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WORKMEN’S
COMPENSATION ACT
1923
OBJECTIVE
The Workmen's Compensation Act,
1923, aims to provide workmen and/or their dependents some
relief in case of accidents arising out of and in the course of
employment and causing either death or disablement of workmen.
SCOPE & COVEREGE
• The Act extends to the whole of India.
• The workmen whose occupation is hazardous should be
included within the scope of this Act.
• It applies to workmen employed in factories, mines,
plantations, transport establishments, construction work,
railways, ships, circuses, & other hazardous occupations &
employments specified in Schedule II to the Act.
Cont....... ……
• The Act does not apply to members of Armed Forces of the
Union & those workers who are insured under the Employees
State Insurance Act 1948.
• The coverage of this act is also to cooks employed in hotels and
restaurants.
DEFINITIONS (SECTION 2)
• COMMISSIONER
• DEPENDANT
• EMPLOYER
• DISABLEMENT
• WAGES
• WORKMAN
Dependent[Sec.2(1)(d)]
Dependent means any of the following relatives of a deceased
workman, namely:
1. A widow, a minor legitimate or adopted son and unmarried
legitimate or adopted daughter, or a widowed mother.
2. If wholly dependent on the earnings of the workman at the time of
his death, a son or a daughter who has attained the age of 18 years
and who is infirm.
3. And any of the following were wholly or partly dependent on the
workman at the time of his death—
Cont.…
 a widower,
 a parent other than a widowed mother,
 a minor illegitimate son,
 a unmarried illegitimate daughter or a daughter legitimate or
illegitimate or adopted if married & a minor or if widowed & minor,
 a minor brother or an unmarried sister or a widowed sister if a
minor,
 a widowed daughter-in-law,
 a minor child of pre-deceased son & daughter where no parent of the
child is alive & a paternal grandparent if not the parent of the
workman is alive.
Employer[Sec.2(1)(e)]
“Employer" includes
• Any person or body of persons whether incorporated or not.
• Any managing agent of an employer.
• The legal representative of a deceased employer.
• A person to whom services of a workman are temporarily
lent or let on hire.
Workman[Sec.2(1)(n)]
Workmen means any person who is:
 a railway servant as defined in clause (34) of section 2 of the
Railways Act, 1989 (24 of 1989), not permanently employed in
any administrative, district or sub-divisional office of a railway
and not employed in any such capacity as is specified in
Schedule II.
 a master, seaman or other member of the crew of a ship, etc
 It does not include a person whose employment is of casual
nature.
Cont..
 A captain or other member of the crew on an aircraft.
 A person recruited as driver, helper, mechanic, cleaner or in
any other capacity in connection with a motor vehicle.
 A person recruited for work abroad by company as is
mentioned in schedule ll.
Person to be treated as workmen
• There must be a contract of employment.
• There must be a relationship of master and servant between
the employer and the employee.
• The employment is for the purposes of employer’s trade or
business.
Employer’s liability to pay compensation
(Sec 3)
As per Section 3(1) of the act, the following conditions must necessarily
be satisfied in order to qualify for compensation:
1. He must be a workmen within the meaning of this act.
2. Personal injury must have been caused by accident.
3. The injury must have been caused by accident.
4. The accident must have arisen out of and in the course of
employment.
5. The injury caused by the accident must have resulted in the
workman’s death or permanent total disablement or temporary
disablement.
Accident arising out of & in the course of his
employment
• The employer is liable to pay compensation in case of personal
injury and occupational disease.
• Personal injury includes physical/mental injury, strain or shock
caused by excitement.
Incidental to his employment & injured, then
arises out of employment
An injury could be held to have arisen out of employment if it is
established that:
1. It must have resulted from some risk incidental to the duties of
the service / inherent in the nature of employment.
2. At the time of injury the worker must have been engaged in
the business of the employer & must not be doing something
for his personal advantages.
Doctrine Of Notional Extension Of Employment
It means when the employer provides the employee with a
particular conveyance to and from the place of employment, the
employee is regarded as in the course employment even though
he has not reached or has left his employer’s premises.
CASE:-
1. Harris vs Associated Portland Cement Manufacturers Ltd .
2. Lakshmi Bhai vs Chairman & Trustees, Bombay Port Trust.
3. Dennis Vs White ( Notinal Extension Of Employment )
Disablement
Disablement means reduction in earning capacity. It may be
partial or total disablement.
Partial Disablement
 Temporary partial disablement
 Permanent partial disablement
Total Disablement
 Temporary
 Permanent
• Temporary partial disablement means that which reduces the
earning capacity of the workmen in the employment in which he
was engaged at the time of accident.
• Permanent partial disablement means that which reduces, for
all time, the earning capacity of a workmen in every employment
in which he was capable of undertaking at the time.
• Total disablement means whether of a temporary or permanent
nature, which incapacitates a workmen for all work which he was
capable of performing at the time of accident.
Calculation of Compensation
• In the case of Death
Amount of compensation = 50% of monthly wages ×Relevant
factor/Rs.80000 which ever is more..
• Permanent Total Disablement
Amount of compensation = 60% of monthly wages ×Relevant
factor/Rs.90000 which ever is more..
• Permanent Partial Disablement
Amount of compensation = 60% of monthly wages ×Relevant factor.
• Temporary Disablement
Amount of compensation = 25% of monthly wages.
Employer Not Liable
i. The injury does not result in the disablement for a period
exceeding 3 days
ii. The injury results in death or permanent total disability due to-
a) The worker was at the time of accident, under the influence of
drink or drugs
b) The worker wilfully disobeyed any order expressly given for
ensuring safety.
c) The worker wilfully removed any safety devices which he knew
would harm.
Contractual Employment(Sec-12(1))
If any employer takes the help of contractor in order to engage
some workmen, workmen who are injured are entitled to
compensation from the principal. When the principal is held liable
for compensation, he shall be entitled to be indemnified by the
contractor.
Contracting Out(Sec 17)
Any contract where by a worker relinquishes in the right of
compensation from the employer for personal injury arising out of
and in the course of employment will be null and void. Employer
can’t use it as a defence.
Authorities Under The Act(S 19-31)
These sections provides for appointment of commissioners for
the enforcement of provisions of the act. Sec 20 authorises the
State Government to appoint commissioners under the act.
FINISH

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Workmen Compensation Act 1923

  • 2. OBJECTIVE The Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923, aims to provide workmen and/or their dependents some relief in case of accidents arising out of and in the course of employment and causing either death or disablement of workmen.
  • 3. SCOPE & COVEREGE • The Act extends to the whole of India. • The workmen whose occupation is hazardous should be included within the scope of this Act. • It applies to workmen employed in factories, mines, plantations, transport establishments, construction work, railways, ships, circuses, & other hazardous occupations & employments specified in Schedule II to the Act.
  • 4. Cont....... …… • The Act does not apply to members of Armed Forces of the Union & those workers who are insured under the Employees State Insurance Act 1948. • The coverage of this act is also to cooks employed in hotels and restaurants.
  • 5. DEFINITIONS (SECTION 2) • COMMISSIONER • DEPENDANT • EMPLOYER • DISABLEMENT • WAGES • WORKMAN
  • 6. Dependent[Sec.2(1)(d)] Dependent means any of the following relatives of a deceased workman, namely: 1. A widow, a minor legitimate or adopted son and unmarried legitimate or adopted daughter, or a widowed mother. 2. If wholly dependent on the earnings of the workman at the time of his death, a son or a daughter who has attained the age of 18 years and who is infirm. 3. And any of the following were wholly or partly dependent on the workman at the time of his death—
  • 7. Cont.…  a widower,  a parent other than a widowed mother,  a minor illegitimate son,  a unmarried illegitimate daughter or a daughter legitimate or illegitimate or adopted if married & a minor or if widowed & minor,  a minor brother or an unmarried sister or a widowed sister if a minor,  a widowed daughter-in-law,  a minor child of pre-deceased son & daughter where no parent of the child is alive & a paternal grandparent if not the parent of the workman is alive.
  • 8. Employer[Sec.2(1)(e)] “Employer" includes • Any person or body of persons whether incorporated or not. • Any managing agent of an employer. • The legal representative of a deceased employer. • A person to whom services of a workman are temporarily lent or let on hire.
  • 9. Workman[Sec.2(1)(n)] Workmen means any person who is:  a railway servant as defined in clause (34) of section 2 of the Railways Act, 1989 (24 of 1989), not permanently employed in any administrative, district or sub-divisional office of a railway and not employed in any such capacity as is specified in Schedule II.  a master, seaman or other member of the crew of a ship, etc  It does not include a person whose employment is of casual nature.
  • 10. Cont..  A captain or other member of the crew on an aircraft.  A person recruited as driver, helper, mechanic, cleaner or in any other capacity in connection with a motor vehicle.  A person recruited for work abroad by company as is mentioned in schedule ll.
  • 11. Person to be treated as workmen • There must be a contract of employment. • There must be a relationship of master and servant between the employer and the employee. • The employment is for the purposes of employer’s trade or business.
  • 12. Employer’s liability to pay compensation (Sec 3) As per Section 3(1) of the act, the following conditions must necessarily be satisfied in order to qualify for compensation: 1. He must be a workmen within the meaning of this act. 2. Personal injury must have been caused by accident. 3. The injury must have been caused by accident. 4. The accident must have arisen out of and in the course of employment. 5. The injury caused by the accident must have resulted in the workman’s death or permanent total disablement or temporary disablement.
  • 13. Accident arising out of & in the course of his employment • The employer is liable to pay compensation in case of personal injury and occupational disease. • Personal injury includes physical/mental injury, strain or shock caused by excitement.
  • 14. Incidental to his employment & injured, then arises out of employment An injury could be held to have arisen out of employment if it is established that: 1. It must have resulted from some risk incidental to the duties of the service / inherent in the nature of employment. 2. At the time of injury the worker must have been engaged in the business of the employer & must not be doing something for his personal advantages.
  • 15. Doctrine Of Notional Extension Of Employment It means when the employer provides the employee with a particular conveyance to and from the place of employment, the employee is regarded as in the course employment even though he has not reached or has left his employer’s premises. CASE:- 1. Harris vs Associated Portland Cement Manufacturers Ltd . 2. Lakshmi Bhai vs Chairman & Trustees, Bombay Port Trust. 3. Dennis Vs White ( Notinal Extension Of Employment )
  • 16. Disablement Disablement means reduction in earning capacity. It may be partial or total disablement. Partial Disablement  Temporary partial disablement  Permanent partial disablement Total Disablement  Temporary  Permanent
  • 17. • Temporary partial disablement means that which reduces the earning capacity of the workmen in the employment in which he was engaged at the time of accident. • Permanent partial disablement means that which reduces, for all time, the earning capacity of a workmen in every employment in which he was capable of undertaking at the time. • Total disablement means whether of a temporary or permanent nature, which incapacitates a workmen for all work which he was capable of performing at the time of accident.
  • 18. Calculation of Compensation • In the case of Death Amount of compensation = 50% of monthly wages ×Relevant factor/Rs.80000 which ever is more.. • Permanent Total Disablement Amount of compensation = 60% of monthly wages ×Relevant factor/Rs.90000 which ever is more.. • Permanent Partial Disablement Amount of compensation = 60% of monthly wages ×Relevant factor. • Temporary Disablement Amount of compensation = 25% of monthly wages.
  • 19. Employer Not Liable i. The injury does not result in the disablement for a period exceeding 3 days ii. The injury results in death or permanent total disability due to- a) The worker was at the time of accident, under the influence of drink or drugs b) The worker wilfully disobeyed any order expressly given for ensuring safety. c) The worker wilfully removed any safety devices which he knew would harm.
  • 20. Contractual Employment(Sec-12(1)) If any employer takes the help of contractor in order to engage some workmen, workmen who are injured are entitled to compensation from the principal. When the principal is held liable for compensation, he shall be entitled to be indemnified by the contractor.
  • 21. Contracting Out(Sec 17) Any contract where by a worker relinquishes in the right of compensation from the employer for personal injury arising out of and in the course of employment will be null and void. Employer can’t use it as a defence.
  • 22. Authorities Under The Act(S 19-31) These sections provides for appointment of commissioners for the enforcement of provisions of the act. Sec 20 authorises the State Government to appoint commissioners under the act.