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Sedimentary Rocks
Transportation of sediments and formation of sedimentary
rocks by mode of river water- deposition on the continent and
on the ocean floor.
Marine deposits
Fluvial deposits
• Almost 90% of earth crust is made up of igneous rocks
• 75% of land surface on the earth is covered by thin veneer
of sediments or sedimentary rocks.
• These sediments are transported and deposited by river
water, wind or by movement of glacial ice. Transportation
is either in suspension or in solution.
• When settle down on the beds of ocean, river and lakes
undergo compaction/cementation for millions of years to
form SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS: are the secondary rocks which are
formed from the loose fragments or
detrital or clastic sediments produced
by weathering of older rocks.
IMPORTANCE OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK
“Present is the key to the past”
• Helps in knowing depositional environment viz.
marine (ocean deposits), fluvial (river deposits),
aeolian (wind deposits), glacial, estuarine,
Lacustrine (lake deposits) etc.
• Helps in knowing the provenance (i.e. source area
of the sediments); change in climatic conditions
i.e. in knowing and understanding old
climate=paleoclimate.
• Sandstones
• Conglomerates
• Breccia
• Shale/mudstones
TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
Clastic rocks Chemical & Organic rocks
Evaporitic rocks
These rocks are formed
due to evaporation of saline
water (sea water)
eg. Gypsum, Halit
(rock salt)
Carbonate rocks
Form basically from
CaCO3 – both by
chemical leaching and
by organic source
(biochemical) eg.
Limestone; dolomite
Organic rocks
Form due to
decomposition of
organic remains
under temperature
and pressure eg.
Coal/Lignite etc.
• formed from broken rock fragments weathered
and eroded by river, glacier, wind and sea
waves. These clastic sediments are found
deposited on floodplains, beaches, in desert and
on the sea floors.
CLASTIC ROCKS
Clastic rocks
solidify
• Clastic rocks are classified on the basis of
the grain size: conglomerate, sandstone,
shale etc.
GRAIN SIZE
Gravel
>256-2 mm
Sand
2- 0.062 mm
Clay
<0.004 mm
Silt
0.062-0.004 mm
Boulder: >256mm
Cobble: 64-256 mm
Pebble: 4-64 mm
Granule: 2-4mm
Fine gravel
• Clastic rocks mainly
comprise broken
fragment of older
rock – they are also
know as Terrigenous
rocks
Any rock fragment
(size is > 4 mm=Pebble)
Fine-gravel/
Granule
(size <4mm)
Matrix:
is the finer grains
or material that
surrounds the
larger clasts. It
consist of either
clay, silt and sand.
Cement:
dissolved
substance
that bounds
the
sediments.
1. Calcareous
2. siliceous
Degree of roundness helps in knowing the distance of transportation
•Angular clasts- short distance transport from the source
•Rounded clasts- long distance transport
When clastic fragments are
cemented or undergo consolidation
they are called
CONGLOMERATES
Similarly when angular clasts
undergo consolidation they are
called BRECCIA
Sorting of the sediments also suggest the mode of deposition and transportation.
Long distance transport= well-rounded and well-sorted sediments,
Short distance transport = poorly sorted angular grains.
Also helps in knowing the energy conditions of the river.
DIFFERENT CATERGORIES OF CLASTIC ROCKS
• RUDACEOUS ROCKS: made up of rounded or sub-
rounded Pebbles and cobbles eg. conglomerate
• ARENACEOUS ROCKS: made up of mainly sand
eg. Sandstone. These rocks are either accumulated by
wind action or deposited under water action or marine
or lake environment
• ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS: made up of clay size
sediments eg. Shale, mudstones, siltstones.
IMPORTANCE
• CONGLOMERATE comprise clastic sediments like
pebbles and cobbles (heterogeneous)
• If the cementation is good (voids between the clasts) = then the
conglomerate will be hard and competent hence act as strong
foundation, but not good rock for ground water source.
• However, if the cementation is poor = it makes the rock more porous
with high porosity = act as good reserve for ground water (aquifer), but
is undesirable at the site for foundation of major CE structures.
• Due to heavy seepage along the conglomerate may result in failure by
sliding. Eg. Failure of St. Francis dam, US.
Cementation:
• Cementing material is usually secondary Silica
(Siliceous cement), Calcium carbonate
(Carbonate cement), Iron rich (ferruginous
cement)
• Cement itself to some extent is the source of
weakness in the sedimentary rocks
• Because cementing material and the clastic
sediments are usually of different
composition, leading to heterogeneity in their
physical characteristics.
• Hence such rock will not behave homogeneously under stress,
resulting into development of cracks or fissures which develops
in cementing material.
• If the cement is Calcium Carbonate- it is undesirable, because
it is susceptible to dissolve in Carbon-dioxide in water
• However, if cementation process continuous for longer span of
time= cementation will become more complete, which reduce
the porosity and permeability in the rock mass and increase
competence.
• Shape of grains: i.e. if coarser grains are rounded or
subrounded=cement material will not have firm grip=such
rocks behave as incompetent rocks
• SANDSTONE:
• Made up of sand grains dominantly of Quartz and
Feldspars, where quartz is highly resistive to
weathering
• Cementation plays similar role in this rock as seen in
conglomerate
• However, Siliceous cement are best and highly desirable
for CE purposes, also the ferruginous sst.
Different type of Sst. (based on their composition)
Quartz Sst.
Arkose (Feldspar)
Graywacke/lithic arenite
SHALE
• Shales are clastic rocks, made up
mainly fine silt/clay
• They are most abundant
sedimentary rocks, accounts for
about 80% of them
• Often contain fossils
• Mostly hydrous aluminum
silicate in composition = from
weathered feldspars
• Deposition takes place under low
fluvial regime or under weak
water current. Eg. Offshore or in
Lagoon
Shale-fissile
• Shales are made of fine well sorted silt and clayey sediments, where
normally one can expect high porosity and permeability.
•But due to surface tension phenomenon of water and extremely fine
intergranular space shales are impermeable, hence does not yield water
when tapped
• When shales are saturated with water – under pressure they
are likely to produce slippery foundation for any structure-
therefore not suitable for CE structures
• eg. Lafayette dam of US constructed on argillaceous rocks
sunk by 20 feet.
• Srisailam Dam in Andhra Pradesh (One of the 12th largest
Hydroelectric Projects in the India) faced similar problem,
however, precautions were take by grouting to stop the
seepage along the weak zones.
• Because of its impermeable and porous nature it acts as cap
rocks in the occurrence of Oil and Gas.
CE IMPORTANCE
EVAPORITIC ROCKS
These rocks are formed within the a depositional basin
from chemical substances dissolved in the seawater or
lake water.
Gypsum Halite
(NaCl)
CaSO4.2H20
Economic importance of Evaporites
• SALT: other then daily use of salt for cooking, it
is used
• For production of Paper,
• Soap
• Detergents
• Antiseptics
• As chemical for dyeing etc.
• GYPSUM: is used for plaster and in
manufacturing construction materials.
• Limestone: It is a non-clastic rock formed either
chemically or due to precipitation of calcite (CaCO3)
from organisms usually (shell). These remains will result
in formation of a limestone.
• Limestones formed by chemical precipitation are usually
fine grained, whereas, in case of organic limestone the
grain size vary depending upon the type of organism
responsible for the formation
– Chalk: which is made up of foraminefera is very fine grained
– Fossiliferous Limestone: which medium to coarse grained, as it
is formed out of cementation of Shells.
CARBONATE ROCKS
• used as a building stone and in the manufacture of lime, carbon
dioxide, and cement.
• Massive and compact lst. Are competent to support CE-structure
• However, if it occur in huge thickness then it is not advisable,
because of its typical CAVING character.
Chalk
Sedimentary structures
• Bedding is most imp.
Feature of a sed. Rock
• Beds are usually > 1 cm
• Laminae < 1 cm
• Orientation of bedding
helps in knowing the
paleo-current direction
of the old rivers
GRADED BEDDING
Fine gravelly lithounit
Medium-coarse sandy
lithounit (cross stratified)
Laminated layers of fine silt and clay
Cross-stratified sst.
Paleo-flow from
right to left
Typical cross stratification in
Sand Dunes
Ripple marks
Foot prints
Biogenic structures
Snake Trails
Mud cracks

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sed_ce242.ppt

  • 2. Transportation of sediments and formation of sedimentary rocks by mode of river water- deposition on the continent and on the ocean floor. Marine deposits Fluvial deposits
  • 3.
  • 4. • Almost 90% of earth crust is made up of igneous rocks • 75% of land surface on the earth is covered by thin veneer of sediments or sedimentary rocks. • These sediments are transported and deposited by river water, wind or by movement of glacial ice. Transportation is either in suspension or in solution. • When settle down on the beds of ocean, river and lakes undergo compaction/cementation for millions of years to form SEDIMENTARY ROCKS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS: are the secondary rocks which are formed from the loose fragments or detrital or clastic sediments produced by weathering of older rocks.
  • 5. IMPORTANCE OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK “Present is the key to the past” • Helps in knowing depositional environment viz. marine (ocean deposits), fluvial (river deposits), aeolian (wind deposits), glacial, estuarine, Lacustrine (lake deposits) etc. • Helps in knowing the provenance (i.e. source area of the sediments); change in climatic conditions i.e. in knowing and understanding old climate=paleoclimate.
  • 6. • Sandstones • Conglomerates • Breccia • Shale/mudstones TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Clastic rocks Chemical & Organic rocks Evaporitic rocks These rocks are formed due to evaporation of saline water (sea water) eg. Gypsum, Halit (rock salt) Carbonate rocks Form basically from CaCO3 – both by chemical leaching and by organic source (biochemical) eg. Limestone; dolomite Organic rocks Form due to decomposition of organic remains under temperature and pressure eg. Coal/Lignite etc.
  • 7. • formed from broken rock fragments weathered and eroded by river, glacier, wind and sea waves. These clastic sediments are found deposited on floodplains, beaches, in desert and on the sea floors. CLASTIC ROCKS Clastic rocks solidify • Clastic rocks are classified on the basis of the grain size: conglomerate, sandstone, shale etc.
  • 8. GRAIN SIZE Gravel >256-2 mm Sand 2- 0.062 mm Clay <0.004 mm Silt 0.062-0.004 mm Boulder: >256mm Cobble: 64-256 mm Pebble: 4-64 mm Granule: 2-4mm Fine gravel
  • 9. • Clastic rocks mainly comprise broken fragment of older rock – they are also know as Terrigenous rocks
  • 10. Any rock fragment (size is > 4 mm=Pebble) Fine-gravel/ Granule (size <4mm) Matrix: is the finer grains or material that surrounds the larger clasts. It consist of either clay, silt and sand. Cement: dissolved substance that bounds the sediments. 1. Calcareous 2. siliceous
  • 11. Degree of roundness helps in knowing the distance of transportation •Angular clasts- short distance transport from the source •Rounded clasts- long distance transport
  • 12. When clastic fragments are cemented or undergo consolidation they are called CONGLOMERATES Similarly when angular clasts undergo consolidation they are called BRECCIA
  • 13. Sorting of the sediments also suggest the mode of deposition and transportation. Long distance transport= well-rounded and well-sorted sediments, Short distance transport = poorly sorted angular grains. Also helps in knowing the energy conditions of the river.
  • 14.
  • 15. DIFFERENT CATERGORIES OF CLASTIC ROCKS • RUDACEOUS ROCKS: made up of rounded or sub- rounded Pebbles and cobbles eg. conglomerate • ARENACEOUS ROCKS: made up of mainly sand eg. Sandstone. These rocks are either accumulated by wind action or deposited under water action or marine or lake environment • ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS: made up of clay size sediments eg. Shale, mudstones, siltstones.
  • 16. IMPORTANCE • CONGLOMERATE comprise clastic sediments like pebbles and cobbles (heterogeneous) • If the cementation is good (voids between the clasts) = then the conglomerate will be hard and competent hence act as strong foundation, but not good rock for ground water source. • However, if the cementation is poor = it makes the rock more porous with high porosity = act as good reserve for ground water (aquifer), but is undesirable at the site for foundation of major CE structures. • Due to heavy seepage along the conglomerate may result in failure by sliding. Eg. Failure of St. Francis dam, US.
  • 17. Cementation: • Cementing material is usually secondary Silica (Siliceous cement), Calcium carbonate (Carbonate cement), Iron rich (ferruginous cement) • Cement itself to some extent is the source of weakness in the sedimentary rocks • Because cementing material and the clastic sediments are usually of different composition, leading to heterogeneity in their physical characteristics.
  • 18. • Hence such rock will not behave homogeneously under stress, resulting into development of cracks or fissures which develops in cementing material. • If the cement is Calcium Carbonate- it is undesirable, because it is susceptible to dissolve in Carbon-dioxide in water • However, if cementation process continuous for longer span of time= cementation will become more complete, which reduce the porosity and permeability in the rock mass and increase competence. • Shape of grains: i.e. if coarser grains are rounded or subrounded=cement material will not have firm grip=such rocks behave as incompetent rocks
  • 19. • SANDSTONE: • Made up of sand grains dominantly of Quartz and Feldspars, where quartz is highly resistive to weathering • Cementation plays similar role in this rock as seen in conglomerate • However, Siliceous cement are best and highly desirable for CE purposes, also the ferruginous sst.
  • 20. Different type of Sst. (based on their composition) Quartz Sst. Arkose (Feldspar) Graywacke/lithic arenite
  • 21. SHALE • Shales are clastic rocks, made up mainly fine silt/clay • They are most abundant sedimentary rocks, accounts for about 80% of them • Often contain fossils • Mostly hydrous aluminum silicate in composition = from weathered feldspars • Deposition takes place under low fluvial regime or under weak water current. Eg. Offshore or in Lagoon Shale-fissile • Shales are made of fine well sorted silt and clayey sediments, where normally one can expect high porosity and permeability. •But due to surface tension phenomenon of water and extremely fine intergranular space shales are impermeable, hence does not yield water when tapped
  • 22. • When shales are saturated with water – under pressure they are likely to produce slippery foundation for any structure- therefore not suitable for CE structures • eg. Lafayette dam of US constructed on argillaceous rocks sunk by 20 feet. • Srisailam Dam in Andhra Pradesh (One of the 12th largest Hydroelectric Projects in the India) faced similar problem, however, precautions were take by grouting to stop the seepage along the weak zones. • Because of its impermeable and porous nature it acts as cap rocks in the occurrence of Oil and Gas. CE IMPORTANCE
  • 23. EVAPORITIC ROCKS These rocks are formed within the a depositional basin from chemical substances dissolved in the seawater or lake water. Gypsum Halite (NaCl) CaSO4.2H20
  • 24. Economic importance of Evaporites • SALT: other then daily use of salt for cooking, it is used • For production of Paper, • Soap • Detergents • Antiseptics • As chemical for dyeing etc. • GYPSUM: is used for plaster and in manufacturing construction materials.
  • 25. • Limestone: It is a non-clastic rock formed either chemically or due to precipitation of calcite (CaCO3) from organisms usually (shell). These remains will result in formation of a limestone. • Limestones formed by chemical precipitation are usually fine grained, whereas, in case of organic limestone the grain size vary depending upon the type of organism responsible for the formation – Chalk: which is made up of foraminefera is very fine grained – Fossiliferous Limestone: which medium to coarse grained, as it is formed out of cementation of Shells. CARBONATE ROCKS
  • 26. • used as a building stone and in the manufacture of lime, carbon dioxide, and cement. • Massive and compact lst. Are competent to support CE-structure • However, if it occur in huge thickness then it is not advisable, because of its typical CAVING character. Chalk
  • 27. Sedimentary structures • Bedding is most imp. Feature of a sed. Rock • Beds are usually > 1 cm • Laminae < 1 cm • Orientation of bedding helps in knowing the paleo-current direction of the old rivers
  • 29. Fine gravelly lithounit Medium-coarse sandy lithounit (cross stratified)
  • 30. Laminated layers of fine silt and clay Cross-stratified sst. Paleo-flow from right to left