                           4
Question Styles
Question Types

 • Multiple choice

     • pick one answer
     • may include "none of the above"

 • Multiple choice, multiple option

     • checkboxes rather than radio buttons
     • if you tick too few, the software will tell you

 • Free text

     • function name, script output, or other string




                                                         2
Sample Question

What is the output of the following code?
<code>
echo strlen(sha1('0'), true);
</code>

(textarea)




                                            3
Sample Question

What does the max_file_uploads configuration option contain?

  • A The maximum number of file uploads per session

  • B The maximum number of file uploads per request

  • C The maximum number of file uploads per user

  • D The maximum number of file uploads before the web service
    process is restarted




                                                                 4
Sample Question

What will the following code print?
$str = printf('%.1f',5.3);
echo 'Zend PHP Certification ';
echo $str;


   • A Zend Certification 5.3

   • B Zend PHP Certification

   • C 5.3Zend PHP Certification 3




                                      5
Sample Question

What is the output of the following code?
$a = 1;
++$a;
$a *= $a;
echo $a--;


   • A4

   • B3

   • C5

   • D0

   • E1




                                            6
Sample Question

Which of the following statements about static functions is true?

   • A Static functions can only access static properties of the class

   • B Static functions cannot be called from non-static functions

   • C Static functions cannot be abstract

   • D Static functions cannot be inherited




                                                                         7
Sample Question

class A {
    protected $a = 1;
    function x() { echo $this->a++; }
}

$a = new A();
$b = $a;
$c = new A();
$b->x();
$a->x();
$c->x();
$b = $c;
$b->x();
$a->x();

  • A 11122

  • B 12345

  • C 12123

  • D 12134                             8
Object Orientation
Classes and Objects

A class is a recipe for making an object

class Robot {
    public $name;

    public function flashLights($pattern) {
        // look! Pretty flashing lights
        return true;
    }
}


An object is an instance of a class

$marvin = new Robot();




                                              2
Object Methods and Properties

Object variables are "properties" and their functions are "methods"

$marvin = new Robot();
$marvin->name = 'Marvin';
$marvin->flashLights();




                                                                      3
Inheritance

OOP supports inheritance

  • similar classes can share a parent and override features

  • improves modularity, avoids duplication

  • classes can only have one parent (unlike some other languages)

  • classes can have many children

  • there can be as many generations of inheritance as we need




                                                                     4
Inheritance Examples

class Table {

    public $legs;

    public function getLegCount() {
        return $this->legs;
    }
}

class DiningTable extends Table {}


$newtable = new DiningTable();
$newtable->legs = 6;
echo $newtable->getLegCount(); // 6




                                      5
Visibility

We can control which parts of a class are available and where:

  • public: always available, everywhere

  • private: only available inside this class

  • protected: only available inside this class and descendants

This applies to both methods and properties




                                                                  6
Protected Properties

class Table {
    protected $legs;

    public function getLegCount() {
        return $this->legs;
    }

    public function setLegCount($legs) {
        $this->legs = $legs;
        return true;
    }
}


$table = new Table();
$table->legs = 4;

// Fatal error: Cannot access protected property Table::$legs in /.../




                                                                   7
Protected Properties

class Table {
    protected $legs;

    public function getLegCount() {
        return $this->legs;
    }

    public function setLegCount($legs) {
        $this->legs = $legs;
        return true;
    }
}


$table = new Table();
$table->setLegCount(4);

echo $table->getLegCount();




                                           8
Protected Methods

Access modifiers for methods work exactly the same way:
class Table {
    protected function getColours() {
        return array("beech", "birch", "mahogany");
    }
}


class DiningTable extends Table {
    public function colourChoice() {
        return parent::getColours();
    }
}

If Table::getColours() were private, DiningTable would think that
method was undefined




                                                                    9
Object Keywords

 • parent: the class this class extends




                                          10
Object Keywords

 • parent: the class this class extends

 • self: this class, usually used in a static context, instead of $this

     • WARNING: in extending classes, this resolves to where it was
       declared
     • This was fixed in PHP 5.3 by "late static binding"




                                                                          10
Object Keywords

 • parent: the class this class extends

 • self: this class, usually used in a static context, instead of $this

     • WARNING: in extending classes, this resolves to where it was
       declared
     • This was fixed in PHP 5.3 by "late static binding"

 • static: the class in which the code is being used

     • Just like self but actually works :)
     • Added in 5.3 "Late Static Binding"




                                                                          10
Comparing Objects

 • Comparison ==

     • objects must be of the (exact) same class
     • objects must have identical properties

 • Strict comparison ===

     • both arguments must refer to the same object




                                                      11
Static Methods

We can call methods without instantiating a class

  • $this is not available in a static method

  • use the :: notation (paamayim nekudotayim)

  • used where we don’t need object properties


class Table {
    public static function getColours() {
        return array("beech", "birch", "mahogany");
    }
}


$choices = Table::getColours();




                                                      12
Static Properties

    • Exactly like static methods

    • Use static when declaring them

    • Can be accessed without instantiating the class

Example: Singleton
class Singleton
{
  private static $classInstance;

    private function __construct () {}

    static function getInstance () {
      if (! isset(self::$classInstance)) {
        self::$classInstance = new Singleton();
      }
      return (self::$classInstance);
    }
}

                                                        13
Class Constants

    • Class constants are similar to static properties

    • But constants can’t change


class Robot {
    const MESSAGE = "Here I am, brain the size of a planet";
    public $name;

     public function flashLights($pattern) {
         // look! Pretty flashing lights
         return true;
     }
}

echo Robot::MESSAGE;




                                                               14
Interfaces

  • prototypes of class methods

  • classes "implement" an interface

  • they must implement all these methods

  • the object equivalent of a contract

PHP does not have multiple inheritance




                                            15
Example Interface: Countable

This interface is defined in SPL, and it looks like this:
Interface Countable {
    public function count();
}

RTFM: http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/class.countable.php




                                                           16
Autoloading

Use include and require to bring class code into our applications.

We can also use autoloading if our classes are predictably named.
function __autoload($classname) {

        if(preg_match('/[a-zA-Z]+Controller$/',$classname)) {
                include('../controllers/' . $classname . '.php');
                return true;
        } elseif(preg_match('/[a-zA-Z]+Model$/',$classname)) {
                include('../models/' . $classname . '.php');
                return true;
        } elseif(preg_match('/[a-zA-Z]+View$/',$classname)) {
                include('../views/' . $classname . '.php');
                return true;
        }
}

No need to include/require if you have autoloading



                                                                     17
The instanceOf Operator

To check whether an object is of a particular class, use instanceOf
$table = new DiningTable();

if($table instanceOf DiningTable) {
    echo "a dining tablen";
}

if($table instanceOf Table) {
    echo "a tablen";
}


InstanceOf will return true if the object:

   • is of that class

   • is of a child of that class

   • implements that interface


                                                                      18
Type Hinting

We have type hinting in PHP for complex types. So we can do:

function interrogate(Robot $robot) {
    // imagine something more exciting
    while($robot->getStatus() == 'OK') {
        askAnotherQuestion($robot);
    }
    return true;
}


PHP will error unless the argument:

  • is of that class

  • is of a child of that class

  • implements that class



                                                               19
Raising Exceptions

In PHP, we can throw any exception, any time.
function addTwoNumbers($a, $b) {
    if(($a == 0) || ($b == 0)) {
        throw new Exception("Zero is Boring!");
    }

    return $a + $b;
}

echo addTwoNumbers(3,2); // 5
echo addTwoNumbers(5,0); // error!!



Fatal error: Uncaught exception ’Exception’ with message ’Zero is Boring!’ in /
Stack trace:
#0 /.../exception.php(12): addTwoNumbers(5, 0)
#1 {main}
    thrown in /.../exception.php on line 5




                                                                           20
Extending Exceptions

We can extend the Exception class for our own use
class DontBeDaftException extends Exception {
}

function tableColour($colour) {
    if($colour == "orange" || $colour == "spotty") {
        throw new DontBeDaftException($colour . 'is not acceptable');
    }
    echo "The table is $colourn";
}

try {
    tableColour("blue");
    tableColour("orange");
} catch (DontBeDaftException $e) {
    echo "Don't be daft! " . $e->getMessage();
} catch (Exception $e) {
    echo "The sky is falling in! " . $e->getMessage();
}



                                                                   21
Magic Methods

In PHP 5.3, we introduced magic methods

  • Constructors/destructors

  • Getters and setters

  • Calling methods

  • Serialisation hooks

  • Etc




                                          22
Constructors

  • __construct: called when a new object is instantiated

      • declare any parameters you like
      • usually we inject dependencies
      • perform any other setup

class BlueTable {
    public function __construct() {
        $this->colour = "blue";
    }
}
$blue_table = new BlueTable();
echo $blue_table->colour; // blue




                                                            23
Destructors

 • __destruct: called when the object is destroyed

     • good time to close resource handles




                                                     24
Fake Properties

When we access a property that doesn’t exist, PHP calls __get() or
__set() for us
class Table {

    public function __get($property) {
        // called if we are reading
        echo "you asked for $propertyn";
    }

    public function __set($property, $value) {
        // called if we are writing
        echo "you tried to set $property to $valuen";
    }
}

$table = new Table();

$table->legs = 5;

echo "table has: " . $table->legs . "legsn";

                                                                     25
Fake Methods

PHP calls __call when we call a method that doesn’t exist
class Table {
    public function shift($x, $y) {
        // the table moves
        echo "shift table by $x and $yn";
    }

    public function __call($method, $arguments) {
        // look out for calls to move(), these should be shift()
        if($method == "move") {
            return $this->shift($arguments[0], $arguments[1]);
        }
    }
}

$table = new Table();
$table->shift(3,5); // shift table by 3 and 5
$table->move(4,9); // shift table by 4 and 9

There is an equivalent function for static calls, __callStatic()

                                                                   26
Serialising Objects

We can control what happens when we serialize and unserialize
objects
class Table {
}

$table = new Table();
$table->legs = 4;
$table->colour = "red";

echo serialize($table);
// O:5:"Table":2:{s:4:"legs";i:4;s:6:"colour";s:3:"red";}




                                                                27
Serialising Objects

  • __sleep() to specify which properties to store

  • __wakeup() to put in place any additional items on unserialize

class Table {
    public function __sleep() {
        return array("legs");
    }
}

$table = new Table();
$table->legs = 7;
$table->colour = "red";

$data = serialize($table);
echo $data;
// O:5:"Table":1:{s:4:"legs";i:7;}




                                                                     28
Serialising Objects

  • __sleep() to specify which properties to store

  • __wakeup() to put in place any additional items on unserialize

class Table {
    public function __wakeup() {
        $this->colour = "wood";
    }
}

echo $data;
$other_table = unserialize($data);
print_r($other_table);

/* Table Object
(
    [legs] => 7
    [colour] => wood
) */


                                                                     29
Magic Tricks: clone

Control the behaviour of cloning an object by defining __clone()

  • make it return false to prevent cloning (for a Singleton)

  • recreate resources that shouldn’t be shared




                                                                  30
Magic Tricks: toString

Control what happens when an object cast to a string. E.g. for an
exception
class TableException extends Exception {
    public function __toString() {
        return '** ' . $this->getMessage() . ' **';
    }
}

try {
    throw new TableException("it wobbles!");
} catch (TableException $e) {
    echo $e;
}

// output: ** it wobbles! **

The default output would be
exception ’TableException’ with message ’it wobbles!’   in
/.../tostring.php:7 Stack trace:



                                                                    31
Design Patterns

Common solutions to common problems. ZCE expects:

  • Singleton

  • Registry

  • Factory

  • ActiveRecord

  • MVC (Model View Controller)




                                                    32
Singleton

We saw a singleton already

class Singleton
{
  private static $classInstance;

    private function __construct () {}

    static function getInstance () {
      if (! isset(self::$classInstance)) {
        self::$classInstance = new Singleton();
      }
      return (self::$classInstance);
    }
}


    • Only one instance is allowed

    • We can’t instantiate it ourselves

                                                  33
Registry


class Registry
{
  private static $storage;
    private function __construct () {}
    public function set($key, $value) {
        self::$storage[$key] = $value;
    }
    public function get($key) {
        if(array_key_exists($key, self::$storage)) {
            return self::$storage[$key];
        }
        return false;
    }
}

Registry::set('shinyThing', new StdClass());
// later ...
$shiny = Registry::get('shinyThing');



                                                       34
Factory


class WidgetFactory
{
  public function getWidget($type) {
    switch($type) {
      case 'DatePicker':
        // assume simple look/feel
        return new SimpleDatePicker(Registry::get('options'));
        break;
      default:
        // do nothing, invalid widget type
        break;
    }
  }
}

$widget_factory = new WidgetFactory();
$picker = $widget_factory->getWidget('DatePicker');
$picker->render();



                                                                 35
Active Record

  • A pattern that hides data access details

  • Application simply deals with an object

  • Object itself knows how to translate itself to storage

Code can be long/complicated




                                                             36
MVC

  • Model-View-Controller

  • Separates data access, processing and presentation

  • Common in many frameworks today

  • Controller retrieves data from models, and passes to appropriate
    view

Concepts can be tested, code usually isn’t




                                                                       37
Classes and Namespaces

 • Namespaces help us avoid crazy long classnames

 • We can combine libraries with the same classnames

 • Our code can be more easily organised




                                                       38
Classes in Namespaces

Declaring the namespace and class:

namespace MyLibraryLogging

class FileLog{
}

Using the class from elsewhere (including inside another namespace):

$log_handler = new MyLibraryLoggingFileLog();




                                                                       39
Classes in Namespaces

Declaring the namespace and class:

namespace MyLibraryLogging

class FileLog{
}

Using the namespace and shortened class name:

use MyLibraryLogging;
use MyLibraryLogging as Fred;

$log_handler = new LoggingFileLog();
$log_handler2 = new FredFileLog();




                                                40
Reflection

 • An API which allows us to inspect our functions/objects

 • Gives meta information

 • Includes private/protected properties and methods




                                                             41
Reflecting Functions


function addStars($message) {
    return '** ' . $message . ' **';
}

$reflection = new ReflectionFunction('addStars');

$reflection->getName();
$reflection->getParameters();
$reflection->isUserDefined();
$reflection->getFileName();




                                                    42
Reflecting Classes


class Robot {
    public $name;

    public function flashLights($pattern) {
        // look! Pretty flashing lights
        return true;
    }
}

$reflection = new ReflectionClass('Robot');
$reflection->getMethods();
$reflection->getFileName();
$reflection->getProperties();
$reflection->isInterface());




                                              43
Reflection on the CLI

Reflection gives us these command-line switches:

   • -rf for function information

   • -rc for class information

   • -re for extension information

   • -ri for extension configuration

Not a ZCE question but really useful!




                                                  44
SPL Library

SPL: Standard PHP Library

  • Bad news: Huge topic

  • Good news: Not much mention in ZCE




                                         45
SPL: Key Knowledge

  • Introduced in PHP 5, new additions in each release

  • ArrayObject class

  • Standard iterator classes

  • Really useful interfaces

      • Countable (we saw earlier)
      • ArrayAccess
      • Iterator

  • Data types for storage

  • Detailed exceptions

  • Autoloading

http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/book.spl.php
                                                         46
ArrayAccess

An interface which allows an object to behave like an array
abstract   public   boolean offsetExists ( mixed $offset )
abstract   public   mixed offsetGet ( mixed $offset )
abstract   public   void offsetSet ( mixed $offset , mixed $value )
abstract   public   void offsetUnset ( mixed $offset )




                                                                      47
Iterator

An interface which defines how an object behaves when "foreach"-ed
abstract   public   mixed current ( void )
abstract   public   scalar key ( void )
abstract   public   void next ( void )
abstract   public   void rewind ( void )
abstract   public   boolean valid ( void )




                                                                    48
OOP Resources

 • OOP Series: http://bit.ly/j7yRUa

 • Design Patterns:
   http://www.fluffycat.com/PHP-Design-Patterns/

 • MVC: http://bit.ly/j8Fscu

 • SPL (ramsey): http://devzone.zend.com/article/2565

 • SPL (Elazar): http://bit.ly/jiFokK




                                                        49
HTTP and the Web
Forms

A form:
<form name="myform">
Name: <input type="text" name="item" /><br />
Imaginary? <input type="checkbox" name="type" value="imaginary" /><br
<input type="submit" value="Share" />
</form>

In the browser:




                                                                   2
Submitting Forms

PHP data in $_GET:
Array
(
    [item] => Unicorn
    [type] => imaginary
)


If form has method="post" attribute, data will be in $_POST




                                                              3
Fun With Forms

 • Forms can have many input types:

 • For a full list: http://www.w3schools.com/html/html_forms.asp




                                                                   4
Fun With Forms

 • Forms can have many input types:

 • For a full list: http://www.w3schools.com/html/html_forms.asp

 • In the interests of balance: http://w3fools.com/




                                                                   4
Uploading Files with Forms

  • Use enctype="multipart/form-data" and input type file

  • Upload information available in $_FILES

  • One element per form file element, containing:

      • name
      • type
      • size
      • tmp_name
      • error

  • Config options: upload_max_filesize and upload_tmp_dir




                                                            5
HTTP Headers

Headers are request meta-data

Common headers:

  • Accept and Content-Type

  • Cookie and Set-Cookie

  • User-Agent

  • Authorization

Headers are sent with both requests and responses




                                                    6
Headers Example

curl -I http://www.google.co.uk/

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Wed, 04 May 2011 09:50:30 GMT
Expires: -1
Cache-Control: private, max-age=0
Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1
Set-Cookie: PREF=ID=0a902b1fd14bc62f:FF=0:TM=1304502630:LM=1304502630:
Set-Cookie: NID=46=CUminn6rbfPX-oPfF1LQ_PtTpJVvMIeB6q0csmOjv4mnciVY5yP
Server: gws
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
Transfer-Encoding: chunked




                                                                   7
Cookies

  • Cookies are sent as HTTP headers

  • Client returns them on subsequent same-domain requests

  • No cookies in first request



// set cookie
setcookie('name', 'Fred', time() + 3600);

// see what cookies we have
var_dump($_COOKIE);




                                                             8
Cookie Considerations

 • Cookies are invisible to the user

 • Data is stored client side

 • Easily edited (check your browser options)

 • Cannot be trusted




                                                9
PHP Sessions

Sessions are a better way to store persistent data

   • Available by default in PHP

   • Start with session_start() or config session.auto_start

   • Makes a superglobal $_SESSION available, which persists between
     requests from the same user




                                                                       10
PHP Sessions

Sessions are a better way to store persistent data

   • Available by default in PHP

   • Start with session_start() or config session.auto_start

   • Makes a superglobal $_SESSION available, which persists between
     requests from the same user

   • Session has a unique identifier

   • Usually sent to client as a cookie

   • Data is stored on the server




                                                                       10
Session Storage

 • Sessions stored as files in temp directory by default

 • Many different handlers available:

     • database
     • memcache
     • ... and extensible

 • Set handler with session.save_handler




                                                          11
Session Functions

 • session_id()

 • session_regenerate_id()

 • session_destroy()




                             12
HTTP Authentication

If you’re using Apache, you can use PHP and Basic Authentication

  • If credentials were submitted, you’ll find them in

       • $_SERVER[’PHP_AUTH_USER’]
       • $_SERVER[’PHP_AUTH_PW’]

  • To trigger authentication, send a WWW-Authenticate:      Basic
    realm=[realm] header

  • http://bit.ly/jBeOwb

  • http://php.net/manual/en/features.http-auth.php




                                                                     13
Web Services and Data Formats
Date and Time

Unix Timestamp: seconds since 1st January 1970

  • e.g. 1305656360

Date/Time functions

  • date()

  • mktime()

       • BEWARE arguments hour, minute, second, month,
         day, year

  • strtotime()

See: http://bit.ly/iPyKgv




                                                         2
DateTime

  • OO interface into the same (some better, some fixed) functionality

  • Added in 5.2

  • Objects

      • DateTime
      • DateTimeZone
      • DateInterval
      • DatePeriod

See: http://bit.ly/kYuIj9




                                                                        3
XML in PHP

There is (as usual) more than one way to do this

  • SimpleXML
     http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/book.simplexml.php

  • DOM http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/book.dom.php




                                                       4
XML in PHP

There is (as usual) more than one way to do this

  • SimpleXML
     http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/book.simplexml.php

  • DOM http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/book.dom.php


As a general rule, if SimpleXML can do it, use SimpleXML. Otherwise,
use DOM

They are interoperable using dom_import_simplexml() and
simplexml_import_dom()




                                                                       4
SimpleXML

SimpleXML parses XML into a predictable Object structure

    • Objects are of type SimpleXMLElement

    • Child elements are properties, and themselves are
      SimpleXMLElement objects

    • Where there are multiple same-named children, these become an
      array*

    • Attributes are accessed using array notation

    • Does have some limitations (cannot relocate nodes, for example)

* not really, it’s an object with ArrayAccess but it *looks* like an array to us




                                                                                   5
SimpleXMLElement Functions

Bringing in data:

   • simplexml_load_file - Interprets an XML file into an object

   • simplexml_load_string - Interprets a string of XML into an
     object




                                                                  6
SimpleXMLElement Functions

Manipulating XML

  • SimpleXMLElement::children - Finds children of given node

  • SimpleXMLElement::attributes - Identifies an element’s
    attributes

  • SimpleXMLElement::addChild - Adds a child element to the
    XML node

  • SimpleXMLElement::addAttribute - Adds an attribute to the
    SimpleXML element

  • SimpleXMLElement::getName - Gets the name of the XML
    element

  • SimpleXMLElement::getDocNamespaces - Returns
    namespaces declared in document

  • SimpleXMLElement::asXML - Return a well-formed XML string
    based on SimpleXML element                                  7
DOM and XML

 • More powerful and flexible

 • More complex

 • Documents represented by DOMDocument objects




                                                  8
DOMDocument Methods

  • DOMDocument::load - Load XML from a file

  • DOMDocument::loadXML - Load XML from a string

  • DOMDocument::saveXML - Dumps the internal XML tree into a
    string

  • DOMDocument::createAttribute - Create new attribute

  • DOMDocument::createElement - Create new element node

  • DOMDocument::getElementsByTagName - Searches for all
    elements with given tag name

  • DOMDocument::normalizeDocument - Normalizes the document

There is also the DOMElement class



                                                                9
XML Resources

 • http://bit.ly/l0EOkz

 • http://bit.ly/jPeIKl

 • http://devzone.zend.com/article/1713




                                          10
XPath

Query language for XML, often compared with SQL

  • In its simplest form, it searches for a top level tag

  • A particular tag inside a tag library/shelf

  • And so on to any level of nesting

  • To search for tags at any level in the hierarchy, start with double
    slash //book

  • To find elements, use an ’at’ sign //book@title


Both DOM and SimpleXML allow you to perform XPath on child nodes as
well as a whole document




                                                                          11
JSON

 • JavaScript Object Notation

 • A string format for representing arrays/objects

 • Write it with json_encode()

 • Read it with json_decode()




                                                     12
JSON Example


$list = array("meat" => array(
    "chicken",
    "lamb",
    "reindeer"),
    "count" => 3);

echo json_encode($list);

"meat":["chicken","lamb","reindeer"],"count":3




                                                 13
Web Services

 • Means of exposing functionality or data

 • A lot like a web page

 • Integration between applications

 • Separation within an application

 • Works over HTTP, using headers and status codes for additional
   data

 • Can use various data formats, including XML and JSON




                                                                    14
RPC Services

These services typically have:

  • A single endpoint

  • Method names

  • Method parameters

  • A return value




                                 15
Soap

 • Not an acronym

       • (used to stand for Simple Object Access Protocol)

 • Special case of XML-RPC

 • VERY easy to do in PHP

 • Can be used with a WSDL

       • Web Service Description Language




                                                             16
Publishing a Soap Service


include('Library.php');

$options = array('uri' => 'http://api.local/soap');
$server = new SoapServer(NULL, $options);
$server->setClass('Library');

$server->handle();




                                                      17
Consuming a Soap Service

To call PHP directly, we would do:
include('Library.php');

$lib = new Library();
$name = $lib->thinkOfAName();
echo $name; // Arthur Dent


Over Soap:
$options = array('uri' => 'http://api.local',
    'location' => 'http://api.local/soap');
$client = new SoapClient(NULL, $options);

$name = $client->thinkOfAName();
echo $name; // Arthur Dent




                                                18
REST

  • REST: REpresentational State Transfer

  • Can look like "pretty URLs"

  • Stateless

  • Uses HTTP features

  • Can use any data format

                                                GET    Read
                                               POST    Create
In REST, we use HTTP verbs to provide CRUD:
                                                PUT    Update
                                              DELETE   Delete




                                                                19
Using REST

 • Every item is a resource

 • Each resource is represented by a URI

 • The "directories" are called collections

 • We can GET items or collections

 • To create, we POST to the collection

 • To update, we GET the resource, change it and then POST it back to
   the URI

 • To delete, we DELETE the resource




                                                                        20
Security
Filter Input, Escape Output




           Filter input, escape output




                                         2
Filter Input

  • Trust nothing

  • Ensure data is type expected

  • Whitelist/Blacklist

  • ctype_* functions

  • Filter extension




                                   3
PHP Security Configuration

There are some key ini directives that can help us secure our system

  • register_globals

  • allow_url_fopen

  • open_basedir

  • disable_functions

  • disable_classes




                                                                       4
Cross Site Scripting

Someone inserts something malicious into your site that users see,
especially if you have user contributed content

Usually javascript, and can be subtle - redirecting users or rewriting links



                 Filter input, escape output

Input containing scripts should not be accepted, and should never be
displayed




                                                                               5
Cross Site Request Forgery

Script makes request to another website

   • Uses user privileges

   • Invisible to user

   • Form submissions that did not come from your forms


To protect:

   • Send a unique token with every form

   • Only accept a form response if it has the token in it




                                                             6
SQL Injection




                http://xkcd.com/327/




                                       7
SQL Injection

  • Again, filter your input!

  • SQL injection is passing of unescapted variables to your database

  • Use *_escape_string() to combat it

  • PDO and prepared statements protect against it




                                                                        8
Databases
SQL

 • Assumes MySQL

 • DDL queries

 • Data manipulation

 • PDO




                       2
Tables

Creating tables:
CREATE TABLE pets (
    pet_id int primary key auto_increment,
    animal varchar(255),
    name varchar(255));


Removing tables:
DROP TABLE pets;




                                             3
SQL and Data

Inserting data:

insert into pets (animal, name) values ("dog", "Rover");
insert into pets (animal, name) values ("cat", "Fluffy");

Updating data:

update pets set name="Pig" where name="Rover";

Deleting data:

delete from pets;

A where clause can be added too




                                                            4
SQL Joins

A join is when we combine two data sets, e.g. owners and pets

+--------+--------+---------+----------+
| pet_id | animal | name    | owner_id |
+--------+--------+---------+----------+
|      1 | dog    | Pig     |        3 |
|      2 | cat    | Fluffy |         3 |
|      3 | rabbit | blackie |        2 |
|      4 | rabbit | Snowy   |        1 |
|      5 | cat    | Scratch |        3 |
|      6 | cat    | Sniff   |        3 |
+--------+--------+---------+----------+



+----------+---------+------+
| owner_id | name    | age |
+----------+---------+------+
|        1 | Jack    |    3 |
|        2 | Jill    |    3 |
|        3 | Harriet |    9 |
+----------+---------+------+
                                                                5
SQL Joins: Inner Join

Inner joins join two tables where rows match in both

select pets.name, owners.name from pets
inner join owners on pets.owner_id = owners.owner_id;

+---------+---------+
| name    | name    |
+---------+---------+
| Fluffy | Harriet |
| blackie | Jill    |
| Snowy   | Jack    |
| Scratch | Harriet |
| Sniff   | Harriet |
+---------+---------+

A join is an inner join by default




                                                        6
SQL Joins: Left/Right Join

A left join brings all rows from the left column plus matches from the right

select pets.name, owners.name from pets
left join owners on pets.owner_id = owners.owner_id;

+---------+---------+
| name    | name    |
+---------+---------+
| Pig     | NULL    |
| Fluffy | Harriet |
| blackie | Jill    |
| Snowy   | Jack    |
| Scratch | Harriet |
| Sniff   | Harriet |
+---------+---------+

A right join is the same but brings all the rows from the right hand side
plus any matches on the left



                                                                               7
PDO

PDO: PHP Database Objects

  • Connects to (many!) various database back-ends

  • Replaces the mysql_* functions and equivalents

  • Abstracts database access

  • Does not work around SQL differences

http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/book.pdo.php




                                                     8
PDO Examples

Fetching data
$dbh = new PDO('mysql:host=localhost;dbname=test', 'user', 'pass');

$query = "select name from owners";
$stmt = $dbh->prepare($query);
$success = $stmt->execute();

if($success) {
    while($row = $stmt->fetch()){
        echo "<p>".$row['NAME']."</p>n";
    }
}




                                                                      9
Prepared Statements

 • Prepared statements standard with PDO

 • Use bind variables just as from command line

 • These will be sanity checked as they are substituted

 • Use placeholders in SQL

 • Two types of placeholder

     • :variable
     • ?

 • Can also bind to a parameter with bindParam()




                                                          10
Bind Variables

These are simple placeholders which we substitute values into

$dbh = new PDO('mysql:host=localhost;dbname=test', 'user', 'pass');

$sql = 'select * from pets
where animal = ?
and colour = ?';

$stmt = $dbh->prepare($sql);

$stmt->bindValue(1,'cat');
$stmt->bindValue(2,'black');

$stmt->execute();




                                                                      11
Bind Variables

A more readable but equivalent approach:
$dbh = new PDO('mysql:host=localhost;dbname=test', 'user', 'pass');

$sql = 'select * from pets
where animal = :animal
and colour = :colour';

$stmt = $dbh->prepare($sql);

$stmt->bindValue(':colour','rabbit');
$stmt->bindValue(':animal','white');

$stmt->execute();




                                                                      12
Transactions

 • Some database types support transactions

 • Transactions are atomic collections of statements

 • If all statements complete successfully, transaction is committed

 • Otherwise, it is rolled back and none of them ever happened

 • PDO supports this

     • PDO::beginTransaction()
     • PDO::commit() or PDO::rollback()




                                                                       13
Optimising Queries with EXPLAIN

  • Take a query

  • Put the EXPLAIN keyword in front of it

  • Gives information about the number of rows scanned to build result
    set

  • Use G to make it easier to read

http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/explain.html




                                                                         14
Exam Tips
Timings

 • 70 questions approx

 • 90 minutes

 • 77 seconds on average




                           2
Timings

 • 70 questions approx

 • 90 minutes

 • 77 seconds on average




                     Take your time!




                                       2
Equipment

You will be allowed to take nothing with you.

They will give you something to write on and with




                                                    3
Scores

 • Pass mark is not publicised

 • No penalty for a wrong answer

 • Some questions worth more marks than others

 • You can flag questions to come back to later




                                                 4
Scores

 • Pass mark is not publicised

 • No penalty for a wrong answer

 • Some questions worth more marks than others

 • You can flag questions to come back to later




              If you don’t know, GUESS




                                                 4
Reviewing Questions

When you get to the end of the questions:

  • A grid of questions shows

  • Unanswered questions are marked

  • Flagged questions are marked

  • You can go to them, and come back to the grid

  • If you haven’t ticked enough boxes, this is shown too




                                                            5
ZCE Benefits

 • Right to use "ZCE" and logo

 • Entry in Zend Yellow Pages directory

 • Software licenses from Zend

 • Some employers ask for it

 • Bragging rights? :)




                                          6
And Finally

  • Links: http://bit.ly/ltbYs1

  • Slides: http://slideshare.net/lornajane

  • Feedback: http://joind.in/3214




                 GOOD LUCK!




                                              7

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Zend Certification Preparation Tutorial

  • 2. What This Course Is Not • Coherent coverage of all topics • A guarantee of success • In-depth • Accredited by Zend 2
  • 3. Aims of Today • FAST overview of certification content • Refresher/Reminder on well-known things • Comments on exam styles • Identification of any weak points • Provision of resources for further study 3
  • 4. Meet the PHP Manual
  • 5. Most Important Resource: php.net • Main Page: http://php.net • Local versions: http://uk2.php.net • Many translations available • Cool Shortcut: http://php.net/[function name] • Redirects you straight to that page • http://php.net/array_walk • http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/function.array-walk.php 5
  • 6. Anatomy of a PHP Manual Page • Description • Parameters • Return Values • Changelog • Examples • See Also • User-Contributed Notes 6
  • 10. Changelog 10
  • 11. Examples 11
  • 12. See Also 12
  • 15. PHP Tags Many different ways to open PHP tags: • Standard Tags: <?php and ?> • Short Tags: <? and ?> • Script Tags: <script language="php"> and </script> • ASP-Style Tags: <% and %> Only the first is recommended. Others are enabled with ini settings • asp_tags • short_open_tag 2
  • 16. Commenting Code Many different ways to do this too! // a one-line comment # a less common format of one-line comment /* A comment which can span a great many lines */ /** * More common multi-line commenting * * @param string The variable for the method */ See Also: PHPDocumentor • http://www.phpdoc.org/ 3
  • 17. Operators • Operators are how we tell PHP what to do with our variables • ZCE expects you to know many different types - look out for precedence to trip you up • See Also: http://php.net/manual/en/language.operators.php 4
  • 18. Arithmetic Operators -$a Negation $a + $b Addition $a - $b Subtraction $a * $b Multiplication $a / $b Division $a % $b Modulus Example of modulus operator: echo (17 % 4); // 1 echo (13 % 5); // 3 5
  • 19. Shorthand Operators A contraction of operating on something and assigning the result • $a = $a + $b becomes: • $a += $b The same thing works for - / * % and . 6
  • 20. Ternary Operator This is a shortcut for an if/else statement. $a = isset($_GET['param1']) ? $_GET['param1'] : 10; There’s a contraction of it too, where the first two items match: $pages = $_GET['pages'] ? $_GET['pages'] : 20; $pages = $_GET['pages'] ?: 20; 7
  • 21. Comparison Operators A great source of trick questions! == Equal === Strictly equal != Not equal !== Strictly not equal 8
  • 22. Comparisons: The strpos Trap $tagline = "PHP Made Easy"; if(strpos(strtolower($tagline), 'php')) { echo 'php tagline: ' . $tagline; } 9
  • 23. Comparisons: The strpos Trap $tagline = "PHP Made Easy"; if(false !== strpos(strtolower($tagline), 'php')) { echo 'php tagline: ' . $tagline; } 10
  • 24. Data Types PHP is dynamically weakly typed. It does "type juggling" when data types don’t match. PHP data types: • integer • float • boolean • string • array • object • resource 11
  • 25. Number Systems System Characters Notes Binary 01 used in logical calculations Decimal 0123456789 "normal" numbers Octal 01234567 written with a leading 0 Hex 0123456789abcdef used for HTML colours http://www.lornajane.net/posts/2011/Number-System-Primer 12
  • 26. Variables • Start with a $ • Don’t need to be initialised • Represent a value, of any type • Start with a letter, then can contain letters, numbers and underscores • Are usually lowercase or CamelCase Variable variables $name = "Fiona"; $var = "name"; echo $$var; // Fiona 13
  • 27. Constants • Represent a value, of any type • Are initialised with define() and cannot change • Do not have a $ in front of their name • Start with a letter, then can contain letters, numbers and underscores • Are usually UPPER CASE 14
  • 28. Control Structures We’ll look at examples of each of: • if/elseif/else • switch • for • while • do..while • foreach 15
  • 29. If/ElseIf/Else if($hour < 10) { $beverage = "coffee"; } elseif($hour > 22) { $beverage = "hot chocolate"; } else { $beverage = "tea"; } 16
  • 30. Switch switch(date('D')) { case 'Monday': echo "Back to work"; break; case 'Friday': echo "Almost the weekend!"; break; case 'Saturday': case 'Sunday': echo "Not a working day :)"; break; default: echo "Just another day"; break; } 17
  • 31. For for($i=10; $i > 0; $i--) { echo $i . " green bottles, hanging on the walln"; } 18
  • 32. While $finished = false; while(!$finished) { $second = substr(date('s'), 1); if($second == '7') { $finished = true; } else { echo $second; } sleep(3); } 19
  • 33. Do .. While $finished = false; do { $second = substr(date('s'), 1); if($second == '7') { $finished = true; } else { echo $second; } sleep(3); } while(!$finished); 20
  • 34. Foreach $list = array( "chicken", "lamb", "reindeer"); foreach($list as $value) { echo "On the menu: " . $value . "n"; } 21
  • 35. Foreach $list = array( "chicken", "lamb", "reindeer"); // make plural foreach($list as $key => $value) { $list[$key] = $value . "s"; } foreach($list as $value) { echo "On the menu: " . $value . "n"; } 22
  • 36. Break and Continue • break go to after the next } • continue go to the end of this iteration Both can have a number to allow them to operate on nested structures 23
  • 38. 100 String Functions Anyone want to talk about all hundred string functions? 2
  • 39. String Functions Anything you want to do with a string, there’s a function for that Special terminology • needle: the thing you are looking for • haystack: the place you are looking 3
  • 40. Quotes • Single quote ’ • contains a string to be used as it is • Double quote " • can contain items to evaluate • you can use (simple) variables here 4
  • 41. Escape Characters Escape character is backslash . Useful when you want to: • put a $ in a string • use a quote in a quoted string • disable any special character meaning We sometimes need to escape the escape character echo "Escape character is backslash "; 5
  • 42. Formatting Strings Often we’ll concatenate as we need to, but we can also use formatting functions $animals = array( array("animal" => "cat", "legs" => 4), array("animal" => "bee", "legs" => 6), array("animal" => "peacock", "legs" => 2)); foreach($animals as $animal) { printf("This %s has %d legsn", $animal['animal'], $animal['legs']); } See also: *printf() and *scanf() 6
  • 43. HEREDOC Ask PHP to output everything until the placeholder $item = "star"; echo <<<ABC Star light, $item bright, The first $item I see tonight; I wish I may, I wish I might, Have the wish I wish tonight ABC; 7
  • 44. NOWDOC echo <<<'ABC' Star light, star bright, The first star I see tonight; I wish I may, I wish I might, Have the wish I wish tonight ABC; 8
  • 45. Regular Expressions • Often abbreviated to "RegEx" • Describe a pattern for strings to match /b[aeiou]t/ Matches "bat", "bet", "bit", "bot" and "but" 9
  • 46. Regular Expressions • Often abbreviated to "RegEx" • Describe a pattern for strings to match /b[aeiou]t/ Matches "bat", "bet", "bit", "bot" and "but" Also matches "cricket bat", "bitter lemon" 9
  • 47. Using Regex in PHP $pattern = '/b[aeiou]t/'; // returns the number of times there's a match echo preg_match($pattern, "bat"); // 1 Many other string handling functions use regex, and there’s also preg_match_all 10
  • 48. Character Ranges We can use ranges of characters, e.g. to match hex: /[0-9a-f]*/ 11
  • 49. Character Ranges We can use ranges of characters, e.g. to match hex: /[0-9a-f]*/ Upper and lower case are distinct; for alphanumeric: /[0-9a-zA-Z]/ 11
  • 50. Character Ranges We can use ranges of characters, e.g. to match hex: /[0-9a-f]*/ Upper and lower case are distinct; for alphanumeric: /[0-9a-zA-Z]/ If you want to allow another couple of characters, go for it: /[0-9a-zA-Z_]/ 11
  • 51. Character Ranges We can use ranges of characters, e.g. to match hex: /[0-9a-f]*/ Upper and lower case are distinct; for alphanumeric: /[0-9a-zA-Z]/ If you want to allow another couple of characters, go for it: /[0-9a-zA-Z_]/ To match any character, use a dot . 11
  • 52. Character Classes There are preset ways of saying "number", "whitespace" and so on: w word character s whitespace d digit When used in uppercase, these are negated 12
  • 53. Pattern Modifiers We can add modifiers to our pattern, to say how many matching characters are allowed. ? 0 or 1 time * 0 or more times + 1 or more times {n} n times {n,} n or more times {n,m} between n and m times {,m} up to m times /b[aeiou]*t/ Matches "bat" and "bit" etc, but also "boot" and "boat" 13
  • 54. Anchoring Patterns To stop us from matching "cricket bat", we can anchor ^ start of line $ end of line A start of string Z end of string /^b[aeiou]t/ Will match "battering ram" but not "cricket bat" 14
  • 55. Regex Delimiters • Regexes often contained by a / • Messy if your expression also contains slashes (e.g. for a URL) • Also common to use pipe or hash • Any matching pair works 15
  • 56. Regex Resources Brain exploding? Use this cheat sheet from addedbytes.com@ http://bit.ly/kiWlbZ 16
  • 58. Array Syntax Some examples of the syntax around arrays: $items = array("pen", "pencil", "ruler"); $items[7] = "calculator"; $items[] = "post-its"; var_dump($items); Outputs this: Array ( [0] => pen [1] => pencil [2] => ruler [7] => calculator [8] => post-its ) This is an enumerated array 2
  • 59. Associative Arrays Associative arrays have named keys $characters[] = array("name" => "Lala", "colour" => "Yellow"); $characters[] = array("name" => "Tinky Winky", "colour" => "Purple"); This is a nested associative array Array ( [0] => Array ( [name] => Lala [colour] => Yellow ) [1] => Array ( [name] => Tinky Winky [colour] => Purple ) 3
  • 60. Array Functions Only 75+ of these (12 just for sorting) 4
  • 62. Functions Declaring functions: function addStars($message) { return '** ' . $message . ' **'; } Calling functions: echo addStars("twinkle"); 2
  • 63. Functions and Arguments Passing many arguments: function setColour($red, $green, $blue) { return '#' . $red . $green . $blue; } echo setColour('99','00','cc'); //#9900cc And optional ones: function setColourAndIntensity($red, $green, $blue, $intensity = 'ff') { return '#' . $red . $green . $blue . $intensity; } echo setColourAndIntensity('99','00','cc'); //#9900ccff echo setColourAndIntensity('99','00','cc', '66'); //#9900cc66 Optional arguments should be the last on the list 3
  • 64. Return Values • By default, functions return NULL • Good practice to return values • Check if value is returned or assigned 4
  • 65. Return Values • By default, functions return NULL • Good practice to return values • Check if value is returned or assigned • Now check again 4
  • 66. Functions and Scope • Functions are a "clean sheet" for variables • Outside values are not available • Pass in as parameters to use them • There is also a global keyword • it was acceptable at one time • now considered poor practice 5
  • 67. Scope Examples function doStuff() { $apples++; } $apples = 4; echo $apples; //4 doStuff(); echo $apples; //4 6
  • 68. Scope Examples function doStuff() { global $apples; $apples++; } $apples = 4; echo $apples; //4 doStuff(); echo $apples; //5 7
  • 69. Pass by Reference By default: • Primitive types are copies • Objects are references To pass a variable by reference, declare it in the function with &: function moreCakes(&$basket) { $basket++; return true; } $basket = 0; moreCakes($basket); moreCakes($basket); echo $basket; // 2 8
  • 70. Call-Time Pass-By-Reference • The & goes in the function declaration • NOT in the call • PHP 5.3 gives an error about call-time pass-by-reference See also: http://php.net/manual/en/language.references.pass.php 9
  • 71. Anonymous Functions • Literally functions with no name • More convenient than create_function() • Called lambdas • Unless they use variables from the outside scope • Then they are called closures Great explanation: http://bit.ly/kn9Arg 10
  • 72. Lambda Example $ping = function() { echo "ping!"; }; $ping(); 11
  • 73. Closure Example $message = "hello"; $greet = function ($name) use ($message) { echo $message . ' ' . $name; }; $greet('Daisy'); // hello Daisy 12
  • 74. Closure Example $message = "hello"; $greet = function ($name) use ($message) { echo $message . ' ' . $name; }; $message = "hey"; $greet('Daisy'); // hello Daisy 13
  • 75. Namespaced Functions Namespaces are a 5.3 feature • Avoid naming collision • Avoid stupid long function names namespace lolcode; function catSays() { echo "meow"; } lolcodecatSays(); http://blogs.sitepoint.com/php-53-namespaces-basics/ 14
  • 76. Files, Streams and other Fun
  • 77. Working with Files There are two main ways to work with files • All at once, using file_* functions • In bite-sized pieces, using f* functions 2
  • 78. Working with Files There are two main ways to work with files • All at once, using file_* functions • In bite-sized pieces, using f* functions For platform independence we have DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR 2
  • 79. File Functions Read and write files using file_get_contents() and file_put_contents() $words = file_get_contents('words.txt'); echo $words; // This is a file containing words. file_put_contents('words.txt', str_replace('words', 'nonsense', $words 3
  • 80. The f* Functions • Use a file handle from fopen() • Read in chunks, using fgets() • Or all in one go, using file() or fread() • Write with fwrite() • Close handle with fclose() 4
  • 81. Fopen Fopen can operate in various modes, passed in as the 2nd argument r For reading w for writing, empties the file first a for writing, adding onto the end of the file x for writing, fail if the file exists c for writing, start at the top + in combination with any of the above, to enable reading/writing also b binary mode 5
  • 82. Reading from Files $fh = fopen('lorem.txt', 'r'); while(!feof($fh)) { echo fgets($fh); } flcose($fh); Notice feof() which returns true when we reach the end of the file 6
  • 83. Writing to Files $fh = fopen('polly.txt', 'w'); for($i=0; $i<3; $i++) { fwrite($fh, 'Polly put the kettle on' . PHP_EOL); } fwrite($fh, 'We'll all have tea' . PHP_EOL); 7
  • 84. File System Functions Other useful file and directory functions • glob() • is_dir() • is_file() • copy() • rename() • unlink() 8
  • 85. PHP Setup and Configuration
  • 86. phpinfo() Call this function to find out: • What version of PHP you have • Which php.ini is being used • What your config settings are • Which extensions are installed 2
  • 87. Common Config Settings • error_reporting • display_errors • memory_limit • post_max_size • include_path • file_uploads • upload_max_filesize http://php.net/manual/en/ini.core.php 3
  • 88. PHP include_path • Use get_include_path() to get current • There is a PATH_SEPARATOR for platform independence • Set with set_include_path() Include paths can be useful for libraries, etc 4
  • 90. Question Types • Multiple choice • pick one answer • may include "none of the above" • Multiple choice, multiple option • checkboxes rather than radio buttons • if you tick too few, the software will tell you • Free text • function name, script output, or other string 2
  • 91. Sample Question What is the output of the following code? <code> echo strlen(sha1('0'), true); </code> (textarea) 3
  • 92. Sample Question What does the max_file_uploads configuration option contain? • A The maximum number of file uploads per session • B The maximum number of file uploads per request • C The maximum number of file uploads per user • D The maximum number of file uploads before the web service process is restarted 4
  • 93. Sample Question What will the following code print? $str = printf('%.1f',5.3); echo 'Zend PHP Certification '; echo $str; • A Zend Certification 5.3 • B Zend PHP Certification • C 5.3Zend PHP Certification 3 5
  • 94. Sample Question What is the output of the following code? $a = 1; ++$a; $a *= $a; echo $a--; • A4 • B3 • C5 • D0 • E1 6
  • 95. Sample Question Which of the following statements about static functions is true? • A Static functions can only access static properties of the class • B Static functions cannot be called from non-static functions • C Static functions cannot be abstract • D Static functions cannot be inherited 7
  • 96. Sample Question class A { protected $a = 1; function x() { echo $this->a++; } } $a = new A(); $b = $a; $c = new A(); $b->x(); $a->x(); $c->x(); $b = $c; $b->x(); $a->x(); • A 11122 • B 12345 • C 12123 • D 12134 8
  • 98. Classes and Objects A class is a recipe for making an object class Robot { public $name; public function flashLights($pattern) { // look! Pretty flashing lights return true; } } An object is an instance of a class $marvin = new Robot(); 2
  • 99. Object Methods and Properties Object variables are "properties" and their functions are "methods" $marvin = new Robot(); $marvin->name = 'Marvin'; $marvin->flashLights(); 3
  • 100. Inheritance OOP supports inheritance • similar classes can share a parent and override features • improves modularity, avoids duplication • classes can only have one parent (unlike some other languages) • classes can have many children • there can be as many generations of inheritance as we need 4
  • 101. Inheritance Examples class Table { public $legs; public function getLegCount() { return $this->legs; } } class DiningTable extends Table {} $newtable = new DiningTable(); $newtable->legs = 6; echo $newtable->getLegCount(); // 6 5
  • 102. Visibility We can control which parts of a class are available and where: • public: always available, everywhere • private: only available inside this class • protected: only available inside this class and descendants This applies to both methods and properties 6
  • 103. Protected Properties class Table { protected $legs; public function getLegCount() { return $this->legs; } public function setLegCount($legs) { $this->legs = $legs; return true; } } $table = new Table(); $table->legs = 4; // Fatal error: Cannot access protected property Table::$legs in /.../ 7
  • 104. Protected Properties class Table { protected $legs; public function getLegCount() { return $this->legs; } public function setLegCount($legs) { $this->legs = $legs; return true; } } $table = new Table(); $table->setLegCount(4); echo $table->getLegCount(); 8
  • 105. Protected Methods Access modifiers for methods work exactly the same way: class Table { protected function getColours() { return array("beech", "birch", "mahogany"); } } class DiningTable extends Table { public function colourChoice() { return parent::getColours(); } } If Table::getColours() were private, DiningTable would think that method was undefined 9
  • 106. Object Keywords • parent: the class this class extends 10
  • 107. Object Keywords • parent: the class this class extends • self: this class, usually used in a static context, instead of $this • WARNING: in extending classes, this resolves to where it was declared • This was fixed in PHP 5.3 by "late static binding" 10
  • 108. Object Keywords • parent: the class this class extends • self: this class, usually used in a static context, instead of $this • WARNING: in extending classes, this resolves to where it was declared • This was fixed in PHP 5.3 by "late static binding" • static: the class in which the code is being used • Just like self but actually works :) • Added in 5.3 "Late Static Binding" 10
  • 109. Comparing Objects • Comparison == • objects must be of the (exact) same class • objects must have identical properties • Strict comparison === • both arguments must refer to the same object 11
  • 110. Static Methods We can call methods without instantiating a class • $this is not available in a static method • use the :: notation (paamayim nekudotayim) • used where we don’t need object properties class Table { public static function getColours() { return array("beech", "birch", "mahogany"); } } $choices = Table::getColours(); 12
  • 111. Static Properties • Exactly like static methods • Use static when declaring them • Can be accessed without instantiating the class Example: Singleton class Singleton { private static $classInstance; private function __construct () {} static function getInstance () { if (! isset(self::$classInstance)) { self::$classInstance = new Singleton(); } return (self::$classInstance); } } 13
  • 112. Class Constants • Class constants are similar to static properties • But constants can’t change class Robot { const MESSAGE = "Here I am, brain the size of a planet"; public $name; public function flashLights($pattern) { // look! Pretty flashing lights return true; } } echo Robot::MESSAGE; 14
  • 113. Interfaces • prototypes of class methods • classes "implement" an interface • they must implement all these methods • the object equivalent of a contract PHP does not have multiple inheritance 15
  • 114. Example Interface: Countable This interface is defined in SPL, and it looks like this: Interface Countable { public function count(); } RTFM: http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/class.countable.php 16
  • 115. Autoloading Use include and require to bring class code into our applications. We can also use autoloading if our classes are predictably named. function __autoload($classname) { if(preg_match('/[a-zA-Z]+Controller$/',$classname)) { include('../controllers/' . $classname . '.php'); return true; } elseif(preg_match('/[a-zA-Z]+Model$/',$classname)) { include('../models/' . $classname . '.php'); return true; } elseif(preg_match('/[a-zA-Z]+View$/',$classname)) { include('../views/' . $classname . '.php'); return true; } } No need to include/require if you have autoloading 17
  • 116. The instanceOf Operator To check whether an object is of a particular class, use instanceOf $table = new DiningTable(); if($table instanceOf DiningTable) { echo "a dining tablen"; } if($table instanceOf Table) { echo "a tablen"; } InstanceOf will return true if the object: • is of that class • is of a child of that class • implements that interface 18
  • 117. Type Hinting We have type hinting in PHP for complex types. So we can do: function interrogate(Robot $robot) { // imagine something more exciting while($robot->getStatus() == 'OK') { askAnotherQuestion($robot); } return true; } PHP will error unless the argument: • is of that class • is of a child of that class • implements that class 19
  • 118. Raising Exceptions In PHP, we can throw any exception, any time. function addTwoNumbers($a, $b) { if(($a == 0) || ($b == 0)) { throw new Exception("Zero is Boring!"); } return $a + $b; } echo addTwoNumbers(3,2); // 5 echo addTwoNumbers(5,0); // error!! Fatal error: Uncaught exception ’Exception’ with message ’Zero is Boring!’ in / Stack trace: #0 /.../exception.php(12): addTwoNumbers(5, 0) #1 {main} thrown in /.../exception.php on line 5 20
  • 119. Extending Exceptions We can extend the Exception class for our own use class DontBeDaftException extends Exception { } function tableColour($colour) { if($colour == "orange" || $colour == "spotty") { throw new DontBeDaftException($colour . 'is not acceptable'); } echo "The table is $colourn"; } try { tableColour("blue"); tableColour("orange"); } catch (DontBeDaftException $e) { echo "Don't be daft! " . $e->getMessage(); } catch (Exception $e) { echo "The sky is falling in! " . $e->getMessage(); } 21
  • 120. Magic Methods In PHP 5.3, we introduced magic methods • Constructors/destructors • Getters and setters • Calling methods • Serialisation hooks • Etc 22
  • 121. Constructors • __construct: called when a new object is instantiated • declare any parameters you like • usually we inject dependencies • perform any other setup class BlueTable { public function __construct() { $this->colour = "blue"; } } $blue_table = new BlueTable(); echo $blue_table->colour; // blue 23
  • 122. Destructors • __destruct: called when the object is destroyed • good time to close resource handles 24
  • 123. Fake Properties When we access a property that doesn’t exist, PHP calls __get() or __set() for us class Table { public function __get($property) { // called if we are reading echo "you asked for $propertyn"; } public function __set($property, $value) { // called if we are writing echo "you tried to set $property to $valuen"; } } $table = new Table(); $table->legs = 5; echo "table has: " . $table->legs . "legsn"; 25
  • 124. Fake Methods PHP calls __call when we call a method that doesn’t exist class Table { public function shift($x, $y) { // the table moves echo "shift table by $x and $yn"; } public function __call($method, $arguments) { // look out for calls to move(), these should be shift() if($method == "move") { return $this->shift($arguments[0], $arguments[1]); } } } $table = new Table(); $table->shift(3,5); // shift table by 3 and 5 $table->move(4,9); // shift table by 4 and 9 There is an equivalent function for static calls, __callStatic() 26
  • 125. Serialising Objects We can control what happens when we serialize and unserialize objects class Table { } $table = new Table(); $table->legs = 4; $table->colour = "red"; echo serialize($table); // O:5:"Table":2:{s:4:"legs";i:4;s:6:"colour";s:3:"red";} 27
  • 126. Serialising Objects • __sleep() to specify which properties to store • __wakeup() to put in place any additional items on unserialize class Table { public function __sleep() { return array("legs"); } } $table = new Table(); $table->legs = 7; $table->colour = "red"; $data = serialize($table); echo $data; // O:5:"Table":1:{s:4:"legs";i:7;} 28
  • 127. Serialising Objects • __sleep() to specify which properties to store • __wakeup() to put in place any additional items on unserialize class Table { public function __wakeup() { $this->colour = "wood"; } } echo $data; $other_table = unserialize($data); print_r($other_table); /* Table Object ( [legs] => 7 [colour] => wood ) */ 29
  • 128. Magic Tricks: clone Control the behaviour of cloning an object by defining __clone() • make it return false to prevent cloning (for a Singleton) • recreate resources that shouldn’t be shared 30
  • 129. Magic Tricks: toString Control what happens when an object cast to a string. E.g. for an exception class TableException extends Exception { public function __toString() { return '** ' . $this->getMessage() . ' **'; } } try { throw new TableException("it wobbles!"); } catch (TableException $e) { echo $e; } // output: ** it wobbles! ** The default output would be exception ’TableException’ with message ’it wobbles!’ in /.../tostring.php:7 Stack trace: 31
  • 130. Design Patterns Common solutions to common problems. ZCE expects: • Singleton • Registry • Factory • ActiveRecord • MVC (Model View Controller) 32
  • 131. Singleton We saw a singleton already class Singleton { private static $classInstance; private function __construct () {} static function getInstance () { if (! isset(self::$classInstance)) { self::$classInstance = new Singleton(); } return (self::$classInstance); } } • Only one instance is allowed • We can’t instantiate it ourselves 33
  • 132. Registry class Registry { private static $storage; private function __construct () {} public function set($key, $value) { self::$storage[$key] = $value; } public function get($key) { if(array_key_exists($key, self::$storage)) { return self::$storage[$key]; } return false; } } Registry::set('shinyThing', new StdClass()); // later ... $shiny = Registry::get('shinyThing'); 34
  • 133. Factory class WidgetFactory { public function getWidget($type) { switch($type) { case 'DatePicker': // assume simple look/feel return new SimpleDatePicker(Registry::get('options')); break; default: // do nothing, invalid widget type break; } } } $widget_factory = new WidgetFactory(); $picker = $widget_factory->getWidget('DatePicker'); $picker->render(); 35
  • 134. Active Record • A pattern that hides data access details • Application simply deals with an object • Object itself knows how to translate itself to storage Code can be long/complicated 36
  • 135. MVC • Model-View-Controller • Separates data access, processing and presentation • Common in many frameworks today • Controller retrieves data from models, and passes to appropriate view Concepts can be tested, code usually isn’t 37
  • 136. Classes and Namespaces • Namespaces help us avoid crazy long classnames • We can combine libraries with the same classnames • Our code can be more easily organised 38
  • 137. Classes in Namespaces Declaring the namespace and class: namespace MyLibraryLogging class FileLog{ } Using the class from elsewhere (including inside another namespace): $log_handler = new MyLibraryLoggingFileLog(); 39
  • 138. Classes in Namespaces Declaring the namespace and class: namespace MyLibraryLogging class FileLog{ } Using the namespace and shortened class name: use MyLibraryLogging; use MyLibraryLogging as Fred; $log_handler = new LoggingFileLog(); $log_handler2 = new FredFileLog(); 40
  • 139. Reflection • An API which allows us to inspect our functions/objects • Gives meta information • Includes private/protected properties and methods 41
  • 140. Reflecting Functions function addStars($message) { return '** ' . $message . ' **'; } $reflection = new ReflectionFunction('addStars'); $reflection->getName(); $reflection->getParameters(); $reflection->isUserDefined(); $reflection->getFileName(); 42
  • 141. Reflecting Classes class Robot { public $name; public function flashLights($pattern) { // look! Pretty flashing lights return true; } } $reflection = new ReflectionClass('Robot'); $reflection->getMethods(); $reflection->getFileName(); $reflection->getProperties(); $reflection->isInterface()); 43
  • 142. Reflection on the CLI Reflection gives us these command-line switches: • -rf for function information • -rc for class information • -re for extension information • -ri for extension configuration Not a ZCE question but really useful! 44
  • 143. SPL Library SPL: Standard PHP Library • Bad news: Huge topic • Good news: Not much mention in ZCE 45
  • 144. SPL: Key Knowledge • Introduced in PHP 5, new additions in each release • ArrayObject class • Standard iterator classes • Really useful interfaces • Countable (we saw earlier) • ArrayAccess • Iterator • Data types for storage • Detailed exceptions • Autoloading http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/book.spl.php 46
  • 145. ArrayAccess An interface which allows an object to behave like an array abstract public boolean offsetExists ( mixed $offset ) abstract public mixed offsetGet ( mixed $offset ) abstract public void offsetSet ( mixed $offset , mixed $value ) abstract public void offsetUnset ( mixed $offset ) 47
  • 146. Iterator An interface which defines how an object behaves when "foreach"-ed abstract public mixed current ( void ) abstract public scalar key ( void ) abstract public void next ( void ) abstract public void rewind ( void ) abstract public boolean valid ( void ) 48
  • 147. OOP Resources • OOP Series: http://bit.ly/j7yRUa • Design Patterns: http://www.fluffycat.com/PHP-Design-Patterns/ • MVC: http://bit.ly/j8Fscu • SPL (ramsey): http://devzone.zend.com/article/2565 • SPL (Elazar): http://bit.ly/jiFokK 49
  • 148. HTTP and the Web
  • 149. Forms A form: <form name="myform"> Name: <input type="text" name="item" /><br /> Imaginary? <input type="checkbox" name="type" value="imaginary" /><br <input type="submit" value="Share" /> </form> In the browser: 2
  • 150. Submitting Forms PHP data in $_GET: Array ( [item] => Unicorn [type] => imaginary ) If form has method="post" attribute, data will be in $_POST 3
  • 151. Fun With Forms • Forms can have many input types: • For a full list: http://www.w3schools.com/html/html_forms.asp 4
  • 152. Fun With Forms • Forms can have many input types: • For a full list: http://www.w3schools.com/html/html_forms.asp • In the interests of balance: http://w3fools.com/ 4
  • 153. Uploading Files with Forms • Use enctype="multipart/form-data" and input type file • Upload information available in $_FILES • One element per form file element, containing: • name • type • size • tmp_name • error • Config options: upload_max_filesize and upload_tmp_dir 5
  • 154. HTTP Headers Headers are request meta-data Common headers: • Accept and Content-Type • Cookie and Set-Cookie • User-Agent • Authorization Headers are sent with both requests and responses 6
  • 155. Headers Example curl -I http://www.google.co.uk/ HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Wed, 04 May 2011 09:50:30 GMT Expires: -1 Cache-Control: private, max-age=0 Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1 Set-Cookie: PREF=ID=0a902b1fd14bc62f:FF=0:TM=1304502630:LM=1304502630: Set-Cookie: NID=46=CUminn6rbfPX-oPfF1LQ_PtTpJVvMIeB6q0csmOjv4mnciVY5yP Server: gws X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block Transfer-Encoding: chunked 7
  • 156. Cookies • Cookies are sent as HTTP headers • Client returns them on subsequent same-domain requests • No cookies in first request // set cookie setcookie('name', 'Fred', time() + 3600); // see what cookies we have var_dump($_COOKIE); 8
  • 157. Cookie Considerations • Cookies are invisible to the user • Data is stored client side • Easily edited (check your browser options) • Cannot be trusted 9
  • 158. PHP Sessions Sessions are a better way to store persistent data • Available by default in PHP • Start with session_start() or config session.auto_start • Makes a superglobal $_SESSION available, which persists between requests from the same user 10
  • 159. PHP Sessions Sessions are a better way to store persistent data • Available by default in PHP • Start with session_start() or config session.auto_start • Makes a superglobal $_SESSION available, which persists between requests from the same user • Session has a unique identifier • Usually sent to client as a cookie • Data is stored on the server 10
  • 160. Session Storage • Sessions stored as files in temp directory by default • Many different handlers available: • database • memcache • ... and extensible • Set handler with session.save_handler 11
  • 161. Session Functions • session_id() • session_regenerate_id() • session_destroy() 12
  • 162. HTTP Authentication If you’re using Apache, you can use PHP and Basic Authentication • If credentials were submitted, you’ll find them in • $_SERVER[’PHP_AUTH_USER’] • $_SERVER[’PHP_AUTH_PW’] • To trigger authentication, send a WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm=[realm] header • http://bit.ly/jBeOwb • http://php.net/manual/en/features.http-auth.php 13
  • 163. Web Services and Data Formats
  • 164. Date and Time Unix Timestamp: seconds since 1st January 1970 • e.g. 1305656360 Date/Time functions • date() • mktime() • BEWARE arguments hour, minute, second, month, day, year • strtotime() See: http://bit.ly/iPyKgv 2
  • 165. DateTime • OO interface into the same (some better, some fixed) functionality • Added in 5.2 • Objects • DateTime • DateTimeZone • DateInterval • DatePeriod See: http://bit.ly/kYuIj9 3
  • 166. XML in PHP There is (as usual) more than one way to do this • SimpleXML http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/book.simplexml.php • DOM http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/book.dom.php 4
  • 167. XML in PHP There is (as usual) more than one way to do this • SimpleXML http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/book.simplexml.php • DOM http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/book.dom.php As a general rule, if SimpleXML can do it, use SimpleXML. Otherwise, use DOM They are interoperable using dom_import_simplexml() and simplexml_import_dom() 4
  • 168. SimpleXML SimpleXML parses XML into a predictable Object structure • Objects are of type SimpleXMLElement • Child elements are properties, and themselves are SimpleXMLElement objects • Where there are multiple same-named children, these become an array* • Attributes are accessed using array notation • Does have some limitations (cannot relocate nodes, for example) * not really, it’s an object with ArrayAccess but it *looks* like an array to us 5
  • 169. SimpleXMLElement Functions Bringing in data: • simplexml_load_file - Interprets an XML file into an object • simplexml_load_string - Interprets a string of XML into an object 6
  • 170. SimpleXMLElement Functions Manipulating XML • SimpleXMLElement::children - Finds children of given node • SimpleXMLElement::attributes - Identifies an element’s attributes • SimpleXMLElement::addChild - Adds a child element to the XML node • SimpleXMLElement::addAttribute - Adds an attribute to the SimpleXML element • SimpleXMLElement::getName - Gets the name of the XML element • SimpleXMLElement::getDocNamespaces - Returns namespaces declared in document • SimpleXMLElement::asXML - Return a well-formed XML string based on SimpleXML element 7
  • 171. DOM and XML • More powerful and flexible • More complex • Documents represented by DOMDocument objects 8
  • 172. DOMDocument Methods • DOMDocument::load - Load XML from a file • DOMDocument::loadXML - Load XML from a string • DOMDocument::saveXML - Dumps the internal XML tree into a string • DOMDocument::createAttribute - Create new attribute • DOMDocument::createElement - Create new element node • DOMDocument::getElementsByTagName - Searches for all elements with given tag name • DOMDocument::normalizeDocument - Normalizes the document There is also the DOMElement class 9
  • 173. XML Resources • http://bit.ly/l0EOkz • http://bit.ly/jPeIKl • http://devzone.zend.com/article/1713 10
  • 174. XPath Query language for XML, often compared with SQL • In its simplest form, it searches for a top level tag • A particular tag inside a tag library/shelf • And so on to any level of nesting • To search for tags at any level in the hierarchy, start with double slash //book • To find elements, use an ’at’ sign //book@title Both DOM and SimpleXML allow you to perform XPath on child nodes as well as a whole document 11
  • 175. JSON • JavaScript Object Notation • A string format for representing arrays/objects • Write it with json_encode() • Read it with json_decode() 12
  • 176. JSON Example $list = array("meat" => array( "chicken", "lamb", "reindeer"), "count" => 3); echo json_encode($list); "meat":["chicken","lamb","reindeer"],"count":3 13
  • 177. Web Services • Means of exposing functionality or data • A lot like a web page • Integration between applications • Separation within an application • Works over HTTP, using headers and status codes for additional data • Can use various data formats, including XML and JSON 14
  • 178. RPC Services These services typically have: • A single endpoint • Method names • Method parameters • A return value 15
  • 179. Soap • Not an acronym • (used to stand for Simple Object Access Protocol) • Special case of XML-RPC • VERY easy to do in PHP • Can be used with a WSDL • Web Service Description Language 16
  • 180. Publishing a Soap Service include('Library.php'); $options = array('uri' => 'http://api.local/soap'); $server = new SoapServer(NULL, $options); $server->setClass('Library'); $server->handle(); 17
  • 181. Consuming a Soap Service To call PHP directly, we would do: include('Library.php'); $lib = new Library(); $name = $lib->thinkOfAName(); echo $name; // Arthur Dent Over Soap: $options = array('uri' => 'http://api.local', 'location' => 'http://api.local/soap'); $client = new SoapClient(NULL, $options); $name = $client->thinkOfAName(); echo $name; // Arthur Dent 18
  • 182. REST • REST: REpresentational State Transfer • Can look like "pretty URLs" • Stateless • Uses HTTP features • Can use any data format GET Read POST Create In REST, we use HTTP verbs to provide CRUD: PUT Update DELETE Delete 19
  • 183. Using REST • Every item is a resource • Each resource is represented by a URI • The "directories" are called collections • We can GET items or collections • To create, we POST to the collection • To update, we GET the resource, change it and then POST it back to the URI • To delete, we DELETE the resource 20
  • 185. Filter Input, Escape Output Filter input, escape output 2
  • 186. Filter Input • Trust nothing • Ensure data is type expected • Whitelist/Blacklist • ctype_* functions • Filter extension 3
  • 187. PHP Security Configuration There are some key ini directives that can help us secure our system • register_globals • allow_url_fopen • open_basedir • disable_functions • disable_classes 4
  • 188. Cross Site Scripting Someone inserts something malicious into your site that users see, especially if you have user contributed content Usually javascript, and can be subtle - redirecting users or rewriting links Filter input, escape output Input containing scripts should not be accepted, and should never be displayed 5
  • 189. Cross Site Request Forgery Script makes request to another website • Uses user privileges • Invisible to user • Form submissions that did not come from your forms To protect: • Send a unique token with every form • Only accept a form response if it has the token in it 6
  • 190. SQL Injection http://xkcd.com/327/ 7
  • 191. SQL Injection • Again, filter your input! • SQL injection is passing of unescapted variables to your database • Use *_escape_string() to combat it • PDO and prepared statements protect against it 8
  • 193. SQL • Assumes MySQL • DDL queries • Data manipulation • PDO 2
  • 194. Tables Creating tables: CREATE TABLE pets ( pet_id int primary key auto_increment, animal varchar(255), name varchar(255)); Removing tables: DROP TABLE pets; 3
  • 195. SQL and Data Inserting data: insert into pets (animal, name) values ("dog", "Rover"); insert into pets (animal, name) values ("cat", "Fluffy"); Updating data: update pets set name="Pig" where name="Rover"; Deleting data: delete from pets; A where clause can be added too 4
  • 196. SQL Joins A join is when we combine two data sets, e.g. owners and pets +--------+--------+---------+----------+ | pet_id | animal | name | owner_id | +--------+--------+---------+----------+ | 1 | dog | Pig | 3 | | 2 | cat | Fluffy | 3 | | 3 | rabbit | blackie | 2 | | 4 | rabbit | Snowy | 1 | | 5 | cat | Scratch | 3 | | 6 | cat | Sniff | 3 | +--------+--------+---------+----------+ +----------+---------+------+ | owner_id | name | age | +----------+---------+------+ | 1 | Jack | 3 | | 2 | Jill | 3 | | 3 | Harriet | 9 | +----------+---------+------+ 5
  • 197. SQL Joins: Inner Join Inner joins join two tables where rows match in both select pets.name, owners.name from pets inner join owners on pets.owner_id = owners.owner_id; +---------+---------+ | name | name | +---------+---------+ | Fluffy | Harriet | | blackie | Jill | | Snowy | Jack | | Scratch | Harriet | | Sniff | Harriet | +---------+---------+ A join is an inner join by default 6
  • 198. SQL Joins: Left/Right Join A left join brings all rows from the left column plus matches from the right select pets.name, owners.name from pets left join owners on pets.owner_id = owners.owner_id; +---------+---------+ | name | name | +---------+---------+ | Pig | NULL | | Fluffy | Harriet | | blackie | Jill | | Snowy | Jack | | Scratch | Harriet | | Sniff | Harriet | +---------+---------+ A right join is the same but brings all the rows from the right hand side plus any matches on the left 7
  • 199. PDO PDO: PHP Database Objects • Connects to (many!) various database back-ends • Replaces the mysql_* functions and equivalents • Abstracts database access • Does not work around SQL differences http://uk2.php.net/manual/en/book.pdo.php 8
  • 200. PDO Examples Fetching data $dbh = new PDO('mysql:host=localhost;dbname=test', 'user', 'pass'); $query = "select name from owners"; $stmt = $dbh->prepare($query); $success = $stmt->execute(); if($success) { while($row = $stmt->fetch()){ echo "<p>".$row['NAME']."</p>n"; } } 9
  • 201. Prepared Statements • Prepared statements standard with PDO • Use bind variables just as from command line • These will be sanity checked as they are substituted • Use placeholders in SQL • Two types of placeholder • :variable • ? • Can also bind to a parameter with bindParam() 10
  • 202. Bind Variables These are simple placeholders which we substitute values into $dbh = new PDO('mysql:host=localhost;dbname=test', 'user', 'pass'); $sql = 'select * from pets where animal = ? and colour = ?'; $stmt = $dbh->prepare($sql); $stmt->bindValue(1,'cat'); $stmt->bindValue(2,'black'); $stmt->execute(); 11
  • 203. Bind Variables A more readable but equivalent approach: $dbh = new PDO('mysql:host=localhost;dbname=test', 'user', 'pass'); $sql = 'select * from pets where animal = :animal and colour = :colour'; $stmt = $dbh->prepare($sql); $stmt->bindValue(':colour','rabbit'); $stmt->bindValue(':animal','white'); $stmt->execute(); 12
  • 204. Transactions • Some database types support transactions • Transactions are atomic collections of statements • If all statements complete successfully, transaction is committed • Otherwise, it is rolled back and none of them ever happened • PDO supports this • PDO::beginTransaction() • PDO::commit() or PDO::rollback() 13
  • 205. Optimising Queries with EXPLAIN • Take a query • Put the EXPLAIN keyword in front of it • Gives information about the number of rows scanned to build result set • Use G to make it easier to read http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/explain.html 14
  • 207. Timings • 70 questions approx • 90 minutes • 77 seconds on average 2
  • 208. Timings • 70 questions approx • 90 minutes • 77 seconds on average Take your time! 2
  • 209. Equipment You will be allowed to take nothing with you. They will give you something to write on and with 3
  • 210. Scores • Pass mark is not publicised • No penalty for a wrong answer • Some questions worth more marks than others • You can flag questions to come back to later 4
  • 211. Scores • Pass mark is not publicised • No penalty for a wrong answer • Some questions worth more marks than others • You can flag questions to come back to later If you don’t know, GUESS 4
  • 212. Reviewing Questions When you get to the end of the questions: • A grid of questions shows • Unanswered questions are marked • Flagged questions are marked • You can go to them, and come back to the grid • If you haven’t ticked enough boxes, this is shown too 5
  • 213. ZCE Benefits • Right to use "ZCE" and logo • Entry in Zend Yellow Pages directory • Software licenses from Zend • Some employers ask for it • Bragging rights? :) 6
  • 214. And Finally • Links: http://bit.ly/ltbYs1 • Slides: http://slideshare.net/lornajane • Feedback: http://joind.in/3214 GOOD LUCK! 7