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Spiritual Courtesy and Respect
                          (Rumi, Mathnawi I: Verses 78 – 92)

(About) requesting from God, the Protecting Lord of Grace, the favor of observing
(spiritual) courtesy and respect in every situation, and explaining the harmfulness
and losses (which result) from rudeness.

Just prior to this section was the beginning of Rumi's first story about the king and the
handmaiden. After the king fell in love with her and bought her, she immediately
became gravely ill. When his physicians were unable to cure her, he went into the
mosque (masjid) to pray and "the place of prostration (sajda-gâh) became filled with the
king's tears" (Mathnavi I: 56). He fell asleep and dreamed about a wise man who would
be sent by God to help him.

When the wise man was seen to be approaching the next day, instead of sending his
important officials, the king himself went out to greet him, and said: "You were my
(true) beloved, not that (maiden).... Oh you are to me (like) Muhammad, (and) I am like
(his companion) `Umar. I will prepare myself for the sake of serving you" (Mathnavi I:
76-77). Following this example of exceptional courtesy and respect, Rumi explains the
importance of spiritual courtesy.

78   We should seek from God the favor of (behaving with) (spiritual) courtesy and
     respect, (since) the rude person is excluded from the grace of the Lord.

     [(Spiritual) courtesy and respect: "adab may be defined as the character, feelings,
     and manners which are the fruit of spiritual culture. The reverence shown by the
     King to the Sage and by `Umar to the Prophet (M I: 77) naturally suggests this brief
     homily on a subject so important for novices in Sufism."]

79   The rude person doesn't keep himself in (a state of) affliction alone, but sets fire
     to all the regions (of the world).

80   A table was arriving from Heaven without (any effort of) buying and selling and
     talking and listening.

     [A table: this word occurs in the Qur'an to describe a "table" of food from Heaven
     which the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) prayed for and received (Qur'an
     5:114). But here the word refers to the manna and quails sent to the people of
     Moses in the desert: "And We shaded them with clouds, and We sent down to
     them manna and quails, (saying), 'Eat from among the good things that We have
     provided to you'… But they did harm to themselves" (by complaining) (Qur'an
     7:160; 2:57).]
81   (But then), in the midst of the people of Moses, some persons spoke rudely:
     "Where (are) garlic and lentils?"

     [Garlic and onions: the people of Moses complained, "O Moses, we cannot endure
     one kind of food (only), so pray to your Lord for us, to bring forth for our sake of
     what the earth grows: its herbs, its cucumbers, its garlic, its lentils, and its onions."
     (Qur'an 2:61)]

82   The table and bread from Heaven was ended (immediately), (and) there
     remained for us the painful toil of farming with shovel (for planting) and scythe
     (for reaping).

83   Again, when Jesus interceded (with prayers), God sent a table with an
     abundance (of food) on trays.

     [God sent a table: a "table" of food from Heaven which the Prophet Jesus (peace be
     upon him) prayed for and received: "When the disciples said, 'O Jesus son of Mary,
     can your Lord send down to us a table from Heaven?' He said, 'Be in awe of God
     (attaqû 'llâh) if you are (truly) believers.'" The disciples said that they only wanted
     to eat, as well as to know for certain, by seeing a miracle, that Jesus spoke the
     truth. Jesus prayed for food from heaven as a sign (of Divine support) and for
     sustenance from God who is the Best of Providers. God agreed to send it down,
     but warned of punishment for any who denied faith after this miracle (Qur'an 5:
     112-118).

     In Persian, the word translated as "table" can mean a tray of food, but generally
     refers to the Middle Eastern custom of eating on the floor or ground with the food
     placed upon a cloth, or occasionally upon leather.]

84   (Yet) again, (those) insolent ones abandoned courtesy and respect, (and) took the
     food (home with them) like beggars.

     [Like beggars: refers to the custom according to which guests were allowed to take
     food home with them after being invited to a meal. "It was not unusual (though
     considered unmannerly) for greedy guests to collect and carry away the food left
     over from a feast. Such a person was called zallah-band."]

85   Jesus asked them earnestly (to be respectful), saying, "(But) this (food) is
     enduring and won't be decreased from the earth."

86   Acting suspiciously and bringing greed to the table of (Divine) Grandeur is
     rejection and ingratitude.
[Rejection and ingratitude [kufr]: a Qur'anic term which also means unbelief and
     denial (toward the truth of the Oneness of God and the revelation sent to the
     prophets).]

87   (And so), because of those people, with faces like beggars and blinded by greed,
     that gate of (Divine) Mercy became shut for them.

88   After the refusal of (paying) charity (for the poor), the (rain) clouds do not come.
     And when unlawful sex occurs, the plague (spreads) to (all) directions.

     [Charity (for the poor): One of the "five pillars" of Islam, the requirement for
     Muslims to donate once a year to the poor approximately two and half percent of
     one's available wealth, if one is not poor. This verse refers to the punishment
     believed to follow widespread refusal or avoidance, not just a few cases.]

     [Unlawful sex (zinâ): this word means any kind of sexual relations outside
     marriage -- by the married (adultery) or by the unmarried (fornication), believed,
     when prevalent, to be the cause of plague.] ["And if there is refusal of the
     (required) charity, the rain is seized (and taken away) from them" and "When you
     see that the plague has definitely spread, know that shameful sexual conduct has
     definitely spread."]

89   Whatever gloom and grief comes to you is because of reckless impudence and
     also insolence.

90   Whoever acts with bold impudence in the path of the Beloved is a highway
     robber of the (true) men (of the spiritual Way) and is not a man.

91   By means of (spiritual) courtesy and respect, the Heavens became full of light,
     and by means of (such) respect the angels became innocent and pure.

92   (But) the sun became eclipsed because of insolence. (And) because of rashness,
     an (angel such as) Azazeel was turned away from the gate (to the angelic realm).

     [Azazeel: the name of Satan before his fall. His insolence was to refuse to bow in
     obeisance to Adam when all the angels were commanded to do so. Satan refused,
     with the arrogant claim that he was superior to Adam since he was made from
     "fire" but Adam was made from (mere) clay (Qur'an 7: 11-12). Satan also arrogantly
     blamed God for his own fall: "You caused me to err, verily I shall lurk in ambush
     for them on Thy Right Path" (Qur'an 7: 16), whereas Adam and Eve showed
     humble respect to God by saying, "O Lord! We have wronged ourselves, and if
     You do not forgive us and show mercy to us, we will surely be among the lost!"
     (Qur’an 7: 23)]

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Spiritual Courtesy and Respect

  • 1. Spiritual Courtesy and Respect (Rumi, Mathnawi I: Verses 78 – 92) (About) requesting from God, the Protecting Lord of Grace, the favor of observing (spiritual) courtesy and respect in every situation, and explaining the harmfulness and losses (which result) from rudeness. Just prior to this section was the beginning of Rumi's first story about the king and the handmaiden. After the king fell in love with her and bought her, she immediately became gravely ill. When his physicians were unable to cure her, he went into the mosque (masjid) to pray and "the place of prostration (sajda-gâh) became filled with the king's tears" (Mathnavi I: 56). He fell asleep and dreamed about a wise man who would be sent by God to help him. When the wise man was seen to be approaching the next day, instead of sending his important officials, the king himself went out to greet him, and said: "You were my (true) beloved, not that (maiden).... Oh you are to me (like) Muhammad, (and) I am like (his companion) `Umar. I will prepare myself for the sake of serving you" (Mathnavi I: 76-77). Following this example of exceptional courtesy and respect, Rumi explains the importance of spiritual courtesy. 78 We should seek from God the favor of (behaving with) (spiritual) courtesy and respect, (since) the rude person is excluded from the grace of the Lord. [(Spiritual) courtesy and respect: "adab may be defined as the character, feelings, and manners which are the fruit of spiritual culture. The reverence shown by the King to the Sage and by `Umar to the Prophet (M I: 77) naturally suggests this brief homily on a subject so important for novices in Sufism."] 79 The rude person doesn't keep himself in (a state of) affliction alone, but sets fire to all the regions (of the world). 80 A table was arriving from Heaven without (any effort of) buying and selling and talking and listening. [A table: this word occurs in the Qur'an to describe a "table" of food from Heaven which the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) prayed for and received (Qur'an 5:114). But here the word refers to the manna and quails sent to the people of Moses in the desert: "And We shaded them with clouds, and We sent down to them manna and quails, (saying), 'Eat from among the good things that We have provided to you'… But they did harm to themselves" (by complaining) (Qur'an 7:160; 2:57).]
  • 2. 81 (But then), in the midst of the people of Moses, some persons spoke rudely: "Where (are) garlic and lentils?" [Garlic and onions: the people of Moses complained, "O Moses, we cannot endure one kind of food (only), so pray to your Lord for us, to bring forth for our sake of what the earth grows: its herbs, its cucumbers, its garlic, its lentils, and its onions." (Qur'an 2:61)] 82 The table and bread from Heaven was ended (immediately), (and) there remained for us the painful toil of farming with shovel (for planting) and scythe (for reaping). 83 Again, when Jesus interceded (with prayers), God sent a table with an abundance (of food) on trays. [God sent a table: a "table" of food from Heaven which the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) prayed for and received: "When the disciples said, 'O Jesus son of Mary, can your Lord send down to us a table from Heaven?' He said, 'Be in awe of God (attaqû 'llâh) if you are (truly) believers.'" The disciples said that they only wanted to eat, as well as to know for certain, by seeing a miracle, that Jesus spoke the truth. Jesus prayed for food from heaven as a sign (of Divine support) and for sustenance from God who is the Best of Providers. God agreed to send it down, but warned of punishment for any who denied faith after this miracle (Qur'an 5: 112-118). In Persian, the word translated as "table" can mean a tray of food, but generally refers to the Middle Eastern custom of eating on the floor or ground with the food placed upon a cloth, or occasionally upon leather.] 84 (Yet) again, (those) insolent ones abandoned courtesy and respect, (and) took the food (home with them) like beggars. [Like beggars: refers to the custom according to which guests were allowed to take food home with them after being invited to a meal. "It was not unusual (though considered unmannerly) for greedy guests to collect and carry away the food left over from a feast. Such a person was called zallah-band."] 85 Jesus asked them earnestly (to be respectful), saying, "(But) this (food) is enduring and won't be decreased from the earth." 86 Acting suspiciously and bringing greed to the table of (Divine) Grandeur is rejection and ingratitude.
  • 3. [Rejection and ingratitude [kufr]: a Qur'anic term which also means unbelief and denial (toward the truth of the Oneness of God and the revelation sent to the prophets).] 87 (And so), because of those people, with faces like beggars and blinded by greed, that gate of (Divine) Mercy became shut for them. 88 After the refusal of (paying) charity (for the poor), the (rain) clouds do not come. And when unlawful sex occurs, the plague (spreads) to (all) directions. [Charity (for the poor): One of the "five pillars" of Islam, the requirement for Muslims to donate once a year to the poor approximately two and half percent of one's available wealth, if one is not poor. This verse refers to the punishment believed to follow widespread refusal or avoidance, not just a few cases.] [Unlawful sex (zinâ): this word means any kind of sexual relations outside marriage -- by the married (adultery) or by the unmarried (fornication), believed, when prevalent, to be the cause of plague.] ["And if there is refusal of the (required) charity, the rain is seized (and taken away) from them" and "When you see that the plague has definitely spread, know that shameful sexual conduct has definitely spread."] 89 Whatever gloom and grief comes to you is because of reckless impudence and also insolence. 90 Whoever acts with bold impudence in the path of the Beloved is a highway robber of the (true) men (of the spiritual Way) and is not a man. 91 By means of (spiritual) courtesy and respect, the Heavens became full of light, and by means of (such) respect the angels became innocent and pure. 92 (But) the sun became eclipsed because of insolence. (And) because of rashness, an (angel such as) Azazeel was turned away from the gate (to the angelic realm). [Azazeel: the name of Satan before his fall. His insolence was to refuse to bow in obeisance to Adam when all the angels were commanded to do so. Satan refused, with the arrogant claim that he was superior to Adam since he was made from "fire" but Adam was made from (mere) clay (Qur'an 7: 11-12). Satan also arrogantly blamed God for his own fall: "You caused me to err, verily I shall lurk in ambush for them on Thy Right Path" (Qur'an 7: 16), whereas Adam and Eve showed humble respect to God by saying, "O Lord! We have wronged ourselves, and if You do not forgive us and show mercy to us, we will surely be among the lost!" (Qur’an 7: 23)]