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TEST BANK For Leddy & Pepper’s Professional Nursing
10th Edition by Lucy Hood
Chapters 1 - 22 Complete
Chapter 1 The Professional Nurse
1. Which of the following could eventually change the historical status of nursing as a
female- dominated profession?
a. More men graduating from baccalaureate and higher degree programs
b. The proportion of men in nursing beginning to increase
c. More male graduates of basic nursing programs entering the workplace
d. Salary compensation increasing to attract more men
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A More men graduating from baccalaureate and higher degree programs is not
the best answer because associate degree programs produce the most new
graduates.
B The percentage of men in nursing has increased 50% since 2000.
C The more men who enter the workplace as nurses, the less nursing will be seen
as a female-dominated profession.
D Salary rates do not appear to relate to the recruitment of men into nursing.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 2
2. The racial and ethnic composition of the nursing profession will change to more
accurately reflect the population as a whole when
a. the increased numbers of racial and ethnic minorities enrolled in
educational programs graduate and begin to practice.
b. the number of Asians or Native Hawaiian-Pacific Islanders begins to increase.
c. the percentage of African-American and Hispanic nurses decreases more than
the percentage of white nurses.
d. the nonwhite portion of the general population decreases.
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A A larger percentage of minorities are enrolled in nursing educational
programs than previously.
B Asians and Native Hawaiian-Pacific Islanders are over represented in
nursing compared to their percentage of the general population.
C Not only would the percentage of African-American and Hispanic nurses need
to increase, the percentage of white nurses would have to decrease in order to
more accurately reflect the population as a whole.
D The nonwhite portion of the general population is not likely to decrease.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 3
3. Which of the following is a correct statement about the registered nurse (RN)
population?
a. The racial/ethnic composition of RNs closely resembles that of the
general population.
b. The number of men entering nursing has decreased steadily over the last decade.
c. The rate of aging of RNs has slowed for the first time in the past 30 years.
d. The majority of employed RNs working full time must work a second position.
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A The racial/ethnic composition of RNs is increasing, but does not
approximate their percentage of the overall population.
B The number of men entering nursing is increasing.
C The average age of RNs in both 2004 and 2008 was 46. This is a result of
the numbers of RNs under 30 in the workforce.
D According to 2008 data, only 12% of nurses working full time hold
second positions.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 3
4. Which of the following best describes trends in nursing education?
a. Numbers of RNs with bachelors and higher degrees are increasing.
b. Numbers of RNs with associate degrees are decreasing.
c. Foreign-born nurses practicing in the United States are seen as
less knowledgeable because of their lesser educational
preparation.
d. Numbers of RNs with diploma educations are increasing.
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A Slightly over 50% of RNs eventually obtain their bachelors of science in
nursing (BSN) or a higher nursing degree.
B The majority of nurses in this country get their initial nursing
education in associate degree in nursing (ADN) programs.
C Foreign-born nurses practicing in the United States may be viewed as
less knowledgeable bytheir peers because of language and cultural
differences.
D The numbers of diploma-educated nurses are declining.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 4
5. Despite the variety of work settings available to the RN, data from 2008 indicate
that the primary work site for RNs is
a. ambulatory care settings.
b. community health settings.
c. long-term care facilities.
d. acute care hospitals.
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A Ambulatory care settings account for about 10.5% of RNs places of
employment. B Public health and community health settings account for 7.8%
of employed RNs. C Long-term care facilities account for 5.3% of RNs places of
employment.
D Statistics show that 62.2% of RNs work in acute care hospitals.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 5
6. One important advantage of clinical ladder programs for hospital-based RNs is that they
a. allow career advancement for nurses who choose to remain at the bedside.
b. encourage nurses to move into management positions in which they can
influence patient care on a broader scale.
c. encourage RNs to become politically active and guide the profession of nursing.
d. provide training to staff nurses so they can move seamlessly across departments.
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A Clinical ladder programs allow nurses to advance professionally while
remaining at the bedside.
B Clinical ladder programs are designed to keep proficient nurses at the bedside.
C Encouraging RNs to become politically active and guide the profession
of nursing is not the goal of clinical ladder programs.
D Clinical ladder programs are not designed to facilitate transfer
between departments.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 7
7. Which of the following statements is correct about community health nursing (CHN)?
a. Prevention and community education are the cornerstones of CHN.
b. Nursing care is rapidly moving from the home setting to the institutional setting.
c. High-tech care such as ventilators and total parenteral nutrition cannot be
handled in the home.
d. Assessment skills are less important in CHN because patients are not acutely ill.
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A The community health nurse provides educational programs in
health maintenance, disease prevention, nutrition, and child
care.
B Care is moving into the home setting.
C Home care is increasing in complexity.
D Community health nurses must have excellent assessment skills as theydo
not have the immediate backup that an acute care facility offers.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 9
8. Which of the following is most essential for the nurse entrepreneur to be successful?
a. Ability to take direction well
b. Excellent time-management skills
c. Avoidance of risks
d. A college degree in business
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Nurse entrepreneurs must function autonomously.
B Nurse entrepreneurs must be well organized and efficient.
C Starting a business involves risk.
D A degree in business is not required to be a nurse entrepreneur.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: MCS: 10
9. The major benefit of serving as a military nurse is
a. broader responsibilities and scope of practice than civilian nurses.
b. working with entirely baccalaureate-prepared peers on active duty.
c. serving as an officer on active duty or in the reserves.
d. the financial support to seek advanced degrees
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A Although military nurses do have broader responsibilities and scopes of
practice than civilian nurses do, this is not the major benefit.
B Although military nurses do work with entirely baccalaureate-prepared peers
on active duty, this is not the major benefit.
C Although military nurses serve as officers on active duty or in the reserves,
this is not the major benefit.
D Advanced education is supported by the military financially and also allows
for promotion in rank at an accelerated pace.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 13
10. Which of the following statements explains why the school nurse of today is
truly a community health nurse?
a. The school nurse may be called on to care for a students family members
in underserved areas.
b. The school nurses primary responsibility is centered on the well child.
c. The school nurses primary responsibility is to maintain immunization records.
d. The school nurse must be certified in CHN.
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A In medically underserved areas a school nurse may be called on to care
for members of a childs immediate family.
B Chronically ill, disabled, and physically challenged students are in
regular classrooms.
C School nurses detect developmental problems; counsel and educate
children, parents, and teachers; and maintain immunization records.
D Although school nurses are considered community health nurses, certification
in community health is not required.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 13
11. What has been found about the outcomes of patients cared for in hospitals with a higher
percentage of BSN-prepared nurses as compared to patients in hospitals with a lower
percentage of BSN-prepared nurses?
a. Patient outcomes are more dependent on nurse-patient ratios.
b. Outcomes were better in hospitals with more BSN-prepared nurses.
c. Outcomes were similar in both types of hospitals.
d. Medical patients had better outcomes, but surgical patients fared the same.
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Nurse-patient ratio is an important determinant of patient care outcomes but
has not been shown to be more or less important that the percentage of BSN-
prepared nurses providing direct patient care.
B Research by Aiken, et al, (2003) showed that patient outcomes were
better in hospitals where higher percentages of BSN-prepared nurses
were employed.
C Research by Aiken, et al, (2003) showed that patient outcomes were
better in hospitals where higher percentages of BSN-prepared nurses
were employed.
D Aiken, et al (2003) studied orthopedic, general surgical, and vascular
surgery patients and found the outcomes were improved for these patients
in hospitals with a higher percentage of BSN-prepared nurses.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 7
12. Faith community nursing (FCN) was founded on which of the following premises?
a. Nurses faith beliefs do not play a part in healing.
b. The spiritual aspect takes precedence over the physical body in healing.
c. Spiritual health is central to a persons well-being.
d. Faith community nurses must receive formal training as a minister or clergy.
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A The nurses spiritual journey is believed to be an essential aspect of this
nursing role.
B Patients are treated holistically under FCN.
C FCN is based on the belief that spiritual health is central to well-being.
D Faith community nurses do not need to have formal training as a ministers.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 16
13. One important advantage of the evolution of nursing informatics is that
a. it allows any RN to become a certified informatics nurse.
b. informatics nurses are best able to design systems with the needs and skills
of nurses who use them.
c. informatics nurses will reduce the need for direct caregivers to document care.
d. benefits of informatics advancements include improved patient safety
and increased variability of care.
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Although all nurses may use informatics, a nurse specializing in
informatics should have a BSN and additional knowledge and
experience in the field of informatics.
B Informatics nurses understand how the information needs to be used and
how to make the systems work for the nurses.
C Direct caregivers will still need to document the care provided.
D Benefits do include improved patient safety, but decreased variability of
care is expected with informatics systems.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 17
14. Which of the following nursing roles is not considered an advanced practice role?
a. Certified nurse-midwife (CNM)
b. Community health nurse
c. Certified nurse practitioner (CNP)
d. Clinical nurse specialist (CNS)
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A A CNM is an advanced practice role.
B The community health nurse is not an advanced practice role.
C CNP is an advanced practice role.
D CNS is an advanced practice role.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 17
15. NPs are advanced practice nurses who
a. are required to have physician collaboration or supervision.
b. function under a set of universal advanced practitioner laws.
c. cannot receive direct reimbursement for their services.
d. can diagnose and treat common and chronic conditions.
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A The laws governing the practice of NPs vary from state to state, including the
degree of supervision required and how they may be reimbursed for their
services.
Chapter 2 The History Behind the Development of Professional Nursing
1. Which early nursing leader founded the first training school for nurses that
would later become a model for early nursing education?
a. Dorothea Dix
b. Florence Nightingale
c. Clara Barton
d.Mary Ann Bickerdyke
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Dorothea Dix is best known as an advocate for the mentally ill, and she
created a brief training program at two New York hospitals for women who
wished to serve as nurses in the Civil War.
B Florence Nightingale founded the first training school for nurses at St.
Thomass Hospital in London in 1806. This became the model for nursing
education in the United States.
C Clara Barton is known for founding the American Red Cross.
D Mary Ann Bickerdyke is best known for nursing services during the Civil War.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 25
2. Who was the first educated African-American professional nurse?
a. Linda Richards
b. Phoebe Pember
c. Sojourner Truth
d.Mary Eliza Mahoney
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A Linda Richards was the first trained nurse in the United States.
B Phoebe Pember was one of the first women placed in charge of a hospital.
C Sojourner Truth was a famous abolitionist who served as a nurse for the Union
forces in the Civil War.
D Mary Eliza Mahoney was the first African-American professional nurse; she
was educated at the New England Hospital for Women and Children.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 27
3. To which early nursing leader is attributed the founding of the American Red Cross?
a. Clara Barton
b. Dorothea Dix
c. Florence Nightingale
d.Lavinia Lloyd Dock
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A Founding the American Red Cross is attributed to Clara Barton.
B Dorothea Dix was superintendent of women nurses of the Union Army.
C Florence Nightingale was an English pioneer in nursing.
D Lavinia Lloyd Dock was influential in forming the National League for
Nursing (NLN).
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 26
4. What were some of the application requirements of nursing education programs in the
1900s?
a. Male, intelligent, strong
b. Female, sensitive, subservient
c. Female, docile, from poor background
d.Male, high breeding, independent
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Men were not thought to be sensitive enough for nursing.
B Sensitivity, breeding, intelligence, ladylike behavior, and submission to
authority were highly desired personal traits for nursing students.
C High breeding was desirable for nursing education program applicants.
D Men were not desired nursing education program applicants.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 27
5. Which of the following statements best describes how the Chicago Worlds Fair
of 1893 became a pivotal point in the history of nursing education in the United
States?
a. Florence Nightingales work on sanitation and its relationship to mortality
rates was finally recognized.
b. The organization todayknown as the NLN was formed to address issues
in nursing education.
c. The American Nurses Association (ANA) was formed to oversee
nursing education in the United States.
d.The International Council of Nurses (ICN) was formed to enhance
collaboration between practicing nurses and educators.
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Florence Nightingales paper was on scientific training of nurses.
B Several influential nursing leaders met at the Chicago Worlds Fair and started
the National League for Nursing Educationthe precursor to the NLN.
C The NLN, not the ANA, was formed to oversee nursing education in the
United States.
D The ICN was not founded until 1899 and is not involved in U.S. education of
nurses.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 28
6. Which early nursing organization is credited with first recommending state
registration for nurses?
a. ICN
b. NLN
c. ANA
d.National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A The ICN was formed to unite all nursing organizations. The topic of the first
meeting was registration for nurses by each country and state.
B The NLN was formed to oversee nursing education in the United States.
C The ANA was formed to enhance collaboration between practicing nurses and
educators.
D The National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses was formed to develop
leadership among African-American nurses.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 28
7. Which of the following nursing leaders, because of her work in the Henry
Street Settlement, is considered the founder of public health nursing?
a. Margaret Sanger
b. Clara Barton
c. Lillian Wald
d.Lavinia Lloyd Dock
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A Margaret Sanger is known for her work on birth control with immigrant
women from the Lower East Side of New York City.
B Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross.
C Lillian Wald founded the Henry Street Settlement, the first formalized public
health nursing project.
D Lavinia Lloyd Dock was instrumental in the formation of the NLN.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 28
8. Despite the caring efforts of early public health nurses in the Henry Street
Settlement, racial disparity left many people underserved. Which of the following
African-American public health nurses was instrumental in providing excellent
nursing care to underserved families despite these social challenges?
a. Jessie Sleet Scales
b. Margaret Sanger
c. Lavinia Lloyd Dock
d.Anita M. McGee
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A Jessie Sleet Scales established the Stillman House, a part of the Henry
Street Settlement that provided care to African Americans.
B Margaret Sanger worked to provide immigrant women on the Lower East Side
of New York City with birth control information.
C Lavinia Lloyd Dock founded the NLN.
D Anita M. McGee was a physician appointed as head of the Hospital Corps, who
recruited nurses for the Spanish-American War of 1898.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 29
9. Which one of the following events occurring during the first decade of the
twentieth century brought sweeping changes to nursing?
a. It was required that all practicing nurses be licensed.
b. Permissive licensing laws allowed registered nurses (RNs) to practice
without a license if they registered with the state.
c. All states required a standardized licensing examination.
d.Nurses had to pass a licensing examination to use the title RN.
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A Practicing nurses did not have to be licensed but could not use the title.
B Permissive licensing laws required all nurses using the title RN to be licensed.
C Licensing examinations were not standardized until 1950.
D Licensure laws were passed that required all people using the title of RN to be
licensed.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 30
10. What was the most significant impact on the profession of nursing made
by Mary Breckenridge in her role as a frontier nurse?
a. She demonstrated that nurses could provide primary care in rural settings.
b. She demonstrated that female nurses could protect themselves in unsettled
rural environments.
c. She demonstrated that nurses were capable of teaching new mothers to care
for babies.
d.She demonstrated that nurses could provide care to many clients
despite geographic boundaries.
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A Mary Breckenridge established frontier nursing services. She provided
primary care to women and babies and demonstrated that nurses could
provide primary care.
B Safety was not the primary impact of the success of frontier nursing.
C Although she was a nurse-midwife, this was not the most significant impact.
D Demonstrating that nurses could provide care to many clients despite geographic
boundaries was not the most significant impact made by Mary Breckenridge.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 32
11. Which of the following trends in health care delivery that began in the second
half of the twentieth century continues today?
a. Widespread use of team nursing to address the nursing shortage
b. Massive movement of nurses out of acute care and into home care
c. Advent of primary care to replace specialized care
d.Provision of care to the poor, elderly, and disabled through Medicare
and Medicaid
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A Team nursing is rarely used today.
B More nurses work in acute care today than in home care.
C After World War II, specialization became popular.
D Two amendments to the Social Security Act in 1965 designed to ensure access
to health care for elderly, poor, and disabled Americans were the
establishment of Medicare and Medicaid.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 34
12. A recent trend in nursing has been an increase in the number of men and women
with degrees in other fields or other careers applying to nursing programs. What is the
single most important reason for this trend?
a. Nursing as a career has gained increased status and prestige.
b. Nursing salaries have outpaced many other fields.
c. A nursing career provides both job security and meaningful employment.
d.Working conditions in nursing have improved.
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A While true, nursings increased status and prestige is not a significant factor in
the trend of people choosing it as a second career.
B Salary is not a major factor.
C The current appeal to men and women with degrees in other fields is that
nursing can provide job opportunities, economic security, and the
opportunity to help others.
D Working conditions are not identified as a reason for choosing a second career in
nursing.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 39
13. What specialty of nursing was considered well suited for men at a time when
other areas were excluding men from practicing?
a. Obstetric nursing
b. Pediatric nursing
c. Psychiatric nursing
d.Nurse educator
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A Obstetric nursing was not considered an appropriate area for men in nursing.
B Pediatric nursing was not considered an appropriate area for men in nursing.
C Psychiatric nursing was considered well suited for men because it required
physical stamina and strength.
D Education was not a specialty considered well suited for men in nursing.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 37
14. When surveyed, what is the primary reason given by men for entering nursing?
a. To make a difference
b. High salaries
c. Flexible schedules
d.Opportunity for travel
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A Men who want to make a difference in peoples lives find nursing an appealing
career choice
B Economic and job security are important factors for men entering nursing, but
more significant is the opportunity to make a difference in peoples lives.
C Flexible schedules, where provided, are an attractive incentive for
employment, but that is not as significant as being able to make a
difference in peoples lives.
D Opportunity for travel is available for travel and military nurses, otherwise it
is not an important aspect of nursing as a career.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 38
15. What was the purpose of the Hill-Burton Act?
a. It established funding for the construction of hospitals.
b. It provided women in the service with military rank.
c. It established and funded the Frontier Nursing Service.
d.It created the Cadet Nurse Corps.
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A The 1946 Hill-Burton Act provided funding for the construction of hospitals.
B Congress passed a bill in 1920 that allowed women to hold military rank.
C The Frontier Nursing Service, originally known as the Kentucky Committee for
Mothers and Babies, was established by Mary Breckinridge.
D The Cadet Nurse Corps was an alliance between military and collegiate nursing
programs to train nurses and was funded by Congress.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 33
16. When surveyed, which profession was chosen by the general public as highest in
honesty and ethics?
a. Physician
b. Pharmacist
c. Nurse
d.Attorney
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A Physicians were not ranked over nurses.
B Pharmacists were not ranked over nurses.
C Gallup polls from 1999 to 2010 rated nursing as the top profession in
honesty and ethics.
D Attorneys were not ranked over nurses in honesty and ethics.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 40
17. In 2002 which major American corporation partnered with nursing to
design a media campaign to promote the image of nursing?
a. Johnson & Johnson
b. Baxter
c. Microsoft
d.Wal-Mart
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A In 2003 Johnson & Johnson began a $20 million campaignCampaign
for Nursings Futureto enhance the image of nursing, to recruit new
nurses and educators, and to retain nurses.
B Baxter did not launch a media campaign to promote the image of nursing.
C Microsoft did not launch a media campaign to promote the image of nursing.
D Wal-Mart did not launch a media campaign to promote the image of nursing.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 40
18. A shift in population growth is expected to place stress on nursing resources.
Which age- group is expected to experience the greatest population growth in the
next decade?
a. Older than 85 years of age
b. 75 to 85 years of age
c. 35 to 65 years of age
d.18 to 35 years of age
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A People older than 85 years, known as the very old, represent the fastest-growing
segment of the total population.
B Although the 75 to 85 age-group is growing, it is not the fastest-growing
segment of the population.
C The group of individuals 35 to 65 years of age is not expected to grow as
dramatically as is the group termed very old.
D The 18 to 35 age-group is not expected to be the fastest-growing segment of
the population in the next decade.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 42
19. In which practice area was the first clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role developed?
a. Mother-baby
b. Psychiatric nursing
c. Intensive care nursing
d.Emergency nursing
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A The first CNS role was developed in psychiatric nursing in the
1960s. B The first CNS role was developed in psychiatric nursing in
the 1960s. C The first CNS role was developed in psychiatric nursing
in the 1960s. D The first CNS role was developed in psychiatric
nursing in the 1960s.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 34
20. Which of the following was an unsuccessful attempt by the American
Medical Association (AMA) to alleviate the nursing shortage of the time?
a. Creation of the nurse manager position
b. Creation of the registered care technician
c. Recruitment of RNs from English-speaking countries
d.Redistribution of qualified nurses to certain geographic locations
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A The nurse manager position was not created by the AMA.
B In response to the nursing shortage in the late 1980s, the AMA proposed a
nurse extender called the registered care technician.
C The recruitment of foreign nurses was not a proposal of the AMA.
D Travel nursing was not a proposal of the AMA.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 47
21. The first trained nurse in the United States graduated in 1873 and later became
the supervisor of the Boston Training School. Who was this nurse?
a. Mary Ann Bickerdyke
b. Dorothea Dix
c. Linda Richards
d.Sallie Thompkins
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A Mary Ann Bickerdyke was an uneducated widow who organized the camp
hospital in Cairo, Illinois, during the Civil War.
B Dorothea Dix, a well-known advocate for the mentally ill, was instrumental in
creating a month-long training program in two New York hospitals to train
women wishing to serve in the Civil War.
C In 1872 Linda Richards became the first student to enroll in the inaugural
class of five students in the first American nurses training school run by Dr.
Susan Dimock. She graduated 1 year later.
D Sallie Thompkins established a hospital in Richmond, Virginia, and
was commissioned a captain of Cavalry, unassigned by Confederate
President Jefferson Davis.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 26
22. During the Great Depression, staffing of hospitals changed with an impact
lasting to the current day. What was this change?
a. The employment of graduate nurses in hospitals
b. The need for increased private duty nurses and rural health nurses decreased
the number of nurses seeking employment in hospitals
c. The opening of more schools of nursing in hospitals
d.The increased number of collegiate schools of nursing, which allowed hospitals
to increase the educational requirements for the staff
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A Hospitals were forced to close their schools of nursing; families were no longer
able to afford private duty nurses in their homes; and hospitals hired the
unemployed graduate nurses to care for the increased numbers of patients
seeking care in hospitals.
B Although there was a need for nurses in rural areas supported by the Civil
Works Administration, the number of private duty nurses decreased due to
the inability of families to afford them.
C For economical reasons, hospitals could not afford to fund schools of nursing.
D Although the number of collegiate schools increased, most nurses in
hospitals were prepared in diploma programs.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 32
23. What was the most important influence of war on nursing?
a. It allowed for the development of hospitals.
b. Nurses were able to perform medical procedures during war.
c. Improved medical care increased soldiers survival rates.
d.It provided for the creation of new technology to make work easier.
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Wars allowed nurses to stretch the boundaries of their profession. Nurses
have led the way in furthering their discipline by responding to needs
during wartime.
B Wars allowed nurses to stretch the boundaries of their profession. Nurses
have led the way in furthering their discipline by responding to needs
during wartime.
C Wars allowed nurses to stretch the boundaries of their profession. Nurses
have led the way in furthering their discipline by responding to needs
during wartime.
D Wars allowed nurses to stretch the boundaries of their profession. Nurses
have led the way in furthering their discipline by responding to needs
during wartime.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 34
24. Florence Nightingale is often credited as being the first nurse researcher. This
designation is based on
a. her methods of reorganizing British hospitals.
b. her use of data on the morbidity and mortality of soldiers in hospitals in Scutari.
c. demonstration that trained nurses provided better nursing care.
d.publication of Notes on Nursing, the first scholarly nursing publication.
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Although Nightingale reformed both the British Army and British civilian
hospitals on the basis of data she collected, the reformations were not
researched.
B Nightingale was educated in statistics and used the detailed data collected
to effectively argue the case for the reform of the British Army hospital
system.
C Nightingale founded the first training school after she had gained fame based
on the hospital reforms supported by her data collection during the Crimean
War.
D The publication reflected Nightingales philosophical thoughts on nursing.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 25
25. The nursing profession is responsible for improving its own image. The most
effective avenue for changing the image of nursing is to
a. write letters expressing concerns to those responsible for negative images
on television and in films.
b. have nurses as consultants to the media to ensure that the media producers
have accurate information about nursing.
c. have nurses appear and behave professionally and explain what nurses do in
each patient interaction.
d.support the Johnson & Johnson campaign by distributing their information
about nursing to students interested in nursing.
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A While appropriate, writing letters to professionals in television and film is not the
most effective avenue for changing the image of nursing.
B While appropriate, having nursing consultants to the media is not the most
effective avenue for changing the image of nursing.
C The major avenue for changing the image of nursing occurs one nurse-patient
encounter at a time, where nurses look and behave professionally and
demonstrate what it is nurses do.
D While supporting Johnson & Johnsons Campaign for Nursings Future is
appropriate, it is not the most effective avenue for changing the image of
nursing.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: MCS: 42
26. The diversity of the population entering the health care system is a challenge
for nurses because
a. the portion of minorities in nursing is greater than the portion of minorities in
the general population.
b. educators are culturally competent leaders for nurses and students.
c. lessons about culture and cultural differences are not part of
progressive education programs.
d.ethnic minority group nurses are approximately 12% of nurses.
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A Only 12% of nurses are minorities, but approximately 31% of the general
population is identified as a minority.
B Managers, educators, and other nursing leaders will require training so they
can be culturally competent leaders for nurses and students who may
have backgrounds different from their own.
C Culture and cultural differences are part of progressive education programs.
However, understanding of health and illness in the context of cultural
heritage is not consistently addressed in the health care system.
D Approximately 1 in 10 nurses identify themselves as a member of a minority
group. This might make it difficult for patients who identify as ethnic
minorities to feel comfortable or confident with the health care system.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 45
27. Biomedical technology involves the use of complex machines or devices in patient
care situations. Because of the highly technological environment in which nurses work,
it is important that nurses
a. assume total responsibility for monitoring data generated by these devices.
b. use human touch and words of reassurance frequently to convey caring.
c. maintain the devices safety by assuring routine assessment by physicians.
d.be careful not to frighten the patient and family with information
about the device.
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A The monitoring and safety of machines and devices are most often the
responsibility of nurses and technicians.
B The use of technology needs to be combined with caring to maintain patient
and family satisfaction. Technology must never take the place of human-
to-human contact.
C The monitoring and safety of machines and devices are most often the
responsibility of nurses and technicians.
D The patient and family need information about the use of the device, as well
as the meaning of the information produced, to decrease stress and
anxiety.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: MCS: 46
28. Margaret Sanger, as a nurse and activist, worked on the Lower East Side of New
York City in the early 1900s with immigrant women. What was the focus of her work?
a. Sanitation to prevent disease transmission
b. Health education for children
c. Providing nursing care to underserved African-American families
d.Safe contraception and family planning for women
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A Sanitation to prevent disease transmission may have been part of her work in
her early years, but Sanger devoted her life to the birth control movement
and became a national figure in that cause.
B Health education for children may have been part of her work in her early
years, but Sanger devoted her life to the birth control movement and
became a national figure in that cause.
C Providing nursing care to underserved African-American families may have
been part of her work in her early years, but Sanger devoted her life to the
birth control movement and became a national figure in that cause.
D Margaret Sanger, inspired by the death of an immigrant woman from a
self- attempted abortion, became determined to teach women about
birth control.
Chapter 3 Contextual, Philosophical, and Ethical Elements of Professional Nursing
1. Which of the following was recognized earliest as a true profession?
a. Ministry
b. Teaching
c. Social work
d. Engineering
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A Historically only medicine, law, and the ministry were accepted as professions.
B Teaching was not accepted as an early profession.
C Social work was not accepted as an early profession.
D Engineering was not accepted as an early profession.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 52
2. Which of the following characteristics of a profession were listed in Flexners work
on professions?
a. Activities of professions are more physically than intellectually oriented.
b. Activities of professions are based on their own body of knowledge.
c. Beliefs of professions are more theoretical than practical.
d. Beliefs and traditions are handed down from generation to generation.
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Flexner actually lists intellectual as opposed to physical activities.
B Flexners characteristics of professions list a body of knowledge that can
be learned and is refreshed and refined through research.
C Flexner lists practical as well as theoretical beliefs.
D Flexner stressed that in professions, information is taught through a
process of highly specialized professional education.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 53
3. Similarities exist between various ideas about what constitutes a profession. Which of
the following is believed to be a characteristic of a profession?
a. Members have autonomy.
b. Members are trained on the job.
c. Members are motivated primarily by financial reward.
d. The group lacks a code of ethics.
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A A review of the literature on characteristics of a profession yielded
these similarities: service/altruism, specialized knowledge, and
autonomy/ethics.
B Specialized formal education is required.
C Members are motivated by altruism.
D Ethics or a code of ethics is a characteristic of professions.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 54
4. Which of the following best describes the difference between an occupation and a
profession?
a. A profession requires a duty to serve.
b. A profession is defined by members average income.
c. In a profession, action is based on intuition.
d. In a profession, knowledge is handed down from generation to generation.
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A Profession is defined as a duty, vocation, or form of employment that
provides a needed service to society and possesses characteristics of
expertise, autonomy, long academic preparation, commitment, and
responsibility.
B Average income does not determine the difference between an occupation
and a profession.
C In a profession, action is based on long academic preparation, a body of
knowledge, and instruction in techniques of the profession, not on
intuition.
D Knowledge is transferred in formal academic preparation, not handed down.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 59
5. According to the nurses Code of Ethics, the hallmark of nursing practice is
a. autonomy.
b. accountability.
c. evidence-based practice.
d. altruism.
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Nurses do not have complete autonomy but work with other disciplines.
B Individual accountability has become the hallmark of practice. Provision 4 of
the Code of Ethics states, The nurse is responsible and accountable for
individual practice. . .
C Evidence-based practice is relatively new to nursing.
D Although important to nursing, altruism is not the hallmark of nursing
practice according to the Code of Ethics.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 56
6. The document that provides professional standards and a framework for professional
decision making that ensures decisions are made with the highest integrity is the
a. Nurse Practice Act.
b. Code of Ethics.
c. Nursings Social Policy Statement.
d. bylaws of the American Nurses Association (ANA).
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A The Nurse Practice Act defines the legal scope of practice.
B The Code of Ethics in nursing guides decisions and the conduct of practitioners.
C Nursings Social Policy Statement describes the responsibilities of nurses
toward society.
D Bylaws of the ANA guide the processes of the organization.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 57
7. A component that separates occupations from professions is commitment. Which of
the following is the best way that nurses can show commitment to each other?
a. Reporting substandard practice by unlicensed personnel
b. Reading the professional literature
c. Mentoring nursing students and novice nurses
d. Making a financial donation to a professional organization
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A Reporting substandard practice is not the best example of commitment to
each other.
B Reading the literature does not involve mentoring or disseminating
knowledge to others.
C Nurses show commitment to the profession by mentoring others entering
the profession.
D Donating to a professional organization is less effective than serving as an
active member of the organization and disseminating knowledge through
active participation.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: MCS: 60
8. The nursing profession has experienced barriers to professionalism. Which of the following
is the primary current barrier to nursings professionalism?
a. Too many men in nursing
b. Unquestioning obedience to doctors
c. Limitations placed on practice by state legislators
d. Variability of educational backgrounds of nurses
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A Although increasing, the number of men in nursing is low.
B Unquestioning obedience is not a current behavior.
C Currently, nurse practice acts are broader than ever before.
D No other profession allows entry into practice at less than the baccalaureate level.
In fact, manyprofessions require postgraduate preparation for beginning
professional practice.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 60
9. The process of professionalization of an occupation typically follows a pattern of
developmental stages. One of the stages is collective identity. Which of the following is
an example of collective identity?
a. Legal right to practice profession to protect unique skills from outsiders
b. Apprenticeship programs to develop skills
c. A loose association of practitioners
d. Definition of the professions mission related to full-time work
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A Professions will be defined legally to determine who can use the skills
practiced by their members.
B Professions have a formal educational process for all members.
C Professions have veryorganized associations for their members that may
set standards for practice.
D To practice a profession, the work does not need to be full time only.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 54
10. Preparation is a component that separates occupations from professions. Which of
the following is the best way that a nurse demonstrates preparation for the
profession?
a. Improves nursing practice through the use of trial and error methods
b. Focuses on the skills needed for the practice setting
c. Articulates the values of caring and compassion in patient-centered care
d. Utilizes textbooks from college to support practice 5 years after graduation
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A Professional preparation enables practitioners to act in a logical, rational
manner rather than relying on intuition, tradition, or trial and error.
B The preparation includes more than just practice skills.
C Preparation for a profession includes more than the acquisition of knowledge
and skills. Preparation includes the orientation to the beliefs, values, and
attitudes expected of members of the profession.
D Professions have an ever-expanding base of knowledge, which means
practitioners need to use the most current information to inform
practice decisions.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: MCS: 54
11. A barrier to professionalism attributed to nursings roots in altruism is illustrated when a
nurse
a. questions a medication order written by the physician.
b. takes the time to listen to a patients fears about surgery.
c. needs to seek approval from charge nurse to give a PRN medication.
d. feels guilty for expecting to be paid well for work.
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A The nurse is serving as a patient advocate by questioning the order if it is
unclear; unquestioningly following the order would violate the patients trust.
B Listening to patients concerns is an important aspect of nursing.
C The nurse is an independent practitioner and does not require
permission to provide nursing care.
D As with other helping professions practitioners, the value of altruism
frequently makes nurses feel guilty or greedy for expecting compensation
for the complex and demanding work they do.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: MCS: 62
12. A major challenge to full autonomy for nurses is/are
a. state nurse practice acts.
b. lobbyists for the American Medical Association (AMA) and hospital associations.
c. the status of nurses in hospital hierarchy.
d. the view of physicians as the gatekeepers in health care.
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Although nurse practice acts in many states reinforce nursings tenuous self-
determination by requiring that nurses perform certain actions only when
authorized by supervising physicians or hospital protocols, they are not the
major challenge.
B Historically at least three groups have attempted to control nursing practice,
organized medicine, and health service administration, as well as organized
nursing. However, both the medical profession and health services
administration have attempted to control nursing because they believed it
was in their best interest to keep nurses dependent on them.
C Although status within the hospital may influence autonomy of practice, it is
not the major challenge.
D Although physician supervision or authorization is required before
certain activities can occur, this is not the major challenge to nursing
autonomy.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 57
13. One of the characteristics of a profession identified by Kelly was there is an
organization (association) that encourages and supports high standards of practice.
Which of the following illustrates a concern for nursing meeting this characteristic?
a. The ANA has existed for more than 100 years.
b. Nursing specialty organizations have greater power to influence practice
than a more general nursing organization.
c. The membership of the ANA is less than 10% of all nurses.
d. The purpose of the ANA does not address the economic and general welfare
of nurses.
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A Although the ANA has existed since 1896, the longevity of the organization
does not assure the development of standards of practice.
B Although specialty organizations mayinfluence practice in specialty areas,
the ANA addresses the needs of all nurses regardless of area of practice.
C Fewer than 1 in 10 nurses belong to the ANA, the official voice of nursing.
D The ANA has a clear focus on the economic and general welfare of
nurses historically.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 58
MULTIPLE RESPONSE
1. Scholars have defined profession through the years. Which of the following were identified
as common major characteristics according to scholars? (Select all that apply.)
a. It is based on a body of knowledge that can be learned.
b. It has a service orientation.
c. Practice is in a single recognized setting.
d. Professionals control their own practice.
e. Skills can be learned in a variety of settings, including through job training.
ANSWER: A, B, D
Feedback
Correct Based on a body of knowledge that can be learned, has a service
orientation, and professionals control their own practice are correct
as these characteristics were identified by Flexner, Hall, and
others.
Incorrect Professionals control their own practice is incorrect because a
profession is not always practiced in a single setting. For example,
nursing may be practiced in organized health settings, as well as in
the home and community. The education and skills needed to learn a
profession come from an institution of higher education.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 53
2. An important aspect of professionalism is collegiality. Which of the following
demonstrates collegiality? (Select all that apply.)
a. Assisting a nurse researcher with data collection related to measuring stress
levels in hospitalized children
b. Reporting a nursing assistant to the nurse manager when heart rate was
not recorded in a patient
c. Participating in weekly patient care conferences with physicians, social
workers, and other therapists
d. Sharing with another nurse that you heard the nurse manager is dating the
new physical therapist on the unit
e. Serving as a preceptor to a nurse completing a refresher course to reactivate
her nursing license.
ANSWER: A, C, E
Feedback
Correct Assisting nurse researcher with data collection related to measuring
stress levels in hospitalized children; participating in weekly patient
care conferences with physicians, social workers, and other
therapists; and serving as a preceptor to a nurse completing a
refresher course to reactivate her nursing license are correct because
these actions demonstrate collegiality by sharing with, supporting,
assisting, and counseling other nurses and health care providers.
Incorrect Reporting a nursing assistant to the nurse manager when heart rate
was not recorded in a patient is incorrect because this is not a
supportive activity as everyone can make a mistake and needs to be
given the opportunity to correct this behavior. Sharing with another
nurse that you heard the nurse manager is dating the new physical
therapist on the unit is incorrect because participating in gossip and
rumors does not support others.
Chapter 4.Nursing Education in an Evolving Health Care Environment
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. In 1900, the primary reason for hospital-based nursing education programs was to
a. educate nurses to care for patients in hospitals.
b. provide educational opportunities for women.
c. staff the hospitals that operated the education programs.
d. provide standardized preparation for nurses.
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A Most nurses worked in homes and very few worked in hospitals.
B The education for women was not a value of society at the time.
C In the hospitals there were few paid staff nurses, and most of the care
was provided by the nursing students.
D The programs of study varied in length, and each school set its standards
and requirements.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 131
2. Which of the following nursing leaders is credited with being one of the earliest
nursing educators in the world?
a. Isabel Hampton Robb
b. Mary Adelaide Nutting
c. Melinda Anne Richards
d. Annie W. Goodrich
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Robb studied nursing education.
B Mary Adelaide Nutting was a professor at Teachers College in 1907, and she
was also the first nursing professor.
C Richards was the first trained nurse educated in the United States.
D Goodrich became the first dean of the Yale School of Nursing in 1924.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 133
3. The Goldmark Report focused on what aspect of nursing?
a. Consistency in length of nursing education programs
b. Consistency in theory content across diploma programs
c. Desirabilityof establishing schools of nursing within academic settings
d. Increasing numbers of physicians teaching in nursing programs
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A Consistency in length of programs was not an issue.
B Content was not the issue.
C The Goldmark Report focused on clinical learning experiences of
students, hospital control of schools of nursing, desirability of
establishing schools of nursing in universities, lack of funding for
nursing education, and lack of qualified faculty.
D Nursing curriculum with instruction byphysicians was not encouraged.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 134
4. Which American universityopened the first nursing school as a separate department
within the university?
a. Harvard
b. Teachers College
c. Columbia
d. Yale
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A Harvard was not the first American university to open a nursing school as its
own department.
B Teachers College was not the first American university to open a nursing
school as its own department.
C Columbia was not the first American university to open a nursing school as
its own department.
D In 1924, Yale University was the first American university to open a school
of nursing as its own department.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 134
5. Which of the following recommendations resulting from the 1934 study Nursing
Schools Today and Tomorrow still has relevance today?
a. Nursing students should be trained on the job.
b. Nursing students should be used to staff hospitals on the weekends.
c. Nurses should be highly educated.
d. Nurses with highly developed instincts do not require standards of practice.
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A Nurses should be highly educated in a university setting.
B Students should not be used to staff hospitals.
C The study made five recommendations: nursing education should be
established within higher education; nurses should be highly educated;
students should not be used to staff hospitals; standards of practice should
be established; and students should meet minimal qualifications for
graduation.
D Standards of practice should be established.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 134
6. The earliest type of formal nursing education program was the
a. diploma program.
b. associate degree program.
c. bachelors degree program.
d. grandfathered acceptance as registered nurse (RN).
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A Diploma programs of nursing began in the late 1800s and were the earliest
form of nursing education.
B Associate nursing degree programs began in 1952.
C Bachelors degree programs began in 1909 but became commonplace only in
the mid-1900s.
D Nurses are not grandfathered into licensure.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 134
7. The single most important reason for the decline in the number of hospital-based
diploma programs was
a. shift in hospital occupancy from acute care to home care.
b. increase in hospital-based medical residency programs competing for
educational dollars.
c. beginning of associate degree programs that were shorter in length.
d. diploma educations position outside the mainstream of higher education.
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A The increase in complexity of health care led to the need for more
advanced educational preparation for nurses.
B Although it became more difficult for hospitals to fund diploma programs,
this was not the most important reason for their decline.
C The advent of associate degree programs led to the decline in diploma
programs, because associate degree programs are located in academic
settings.
D The movement of nursing education into the educational mainstream,
that is, colleges and universities, was responsible for the rapid decrease
in diploma programs.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 135
8. Which of the following is a primary reason for the initial slow growth of bachelors
degree nursing programs in the United States?
a. Belief that hands-on training received in hospital-based diploma programs
was superior to the theoretical-focused content in bachelors degree
programs
b. Belief that hospital-based diploma programs were more scientifically based
c. Belief that students prepared in hospital-based diploma programs were
more compassionate caregivers
d. Belief that hospital-based education programs facilitated career mobility
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A There was a great deal of acceptance of the hands-on teaching received
in diploma programs.
B Bachelors degree programs are more theoretically focused.
C There is no difference in perception of caring between the programs.
D Bachelors degree education facilitates career mobility.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 135
9. The 1948 Brown Report recommended which of the following?
a. Limit enrollment of men and minorities in nursing programs.
b. Students admitted to nursing programs should not be required to meet
admission requirements of the university.
c. Schools of nursing should be associated with teaching hospitals.
d. Schools of nursing should be located in institutions of higher learning.
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A The Brown Report recommended that more men and minorities be recruited
into nursing.
B The Brown Report recommendations did not address admission
requirements of universities.
C The Brown Report recommended moving nursing education into
academic settings.
D The Brown Report recommended that schools of nursing be moved to
institutions of higher learning.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 135
10. Which of the following is true about bachelors of science in nursing (BSN) education?
a. Faculty must be BSN prepared.
b. It is recommended by professional organizations as preparation for entry
into practice.
c. It requires 3 years to complete.
d. Faculty are not given full faculty status in the university.
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Faculty in BSN programs have masters or doctorate degrees.
B Many nursing organizations have advocated for the BSN as the
beginning educational preparation for the profession of nursing.
C The BSN degree requires 4 years to complete.
D Faculty in nursing now have full faculty status.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 136
11. Which recommendation made by the 1965 American Nurses Association (ANA)
position paper and other position papers of national nursing organizations is still an
issue today?
a. Education for nursing should take place in hospital-based programs.
b. Minimum preparation for professional nursing practice should be the
BSN degree.
c. Minimum preparation for technical nursing practice should be the
licensed practical/vocation nurse (LPN/LVN) diploma.
d. Education for nursing must be evidence-based.
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A The ANA position paper advocated for education in colleges and universities.
B The issue of minimum educational requirement for entry into practice is
not likely to change until there are safeguards in place that ensure that
all nurses currently in practice continue to feel that they are valued
members of the profession. This provision continues to be controversial
today.
C The technical level of nursing was supported in community and junior colleges.
D There is little evidence to support traditional educational methods used in
nursing education.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 136
12. Which type of basic nursing education program graduates the largest number of RNs in
the United States today?
a. Diploma programs
b. Associate degree programs
c. BSN programs
d. Nurse practitioner programs
ANSWER: B
Feedback
A Diploma programs are on the decline in enrollment and number of
programs operating.
B Associate degree programs graduate the most nurses today.
C BSN program enrollments have increased but are still lower than
associate degree program enrollments.
D Nurse practitioner programs are advanced practice masters-level programs.
The question refers to basic RN preparation.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 137
13. Who is credited with developing the model of associate degree nursing education?
a. Esther Lucille Brown
b. Annie W. Goodrich
c. Mildred Montag
d. National League for Nursing
ANSWER: C
Feedback
A Esther Lucille Brown wrote the Brown Report.
B Annie W. Goodrich was the first dean of nursing.
C Mildred Montag developed a model of associate degree nursing.
D The National League for Nursing did not develop the model of associate
degree nursing.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 139
14. What is the purpose of articulated models or systems for nursing education?
a. Increasing curriculum similarities in nursing programs
b. Allowing nurses to work in nursing as they gain additional education
c. Increasing the numbers of nursing education programs
d. Facilitating opportunities for nurses to move up the educational ladder with ease
ANSWER: D
Feedback
A Articulation has not made the programs more similar.
B Although articulation models allow a person to move with greater ease from
one level to another with less repetition of coursework, articulation systems
do not address the ability to work and attend school simultaneously any
more than any other nursing education program.
C Articulation model educational programs have been slow to develop because
of the work required to keep all the courses congruent with each other, and
increased educational programs have not resulted.
D Articulated models allow a nursing student/nurse to enter and leave at
different points. Articulated systems provide flexibility for the nurse to
gain more education.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 140
15. Which of the following is an important advantage of distance learning?
a. It allows access to adult learners who are geographically unable to
participate in a traditional classroom setting.
b. It allows students to set their own learning objectives.
c. It allows a student to take courses without clinical components.
d. It allows universities to offer more classes with fewer faculty.
ANSWER: A
Feedback
A Distance education allows flexibility, particularly for working people
in locations where there is no campus, and enables them to return to
school.
B The requirements are just as stringent as traditional courses, but the
method of participation is flexible.
C Distance learning does not negate the need for clinical components of courses.
D Faculty requirements are the same.
Chapter 4 Establishing Helping and Healing
Relationships MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. A nurse is listening to a patient’s apical heart rate. The patient asks, “Is everything
okay?”
The
nurse says nothing and shrugs her shoulders. The nurse is demonstrating:
a. open communication.
b. filtration.
c. blocking.
d. false
assurance.
ANSWER: C
Blocking occurs when the nurse responds with noncommittal or generalized
answers. DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 335
1. A teenage patient is using earphones to listen to hard rock music and is
making gestures in
rhythm to the music. The nurse assesses the amount of urine output in the Foley catheter
and leaves the room. What communication technique is demonstrated in both of these
situations?
a. Blocking
b. Filtration
c. Empathy
d. False
assurance
ANSWER: B
Filtration is the unconscious exclusion of extraneous stimuli in communication.
DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 331
2. In today’s world of fast, effective communication, what is the most commonly
used means of
societal communication?
a. Facial expression
b. Spoken word
c. Written messages
d. Electronic
messaging ANSWER:
B
Verbal communication, which involves talking and listening, is the most common form
of interpersonal communication. An important clue to verbal communication is the
tone or inflection with which words are spoken and the general attitude used when
speaking.
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TEST BANK For Leddy & Pepper’s Professional Nursing, 10th Edition by Lucy Hood, Verified Chapters 1 - 22, Complete Newest Version.pdf

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TEST BANK For Leddy & Pepper’s Professional Nursing, 10th Edition by Lucy Hood, Verified Chapters 1 - 22, Complete Newest Version.pdf

  • 1. TEST BANK For Leddy & Pepper’s Professional Nursing 10th Edition by Lucy Hood Chapters 1 - 22 Complete
  • 2.
  • 3. Chapter 1 The Professional Nurse 1. Which of the following could eventually change the historical status of nursing as a female- dominated profession? a. More men graduating from baccalaureate and higher degree programs b. The proportion of men in nursing beginning to increase c. More male graduates of basic nursing programs entering the workplace d. Salary compensation increasing to attract more men ANSWER: C Feedback A More men graduating from baccalaureate and higher degree programs is not the best answer because associate degree programs produce the most new graduates. B The percentage of men in nursing has increased 50% since 2000. C The more men who enter the workplace as nurses, the less nursing will be seen as a female-dominated profession. D Salary rates do not appear to relate to the recruitment of men into nursing. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 2 2. The racial and ethnic composition of the nursing profession will change to more accurately reflect the population as a whole when a. the increased numbers of racial and ethnic minorities enrolled in educational programs graduate and begin to practice. b. the number of Asians or Native Hawaiian-Pacific Islanders begins to increase. c. the percentage of African-American and Hispanic nurses decreases more than the percentage of white nurses.
  • 4. d. the nonwhite portion of the general population decreases. ANSWER: A Feedback A A larger percentage of minorities are enrolled in nursing educational programs than previously. B Asians and Native Hawaiian-Pacific Islanders are over represented in nursing compared to their percentage of the general population. C Not only would the percentage of African-American and Hispanic nurses need to increase, the percentage of white nurses would have to decrease in order to more accurately reflect the population as a whole. D The nonwhite portion of the general population is not likely to decrease. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 3 3. Which of the following is a correct statement about the registered nurse (RN) population? a. The racial/ethnic composition of RNs closely resembles that of the general population. b. The number of men entering nursing has decreased steadily over the last decade. c. The rate of aging of RNs has slowed for the first time in the past 30 years. d. The majority of employed RNs working full time must work a second position. ANSWER: C Feedback A The racial/ethnic composition of RNs is increasing, but does not approximate their percentage of the overall population. B The number of men entering nursing is increasing. C The average age of RNs in both 2004 and 2008 was 46. This is a result of the numbers of RNs under 30 in the workforce. D According to 2008 data, only 12% of nurses working full time hold second positions.
  • 5. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 3 4. Which of the following best describes trends in nursing education? a. Numbers of RNs with bachelors and higher degrees are increasing. b. Numbers of RNs with associate degrees are decreasing. c. Foreign-born nurses practicing in the United States are seen as less knowledgeable because of their lesser educational preparation. d. Numbers of RNs with diploma educations are increasing. ANSWER: A Feedback A Slightly over 50% of RNs eventually obtain their bachelors of science in nursing (BSN) or a higher nursing degree. B The majority of nurses in this country get their initial nursing education in associate degree in nursing (ADN) programs. C Foreign-born nurses practicing in the United States may be viewed as less knowledgeable bytheir peers because of language and cultural differences. D The numbers of diploma-educated nurses are declining. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 4 5. Despite the variety of work settings available to the RN, data from 2008 indicate that the primary work site for RNs is a. ambulatory care settings. b. community health settings. c. long-term care facilities. d. acute care hospitals. ANSWER: D Feedback
  • 6. A Ambulatory care settings account for about 10.5% of RNs places of employment. B Public health and community health settings account for 7.8% of employed RNs. C Long-term care facilities account for 5.3% of RNs places of employment. D Statistics show that 62.2% of RNs work in acute care hospitals. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 5 6. One important advantage of clinical ladder programs for hospital-based RNs is that they a. allow career advancement for nurses who choose to remain at the bedside. b. encourage nurses to move into management positions in which they can influence patient care on a broader scale. c. encourage RNs to become politically active and guide the profession of nursing. d. provide training to staff nurses so they can move seamlessly across departments. ANSWER: A Feedback A Clinical ladder programs allow nurses to advance professionally while remaining at the bedside. B Clinical ladder programs are designed to keep proficient nurses at the bedside. C Encouraging RNs to become politically active and guide the profession of nursing is not the goal of clinical ladder programs. D Clinical ladder programs are not designed to facilitate transfer between departments. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 7 7. Which of the following statements is correct about community health nursing (CHN)? a. Prevention and community education are the cornerstones of CHN. b. Nursing care is rapidly moving from the home setting to the institutional setting. c. High-tech care such as ventilators and total parenteral nutrition cannot be handled in the home.
  • 7. d. Assessment skills are less important in CHN because patients are not acutely ill. ANSWER: A Feedback A The community health nurse provides educational programs in health maintenance, disease prevention, nutrition, and child care. B Care is moving into the home setting. C Home care is increasing in complexity. D Community health nurses must have excellent assessment skills as theydo not have the immediate backup that an acute care facility offers. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 9 8. Which of the following is most essential for the nurse entrepreneur to be successful? a. Ability to take direction well b. Excellent time-management skills c. Avoidance of risks d. A college degree in business ANSWER: B Feedback A Nurse entrepreneurs must function autonomously. B Nurse entrepreneurs must be well organized and efficient. C Starting a business involves risk. D A degree in business is not required to be a nurse entrepreneur. DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: MCS: 10 9. The major benefit of serving as a military nurse is a. broader responsibilities and scope of practice than civilian nurses.
  • 8. b. working with entirely baccalaureate-prepared peers on active duty. c. serving as an officer on active duty or in the reserves. d. the financial support to seek advanced degrees ANSWER: D Feedback A Although military nurses do have broader responsibilities and scopes of practice than civilian nurses do, this is not the major benefit. B Although military nurses do work with entirely baccalaureate-prepared peers on active duty, this is not the major benefit. C Although military nurses serve as officers on active duty or in the reserves, this is not the major benefit. D Advanced education is supported by the military financially and also allows for promotion in rank at an accelerated pace. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 13 10. Which of the following statements explains why the school nurse of today is truly a community health nurse? a. The school nurse may be called on to care for a students family members in underserved areas. b. The school nurses primary responsibility is centered on the well child. c. The school nurses primary responsibility is to maintain immunization records. d. The school nurse must be certified in CHN. ANSWER: A Feedback A In medically underserved areas a school nurse may be called on to care for members of a childs immediate family. B Chronically ill, disabled, and physically challenged students are in regular classrooms.
  • 9. C School nurses detect developmental problems; counsel and educate children, parents, and teachers; and maintain immunization records. D Although school nurses are considered community health nurses, certification in community health is not required. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 13 11. What has been found about the outcomes of patients cared for in hospitals with a higher percentage of BSN-prepared nurses as compared to patients in hospitals with a lower percentage of BSN-prepared nurses? a. Patient outcomes are more dependent on nurse-patient ratios. b. Outcomes were better in hospitals with more BSN-prepared nurses. c. Outcomes were similar in both types of hospitals. d. Medical patients had better outcomes, but surgical patients fared the same. ANSWER: B Feedback A Nurse-patient ratio is an important determinant of patient care outcomes but has not been shown to be more or less important that the percentage of BSN- prepared nurses providing direct patient care. B Research by Aiken, et al, (2003) showed that patient outcomes were better in hospitals where higher percentages of BSN-prepared nurses were employed. C Research by Aiken, et al, (2003) showed that patient outcomes were better in hospitals where higher percentages of BSN-prepared nurses were employed. D Aiken, et al (2003) studied orthopedic, general surgical, and vascular surgery patients and found the outcomes were improved for these patients in hospitals with a higher percentage of BSN-prepared nurses. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 7 12. Faith community nursing (FCN) was founded on which of the following premises? a. Nurses faith beliefs do not play a part in healing. b. The spiritual aspect takes precedence over the physical body in healing.
  • 10. c. Spiritual health is central to a persons well-being. d. Faith community nurses must receive formal training as a minister or clergy. ANSWER: C Feedback A The nurses spiritual journey is believed to be an essential aspect of this nursing role. B Patients are treated holistically under FCN. C FCN is based on the belief that spiritual health is central to well-being. D Faith community nurses do not need to have formal training as a ministers. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 16 13. One important advantage of the evolution of nursing informatics is that a. it allows any RN to become a certified informatics nurse. b. informatics nurses are best able to design systems with the needs and skills of nurses who use them. c. informatics nurses will reduce the need for direct caregivers to document care. d. benefits of informatics advancements include improved patient safety and increased variability of care. ANSWER: B Feedback A Although all nurses may use informatics, a nurse specializing in informatics should have a BSN and additional knowledge and experience in the field of informatics. B Informatics nurses understand how the information needs to be used and how to make the systems work for the nurses. C Direct caregivers will still need to document the care provided. D Benefits do include improved patient safety, but decreased variability of care is expected with informatics systems.
  • 11. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 17 14. Which of the following nursing roles is not considered an advanced practice role? a. Certified nurse-midwife (CNM) b. Community health nurse c. Certified nurse practitioner (CNP) d. Clinical nurse specialist (CNS) ANSWER: B Feedback A A CNM is an advanced practice role. B The community health nurse is not an advanced practice role. C CNP is an advanced practice role. D CNS is an advanced practice role. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 17 15. NPs are advanced practice nurses who a. are required to have physician collaboration or supervision. b. function under a set of universal advanced practitioner laws. c. cannot receive direct reimbursement for their services. d. can diagnose and treat common and chronic conditions. ANSWER: D Feedback A The laws governing the practice of NPs vary from state to state, including the degree of supervision required and how they may be reimbursed for their services. Chapter 2 The History Behind the Development of Professional Nursing 1. Which early nursing leader founded the first training school for nurses that would later become a model for early nursing education? a. Dorothea Dix
  • 13. c. Clara Barton d.Mary Ann Bickerdyke ANSWER: B Feedback A Dorothea Dix is best known as an advocate for the mentally ill, and she created a brief training program at two New York hospitals for women who wished to serve as nurses in the Civil War. B Florence Nightingale founded the first training school for nurses at St. Thomass Hospital in London in 1806. This became the model for nursing education in the United States. C Clara Barton is known for founding the American Red Cross. D Mary Ann Bickerdyke is best known for nursing services during the Civil War. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 25 2. Who was the first educated African-American professional nurse? a. Linda Richards
  • 14. b. Phoebe Pember c. Sojourner Truth d.Mary Eliza Mahoney ANSWER: D Feedback A Linda Richards was the first trained nurse in the United States. B Phoebe Pember was one of the first women placed in charge of a hospital. C Sojourner Truth was a famous abolitionist who served as a nurse for the Union forces in the Civil War. D Mary Eliza Mahoney was the first African-American professional nurse; she was educated at the New England Hospital for Women and Children. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 27 3. To which early nursing leader is attributed the founding of the American Red Cross? a. Clara Barton b. Dorothea Dix c. Florence Nightingale d.Lavinia Lloyd Dock ANSWER: A Feedback A Founding the American Red Cross is attributed to Clara Barton. B Dorothea Dix was superintendent of women nurses of the Union Army. C Florence Nightingale was an English pioneer in nursing. D Lavinia Lloyd Dock was influential in forming the National League for Nursing (NLN). DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 26
  • 15. 4. What were some of the application requirements of nursing education programs in the 1900s? a. Male, intelligent, strong b. Female, sensitive, subservient c. Female, docile, from poor background d.Male, high breeding, independent ANSWER: B Feedback A Men were not thought to be sensitive enough for nursing. B Sensitivity, breeding, intelligence, ladylike behavior, and submission to authority were highly desired personal traits for nursing students. C High breeding was desirable for nursing education program applicants. D Men were not desired nursing education program applicants. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 27 5. Which of the following statements best describes how the Chicago Worlds Fair of 1893 became a pivotal point in the history of nursing education in the United States? a. Florence Nightingales work on sanitation and its relationship to mortality rates was finally recognized. b. The organization todayknown as the NLN was formed to address issues in nursing education. c. The American Nurses Association (ANA) was formed to oversee nursing education in the United States. d.The International Council of Nurses (ICN) was formed to enhance collaboration between practicing nurses and educators. ANSWER: B Feedback A Florence Nightingales paper was on scientific training of nurses.
  • 16. B Several influential nursing leaders met at the Chicago Worlds Fair and started the National League for Nursing Educationthe precursor to the NLN. C The NLN, not the ANA, was formed to oversee nursing education in the United States. D The ICN was not founded until 1899 and is not involved in U.S. education of nurses. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 28 6. Which early nursing organization is credited with first recommending state registration for nurses? a. ICN b. NLN c. ANA d.National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses ANSWER: A Feedback A The ICN was formed to unite all nursing organizations. The topic of the first meeting was registration for nurses by each country and state. B The NLN was formed to oversee nursing education in the United States. C The ANA was formed to enhance collaboration between practicing nurses and educators. D The National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses was formed to develop leadership among African-American nurses. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 28 7. Which of the following nursing leaders, because of her work in the Henry Street Settlement, is considered the founder of public health nursing? a. Margaret Sanger b. Clara Barton
  • 17. c. Lillian Wald d.Lavinia Lloyd Dock ANSWER: C Feedback A Margaret Sanger is known for her work on birth control with immigrant women from the Lower East Side of New York City. B Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross. C Lillian Wald founded the Henry Street Settlement, the first formalized public health nursing project. D Lavinia Lloyd Dock was instrumental in the formation of the NLN. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 28 8. Despite the caring efforts of early public health nurses in the Henry Street Settlement, racial disparity left many people underserved. Which of the following African-American public health nurses was instrumental in providing excellent nursing care to underserved families despite these social challenges? a. Jessie Sleet Scales b. Margaret Sanger c. Lavinia Lloyd Dock d.Anita M. McGee ANSWER: A Feedback A Jessie Sleet Scales established the Stillman House, a part of the Henry Street Settlement that provided care to African Americans. B Margaret Sanger worked to provide immigrant women on the Lower East Side of New York City with birth control information. C Lavinia Lloyd Dock founded the NLN.
  • 18. D Anita M. McGee was a physician appointed as head of the Hospital Corps, who recruited nurses for the Spanish-American War of 1898. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 29 9. Which one of the following events occurring during the first decade of the twentieth century brought sweeping changes to nursing? a. It was required that all practicing nurses be licensed. b. Permissive licensing laws allowed registered nurses (RNs) to practice without a license if they registered with the state. c. All states required a standardized licensing examination. d.Nurses had to pass a licensing examination to use the title RN. ANSWER: D Feedback A Practicing nurses did not have to be licensed but could not use the title. B Permissive licensing laws required all nurses using the title RN to be licensed. C Licensing examinations were not standardized until 1950. D Licensure laws were passed that required all people using the title of RN to be licensed. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 30 10. What was the most significant impact on the profession of nursing made by Mary Breckenridge in her role as a frontier nurse? a. She demonstrated that nurses could provide primary care in rural settings. b. She demonstrated that female nurses could protect themselves in unsettled rural environments. c. She demonstrated that nurses were capable of teaching new mothers to care for babies. d.She demonstrated that nurses could provide care to many clients despite geographic boundaries.
  • 19. ANSWER: A Feedback A Mary Breckenridge established frontier nursing services. She provided primary care to women and babies and demonstrated that nurses could provide primary care. B Safety was not the primary impact of the success of frontier nursing. C Although she was a nurse-midwife, this was not the most significant impact. D Demonstrating that nurses could provide care to many clients despite geographic boundaries was not the most significant impact made by Mary Breckenridge. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 32 11. Which of the following trends in health care delivery that began in the second half of the twentieth century continues today? a. Widespread use of team nursing to address the nursing shortage b. Massive movement of nurses out of acute care and into home care c. Advent of primary care to replace specialized care d.Provision of care to the poor, elderly, and disabled through Medicare and Medicaid ANSWER: D Feedback A Team nursing is rarely used today. B More nurses work in acute care today than in home care. C After World War II, specialization became popular. D Two amendments to the Social Security Act in 1965 designed to ensure access to health care for elderly, poor, and disabled Americans were the establishment of Medicare and Medicaid. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 34
  • 20. 12. A recent trend in nursing has been an increase in the number of men and women with degrees in other fields or other careers applying to nursing programs. What is the single most important reason for this trend? a. Nursing as a career has gained increased status and prestige. b. Nursing salaries have outpaced many other fields. c. A nursing career provides both job security and meaningful employment. d.Working conditions in nursing have improved. ANSWER: C Feedback A While true, nursings increased status and prestige is not a significant factor in the trend of people choosing it as a second career. B Salary is not a major factor. C The current appeal to men and women with degrees in other fields is that nursing can provide job opportunities, economic security, and the opportunity to help others. D Working conditions are not identified as a reason for choosing a second career in nursing. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 39 13. What specialty of nursing was considered well suited for men at a time when other areas were excluding men from practicing? a. Obstetric nursing b. Pediatric nursing c. Psychiatric nursing d.Nurse educator ANSWER: C Feedback
  • 21. A Obstetric nursing was not considered an appropriate area for men in nursing. B Pediatric nursing was not considered an appropriate area for men in nursing. C Psychiatric nursing was considered well suited for men because it required physical stamina and strength. D Education was not a specialty considered well suited for men in nursing. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 37 14. When surveyed, what is the primary reason given by men for entering nursing? a. To make a difference b. High salaries c. Flexible schedules d.Opportunity for travel ANSWER: A Feedback A Men who want to make a difference in peoples lives find nursing an appealing career choice B Economic and job security are important factors for men entering nursing, but more significant is the opportunity to make a difference in peoples lives. C Flexible schedules, where provided, are an attractive incentive for employment, but that is not as significant as being able to make a difference in peoples lives. D Opportunity for travel is available for travel and military nurses, otherwise it is not an important aspect of nursing as a career. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 38 15. What was the purpose of the Hill-Burton Act? a. It established funding for the construction of hospitals. b. It provided women in the service with military rank. c. It established and funded the Frontier Nursing Service.
  • 22. d.It created the Cadet Nurse Corps. ANSWER: A Feedback A The 1946 Hill-Burton Act provided funding for the construction of hospitals. B Congress passed a bill in 1920 that allowed women to hold military rank. C The Frontier Nursing Service, originally known as the Kentucky Committee for Mothers and Babies, was established by Mary Breckinridge. D The Cadet Nurse Corps was an alliance between military and collegiate nursing programs to train nurses and was funded by Congress. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 33 16. When surveyed, which profession was chosen by the general public as highest in honesty and ethics? a. Physician b. Pharmacist c. Nurse d.Attorney ANSWER: C Feedback A Physicians were not ranked over nurses. B Pharmacists were not ranked over nurses. C Gallup polls from 1999 to 2010 rated nursing as the top profession in honesty and ethics. D Attorneys were not ranked over nurses in honesty and ethics. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 40
  • 23. 17. In 2002 which major American corporation partnered with nursing to design a media campaign to promote the image of nursing? a. Johnson & Johnson b. Baxter c. Microsoft d.Wal-Mart ANSWER: A Feedback A In 2003 Johnson & Johnson began a $20 million campaignCampaign for Nursings Futureto enhance the image of nursing, to recruit new nurses and educators, and to retain nurses. B Baxter did not launch a media campaign to promote the image of nursing. C Microsoft did not launch a media campaign to promote the image of nursing. D Wal-Mart did not launch a media campaign to promote the image of nursing. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 40 18. A shift in population growth is expected to place stress on nursing resources. Which age- group is expected to experience the greatest population growth in the next decade? a. Older than 85 years of age b. 75 to 85 years of age c. 35 to 65 years of age d.18 to 35 years of age ANSWER: A Feedback A People older than 85 years, known as the very old, represent the fastest-growing segment of the total population.
  • 24. B Although the 75 to 85 age-group is growing, it is not the fastest-growing segment of the population. C The group of individuals 35 to 65 years of age is not expected to grow as dramatically as is the group termed very old. D The 18 to 35 age-group is not expected to be the fastest-growing segment of the population in the next decade. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 42 19. In which practice area was the first clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role developed? a. Mother-baby b. Psychiatric nursing c. Intensive care nursing d.Emergency nursing ANSWER: B Feedback A The first CNS role was developed in psychiatric nursing in the 1960s. B The first CNS role was developed in psychiatric nursing in the 1960s. C The first CNS role was developed in psychiatric nursing in the 1960s. D The first CNS role was developed in psychiatric nursing in the 1960s. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 34 20. Which of the following was an unsuccessful attempt by the American Medical Association (AMA) to alleviate the nursing shortage of the time? a. Creation of the nurse manager position b. Creation of the registered care technician c. Recruitment of RNs from English-speaking countries d.Redistribution of qualified nurses to certain geographic locations
  • 25. ANSWER: B Feedback A The nurse manager position was not created by the AMA. B In response to the nursing shortage in the late 1980s, the AMA proposed a nurse extender called the registered care technician. C The recruitment of foreign nurses was not a proposal of the AMA. D Travel nursing was not a proposal of the AMA. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 47 21. The first trained nurse in the United States graduated in 1873 and later became the supervisor of the Boston Training School. Who was this nurse? a. Mary Ann Bickerdyke b. Dorothea Dix c. Linda Richards d.Sallie Thompkins ANSWER: C Feedback A Mary Ann Bickerdyke was an uneducated widow who organized the camp hospital in Cairo, Illinois, during the Civil War. B Dorothea Dix, a well-known advocate for the mentally ill, was instrumental in creating a month-long training program in two New York hospitals to train women wishing to serve in the Civil War. C In 1872 Linda Richards became the first student to enroll in the inaugural class of five students in the first American nurses training school run by Dr. Susan Dimock. She graduated 1 year later. D Sallie Thompkins established a hospital in Richmond, Virginia, and was commissioned a captain of Cavalry, unassigned by Confederate President Jefferson Davis. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 26
  • 26. 22. During the Great Depression, staffing of hospitals changed with an impact lasting to the current day. What was this change? a. The employment of graduate nurses in hospitals b. The need for increased private duty nurses and rural health nurses decreased the number of nurses seeking employment in hospitals c. The opening of more schools of nursing in hospitals d.The increased number of collegiate schools of nursing, which allowed hospitals to increase the educational requirements for the staff ANSWER: A Feedback A Hospitals were forced to close their schools of nursing; families were no longer able to afford private duty nurses in their homes; and hospitals hired the unemployed graduate nurses to care for the increased numbers of patients seeking care in hospitals. B Although there was a need for nurses in rural areas supported by the Civil Works Administration, the number of private duty nurses decreased due to the inability of families to afford them. C For economical reasons, hospitals could not afford to fund schools of nursing. D Although the number of collegiate schools increased, most nurses in hospitals were prepared in diploma programs. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 32 23. What was the most important influence of war on nursing? a. It allowed for the development of hospitals. b. Nurses were able to perform medical procedures during war. c. Improved medical care increased soldiers survival rates. d.It provided for the creation of new technology to make work easier. ANSWER: B
  • 27. Feedback A Wars allowed nurses to stretch the boundaries of their profession. Nurses have led the way in furthering their discipline by responding to needs during wartime. B Wars allowed nurses to stretch the boundaries of their profession. Nurses have led the way in furthering their discipline by responding to needs during wartime. C Wars allowed nurses to stretch the boundaries of their profession. Nurses have led the way in furthering their discipline by responding to needs during wartime. D Wars allowed nurses to stretch the boundaries of their profession. Nurses have led the way in furthering their discipline by responding to needs during wartime. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 34 24. Florence Nightingale is often credited as being the first nurse researcher. This designation is based on a. her methods of reorganizing British hospitals. b. her use of data on the morbidity and mortality of soldiers in hospitals in Scutari. c. demonstration that trained nurses provided better nursing care. d.publication of Notes on Nursing, the first scholarly nursing publication. ANSWER: B Feedback A Although Nightingale reformed both the British Army and British civilian hospitals on the basis of data she collected, the reformations were not researched. B Nightingale was educated in statistics and used the detailed data collected to effectively argue the case for the reform of the British Army hospital system. C Nightingale founded the first training school after she had gained fame based on the hospital reforms supported by her data collection during the Crimean War. D The publication reflected Nightingales philosophical thoughts on nursing. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 25
  • 28. 25. The nursing profession is responsible for improving its own image. The most
  • 29. effective avenue for changing the image of nursing is to
  • 30. a. write letters expressing concerns to those responsible for negative images on television and in films. b. have nurses as consultants to the media to ensure that the media producers have accurate information about nursing. c. have nurses appear and behave professionally and explain what nurses do in each patient interaction. d.support the Johnson & Johnson campaign by distributing their information about nursing to students interested in nursing. ANSWER: C Feedback A While appropriate, writing letters to professionals in television and film is not the most effective avenue for changing the image of nursing. B While appropriate, having nursing consultants to the media is not the most effective avenue for changing the image of nursing. C The major avenue for changing the image of nursing occurs one nurse-patient encounter at a time, where nurses look and behave professionally and demonstrate what it is nurses do. D While supporting Johnson & Johnsons Campaign for Nursings Future is appropriate, it is not the most effective avenue for changing the image of nursing. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: MCS: 42 26. The diversity of the population entering the health care system is a challenge for nurses because a. the portion of minorities in nursing is greater than the portion of minorities in the general population. b. educators are culturally competent leaders for nurses and students. c. lessons about culture and cultural differences are not part of progressive education programs. d.ethnic minority group nurses are approximately 12% of nurses. ANSWER: D
  • 31. Feedback A Only 12% of nurses are minorities, but approximately 31% of the general population is identified as a minority. B Managers, educators, and other nursing leaders will require training so they can be culturally competent leaders for nurses and students who may have backgrounds different from their own. C Culture and cultural differences are part of progressive education programs. However, understanding of health and illness in the context of cultural heritage is not consistently addressed in the health care system. D Approximately 1 in 10 nurses identify themselves as a member of a minority group. This might make it difficult for patients who identify as ethnic minorities to feel comfortable or confident with the health care system. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 45 27. Biomedical technology involves the use of complex machines or devices in patient care situations. Because of the highly technological environment in which nurses work, it is important that nurses a. assume total responsibility for monitoring data generated by these devices. b. use human touch and words of reassurance frequently to convey caring. c. maintain the devices safety by assuring routine assessment by physicians. d.be careful not to frighten the patient and family with information about the device. ANSWER: B Feedback A The monitoring and safety of machines and devices are most often the responsibility of nurses and technicians. B The use of technology needs to be combined with caring to maintain patient and family satisfaction. Technology must never take the place of human- to-human contact. C The monitoring and safety of machines and devices are most often the responsibility of nurses and technicians.
  • 32. D The patient and family need information about the use of the device, as well as the meaning of the information produced, to decrease stress and anxiety. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: MCS: 46 28. Margaret Sanger, as a nurse and activist, worked on the Lower East Side of New York City in the early 1900s with immigrant women. What was the focus of her work? a. Sanitation to prevent disease transmission b. Health education for children c. Providing nursing care to underserved African-American families d.Safe contraception and family planning for women ANSWER: D Feedback A Sanitation to prevent disease transmission may have been part of her work in her early years, but Sanger devoted her life to the birth control movement and became a national figure in that cause. B Health education for children may have been part of her work in her early years, but Sanger devoted her life to the birth control movement and became a national figure in that cause. C Providing nursing care to underserved African-American families may have been part of her work in her early years, but Sanger devoted her life to the birth control movement and became a national figure in that cause. D Margaret Sanger, inspired by the death of an immigrant woman from a self- attempted abortion, became determined to teach women about birth control. Chapter 3 Contextual, Philosophical, and Ethical Elements of Professional Nursing 1. Which of the following was recognized earliest as a true profession? a. Ministry b. Teaching c. Social work d. Engineering ANSWER: A
  • 34. A Historically only medicine, law, and the ministry were accepted as professions. B Teaching was not accepted as an early profession. C Social work was not accepted as an early profession. D Engineering was not accepted as an early profession. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 52 2. Which of the following characteristics of a profession were listed in Flexners work on professions? a. Activities of professions are more physically than intellectually oriented. b. Activities of professions are based on their own body of knowledge. c. Beliefs of professions are more theoretical than practical. d. Beliefs and traditions are handed down from generation to generation. ANSWER: B Feedback A Flexner actually lists intellectual as opposed to physical activities. B Flexners characteristics of professions list a body of knowledge that can be learned and is refreshed and refined through research.
  • 35. C Flexner lists practical as well as theoretical beliefs. D Flexner stressed that in professions, information is taught through a process of highly specialized professional education. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 53 3. Similarities exist between various ideas about what constitutes a profession. Which of the following is believed to be a characteristic of a profession? a. Members have autonomy. b. Members are trained on the job. c. Members are motivated primarily by financial reward. d. The group lacks a code of ethics. ANSWER: A Feedback A A review of the literature on characteristics of a profession yielded these similarities: service/altruism, specialized knowledge, and autonomy/ethics. B Specialized formal education is required. C Members are motivated by altruism. D Ethics or a code of ethics is a characteristic of professions. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 54 4. Which of the following best describes the difference between an occupation and a profession? a. A profession requires a duty to serve. b. A profession is defined by members average income. c. In a profession, action is based on intuition. d. In a profession, knowledge is handed down from generation to generation. ANSWER: A
  • 36. Feedback A Profession is defined as a duty, vocation, or form of employment that provides a needed service to society and possesses characteristics of expertise, autonomy, long academic preparation, commitment, and responsibility. B Average income does not determine the difference between an occupation and a profession. C In a profession, action is based on long academic preparation, a body of knowledge, and instruction in techniques of the profession, not on intuition. D Knowledge is transferred in formal academic preparation, not handed down. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 59 5. According to the nurses Code of Ethics, the hallmark of nursing practice is a. autonomy. b. accountability. c. evidence-based practice. d. altruism. ANSWER: B Feedback A Nurses do not have complete autonomy but work with other disciplines. B Individual accountability has become the hallmark of practice. Provision 4 of the Code of Ethics states, The nurse is responsible and accountable for individual practice. . . C Evidence-based practice is relatively new to nursing. D Although important to nursing, altruism is not the hallmark of nursing practice according to the Code of Ethics. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 56 6. The document that provides professional standards and a framework for professional decision making that ensures decisions are made with the highest integrity is the
  • 37. a. Nurse Practice Act. b. Code of Ethics. c. Nursings Social Policy Statement. d. bylaws of the American Nurses Association (ANA). ANSWER: B Feedback A The Nurse Practice Act defines the legal scope of practice. B The Code of Ethics in nursing guides decisions and the conduct of practitioners. C Nursings Social Policy Statement describes the responsibilities of nurses toward society. D Bylaws of the ANA guide the processes of the organization. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 57 7. A component that separates occupations from professions is commitment. Which of the following is the best way that nurses can show commitment to each other? a. Reporting substandard practice by unlicensed personnel b. Reading the professional literature c. Mentoring nursing students and novice nurses d. Making a financial donation to a professional organization ANSWER: C Feedback A Reporting substandard practice is not the best example of commitment to each other. B Reading the literature does not involve mentoring or disseminating knowledge to others. C Nurses show commitment to the profession by mentoring others entering the profession.
  • 38. D Donating to a professional organization is less effective than serving as an active member of the organization and disseminating knowledge through active participation. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: MCS: 60 8. The nursing profession has experienced barriers to professionalism. Which of the following is the primary current barrier to nursings professionalism? a. Too many men in nursing b. Unquestioning obedience to doctors c. Limitations placed on practice by state legislators d. Variability of educational backgrounds of nurses ANSWER: D Feedback A Although increasing, the number of men in nursing is low. B Unquestioning obedience is not a current behavior. C Currently, nurse practice acts are broader than ever before. D No other profession allows entry into practice at less than the baccalaureate level. In fact, manyprofessions require postgraduate preparation for beginning professional practice. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 60 9. The process of professionalization of an occupation typically follows a pattern of developmental stages. One of the stages is collective identity. Which of the following is an example of collective identity? a. Legal right to practice profession to protect unique skills from outsiders b. Apprenticeship programs to develop skills c. A loose association of practitioners d. Definition of the professions mission related to full-time work
  • 39. ANSWER: A Feedback A Professions will be defined legally to determine who can use the skills practiced by their members. B Professions have a formal educational process for all members. C Professions have veryorganized associations for their members that may set standards for practice. D To practice a profession, the work does not need to be full time only. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 54 10. Preparation is a component that separates occupations from professions. Which of the following is the best way that a nurse demonstrates preparation for the profession? a. Improves nursing practice through the use of trial and error methods b. Focuses on the skills needed for the practice setting c. Articulates the values of caring and compassion in patient-centered care d. Utilizes textbooks from college to support practice 5 years after graduation ANSWER: C Feedback A Professional preparation enables practitioners to act in a logical, rational manner rather than relying on intuition, tradition, or trial and error. B The preparation includes more than just practice skills. C Preparation for a profession includes more than the acquisition of knowledge and skills. Preparation includes the orientation to the beliefs, values, and attitudes expected of members of the profession. D Professions have an ever-expanding base of knowledge, which means practitioners need to use the most current information to inform practice decisions. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: MCS: 54
  • 40. 11. A barrier to professionalism attributed to nursings roots in altruism is illustrated when a nurse a. questions a medication order written by the physician. b. takes the time to listen to a patients fears about surgery. c. needs to seek approval from charge nurse to give a PRN medication. d. feels guilty for expecting to be paid well for work. ANSWER: D Feedback A The nurse is serving as a patient advocate by questioning the order if it is unclear; unquestioningly following the order would violate the patients trust. B Listening to patients concerns is an important aspect of nursing. C The nurse is an independent practitioner and does not require permission to provide nursing care. D As with other helping professions practitioners, the value of altruism frequently makes nurses feel guilty or greedy for expecting compensation for the complex and demanding work they do. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: MCS: 62 12. A major challenge to full autonomy for nurses is/are a. state nurse practice acts. b. lobbyists for the American Medical Association (AMA) and hospital associations. c. the status of nurses in hospital hierarchy. d. the view of physicians as the gatekeepers in health care. ANSWER: B Feedback A Although nurse practice acts in many states reinforce nursings tenuous self- determination by requiring that nurses perform certain actions only when authorized by supervising physicians or hospital protocols, they are not the major challenge.
  • 41. B Historically at least three groups have attempted to control nursing practice, organized medicine, and health service administration, as well as organized nursing. However, both the medical profession and health services administration have attempted to control nursing because they believed it was in their best interest to keep nurses dependent on them. C Although status within the hospital may influence autonomy of practice, it is not the major challenge. D Although physician supervision or authorization is required before certain activities can occur, this is not the major challenge to nursing autonomy. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 57 13. One of the characteristics of a profession identified by Kelly was there is an organization (association) that encourages and supports high standards of practice. Which of the following illustrates a concern for nursing meeting this characteristic? a. The ANA has existed for more than 100 years. b. Nursing specialty organizations have greater power to influence practice than a more general nursing organization. c. The membership of the ANA is less than 10% of all nurses. d. The purpose of the ANA does not address the economic and general welfare of nurses. ANSWER: C Feedback A Although the ANA has existed since 1896, the longevity of the organization does not assure the development of standards of practice. B Although specialty organizations mayinfluence practice in specialty areas, the ANA addresses the needs of all nurses regardless of area of practice. C Fewer than 1 in 10 nurses belong to the ANA, the official voice of nursing. D The ANA has a clear focus on the economic and general welfare of nurses historically. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 58
  • 42. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Scholars have defined profession through the years. Which of the following were identified as common major characteristics according to scholars? (Select all that apply.) a. It is based on a body of knowledge that can be learned. b. It has a service orientation. c. Practice is in a single recognized setting. d. Professionals control their own practice. e. Skills can be learned in a variety of settings, including through job training. ANSWER: A, B, D Feedback Correct Based on a body of knowledge that can be learned, has a service orientation, and professionals control their own practice are correct as these characteristics were identified by Flexner, Hall, and others. Incorrect Professionals control their own practice is incorrect because a profession is not always practiced in a single setting. For example, nursing may be practiced in organized health settings, as well as in the home and community. The education and skills needed to learn a profession come from an institution of higher education. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 53 2. An important aspect of professionalism is collegiality. Which of the following demonstrates collegiality? (Select all that apply.) a. Assisting a nurse researcher with data collection related to measuring stress levels in hospitalized children b. Reporting a nursing assistant to the nurse manager when heart rate was not recorded in a patient c. Participating in weekly patient care conferences with physicians, social workers, and other therapists d. Sharing with another nurse that you heard the nurse manager is dating the new physical therapist on the unit
  • 43. e. Serving as a preceptor to a nurse completing a refresher course to reactivate her nursing license. ANSWER: A, C, E Feedback Correct Assisting nurse researcher with data collection related to measuring stress levels in hospitalized children; participating in weekly patient care conferences with physicians, social workers, and other therapists; and serving as a preceptor to a nurse completing a refresher course to reactivate her nursing license are correct because these actions demonstrate collegiality by sharing with, supporting, assisting, and counseling other nurses and health care providers. Incorrect Reporting a nursing assistant to the nurse manager when heart rate was not recorded in a patient is incorrect because this is not a supportive activity as everyone can make a mistake and needs to be given the opportunity to correct this behavior. Sharing with another nurse that you heard the nurse manager is dating the new physical therapist on the unit is incorrect because participating in gossip and rumors does not support others. Chapter 4.Nursing Education in an Evolving Health Care Environment MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. In 1900, the primary reason for hospital-based nursing education programs was to a. educate nurses to care for patients in hospitals. b. provide educational opportunities for women. c. staff the hospitals that operated the education programs. d. provide standardized preparation for nurses. ANSWER: C Feedback A Most nurses worked in homes and very few worked in hospitals. B The education for women was not a value of society at the time.
  • 44. C In the hospitals there were few paid staff nurses, and most of the care was provided by the nursing students. D The programs of study varied in length, and each school set its standards and requirements. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 131 2. Which of the following nursing leaders is credited with being one of the earliest nursing educators in the world? a. Isabel Hampton Robb b. Mary Adelaide Nutting c. Melinda Anne Richards d. Annie W. Goodrich ANSWER: B Feedback A Robb studied nursing education. B Mary Adelaide Nutting was a professor at Teachers College in 1907, and she was also the first nursing professor. C Richards was the first trained nurse educated in the United States. D Goodrich became the first dean of the Yale School of Nursing in 1924. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 133 3. The Goldmark Report focused on what aspect of nursing? a. Consistency in length of nursing education programs b. Consistency in theory content across diploma programs c. Desirabilityof establishing schools of nursing within academic settings d. Increasing numbers of physicians teaching in nursing programs ANSWER: C
  • 45. Feedback A Consistency in length of programs was not an issue. B Content was not the issue. C The Goldmark Report focused on clinical learning experiences of students, hospital control of schools of nursing, desirability of establishing schools of nursing in universities, lack of funding for nursing education, and lack of qualified faculty. D Nursing curriculum with instruction byphysicians was not encouraged. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 134 4. Which American universityopened the first nursing school as a separate department within the university? a. Harvard b. Teachers College c. Columbia d. Yale ANSWER: D Feedback A Harvard was not the first American university to open a nursing school as its own department. B Teachers College was not the first American university to open a nursing school as its own department. C Columbia was not the first American university to open a nursing school as its own department. D In 1924, Yale University was the first American university to open a school of nursing as its own department. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 134 5. Which of the following recommendations resulting from the 1934 study Nursing Schools Today and Tomorrow still has relevance today?
  • 46. a. Nursing students should be trained on the job. b. Nursing students should be used to staff hospitals on the weekends. c. Nurses should be highly educated. d. Nurses with highly developed instincts do not require standards of practice. ANSWER: C Feedback A Nurses should be highly educated in a university setting. B Students should not be used to staff hospitals. C The study made five recommendations: nursing education should be established within higher education; nurses should be highly educated; students should not be used to staff hospitals; standards of practice should be established; and students should meet minimal qualifications for graduation. D Standards of practice should be established. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 134 6. The earliest type of formal nursing education program was the a. diploma program. b. associate degree program. c. bachelors degree program. d. grandfathered acceptance as registered nurse (RN). ANSWER: A Feedback A Diploma programs of nursing began in the late 1800s and were the earliest form of nursing education. B Associate nursing degree programs began in 1952. C Bachelors degree programs began in 1909 but became commonplace only in the mid-1900s. D Nurses are not grandfathered into licensure.
  • 47. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 134 7. The single most important reason for the decline in the number of hospital-based diploma programs was a. shift in hospital occupancy from acute care to home care. b. increase in hospital-based medical residency programs competing for educational dollars. c. beginning of associate degree programs that were shorter in length. d. diploma educations position outside the mainstream of higher education. ANSWER: D Feedback A The increase in complexity of health care led to the need for more advanced educational preparation for nurses. B Although it became more difficult for hospitals to fund diploma programs, this was not the most important reason for their decline. C The advent of associate degree programs led to the decline in diploma programs, because associate degree programs are located in academic settings. D The movement of nursing education into the educational mainstream, that is, colleges and universities, was responsible for the rapid decrease in diploma programs. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 135 8. Which of the following is a primary reason for the initial slow growth of bachelors degree nursing programs in the United States? a. Belief that hands-on training received in hospital-based diploma programs was superior to the theoretical-focused content in bachelors degree programs b. Belief that hospital-based diploma programs were more scientifically based c. Belief that students prepared in hospital-based diploma programs were more compassionate caregivers d. Belief that hospital-based education programs facilitated career mobility
  • 48. ANSWER: A Feedback A There was a great deal of acceptance of the hands-on teaching received in diploma programs. B Bachelors degree programs are more theoretically focused. C There is no difference in perception of caring between the programs. D Bachelors degree education facilitates career mobility. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 135 9. The 1948 Brown Report recommended which of the following? a. Limit enrollment of men and minorities in nursing programs. b. Students admitted to nursing programs should not be required to meet admission requirements of the university. c. Schools of nursing should be associated with teaching hospitals. d. Schools of nursing should be located in institutions of higher learning. ANSWER: D Feedback A The Brown Report recommended that more men and minorities be recruited into nursing. B The Brown Report recommendations did not address admission requirements of universities. C The Brown Report recommended moving nursing education into academic settings. D The Brown Report recommended that schools of nursing be moved to institutions of higher learning. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 135 10. Which of the following is true about bachelors of science in nursing (BSN) education?
  • 49. a. Faculty must be BSN prepared. b. It is recommended by professional organizations as preparation for entry into practice. c. It requires 3 years to complete. d. Faculty are not given full faculty status in the university. ANSWER: B Feedback A Faculty in BSN programs have masters or doctorate degrees. B Many nursing organizations have advocated for the BSN as the beginning educational preparation for the profession of nursing. C The BSN degree requires 4 years to complete. D Faculty in nursing now have full faculty status. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 136 11. Which recommendation made by the 1965 American Nurses Association (ANA) position paper and other position papers of national nursing organizations is still an issue today? a. Education for nursing should take place in hospital-based programs. b. Minimum preparation for professional nursing practice should be the BSN degree. c. Minimum preparation for technical nursing practice should be the licensed practical/vocation nurse (LPN/LVN) diploma. d. Education for nursing must be evidence-based. ANSWER: B Feedback A The ANA position paper advocated for education in colleges and universities. B The issue of minimum educational requirement for entry into practice is not likely to change until there are safeguards in place that ensure that all nurses currently in practice continue to feel that they are valued members of the profession. This provision continues to be controversial today.
  • 50. C The technical level of nursing was supported in community and junior colleges. D There is little evidence to support traditional educational methods used in nursing education. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 136 12. Which type of basic nursing education program graduates the largest number of RNs in the United States today? a. Diploma programs b. Associate degree programs c. BSN programs d. Nurse practitioner programs ANSWER: B Feedback A Diploma programs are on the decline in enrollment and number of programs operating. B Associate degree programs graduate the most nurses today. C BSN program enrollments have increased but are still lower than associate degree program enrollments. D Nurse practitioner programs are advanced practice masters-level programs. The question refers to basic RN preparation. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 137 13. Who is credited with developing the model of associate degree nursing education? a. Esther Lucille Brown b. Annie W. Goodrich c. Mildred Montag d. National League for Nursing
  • 51. ANSWER: C Feedback A Esther Lucille Brown wrote the Brown Report. B Annie W. Goodrich was the first dean of nursing. C Mildred Montag developed a model of associate degree nursing. D The National League for Nursing did not develop the model of associate degree nursing. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: MCS: 139 14. What is the purpose of articulated models or systems for nursing education? a. Increasing curriculum similarities in nursing programs b. Allowing nurses to work in nursing as they gain additional education c. Increasing the numbers of nursing education programs d. Facilitating opportunities for nurses to move up the educational ladder with ease ANSWER: D Feedback A Articulation has not made the programs more similar. B Although articulation models allow a person to move with greater ease from one level to another with less repetition of coursework, articulation systems do not address the ability to work and attend school simultaneously any more than any other nursing education program. C Articulation model educational programs have been slow to develop because of the work required to keep all the courses congruent with each other, and increased educational programs have not resulted. D Articulated models allow a nursing student/nurse to enter and leave at different points. Articulated systems provide flexibility for the nurse to gain more education. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: MCS: 140
  • 52. 15. Which of the following is an important advantage of distance learning? a. It allows access to adult learners who are geographically unable to participate in a traditional classroom setting. b. It allows students to set their own learning objectives. c. It allows a student to take courses without clinical components. d. It allows universities to offer more classes with fewer faculty. ANSWER: A Feedback A Distance education allows flexibility, particularly for working people in locations where there is no campus, and enables them to return to school. B The requirements are just as stringent as traditional courses, but the method of participation is flexible. C Distance learning does not negate the need for clinical components of courses. D Faculty requirements are the same. Chapter 4 Establishing Helping and Healing Relationships MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A nurse is listening to a patient’s apical heart rate. The patient asks, “Is everything okay?” The nurse says nothing and shrugs her shoulders. The nurse is demonstrating: a. open communication. b. filtration. c. blocking. d. false assurance. ANSWER: C Blocking occurs when the nurse responds with noncommittal or generalized answers. DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 335 1. A teenage patient is using earphones to listen to hard rock music and is making gestures in rhythm to the music. The nurse assesses the amount of urine output in the Foley catheter and leaves the room. What communication technique is demonstrated in both of these situations? a. Blocking b. Filtration c. Empathy d. False assurance
  • 53. ANSWER: B Filtration is the unconscious exclusion of extraneous stimuli in communication. DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 331 2. In today’s world of fast, effective communication, what is the most commonly used means of societal communication? a. Facial expression
  • 54. b. Spoken word c. Written messages d. Electronic messaging ANSWER: B Verbal communication, which involves talking and listening, is the most common form of interpersonal communication. An important clue to verbal communication is the tone or inflection with which words are spoken and the general attitude used when speaking. IF YOU WANT THIS TEST BANK OR SOLUTION MANUAL EMAIL ME rightmanforbloodline1@gmail.com TO RECEIVE ALL CHAPTERS IN PDF FORMAT IF YOU WANT THIS TEST BANK OR SOLUTION MANUAL EMAIL ME rightmanforbloodline1@gmail.com TO RECEIVE ALL CHAPTERS IN PDF FORMAT