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Playing in the Dirt!:
                            A Module on Soil and
                               Rocks and their
                           Connection to the Plant &
                              Animal Kingdom




        Third Grade

Science Topic: Soil and Rocks

Authors: Kate Chelak, Ericca
 Dent, and Rob Schupbach

     November 6, 2011
Schedule

                        Day 1:                  Day 2:                 Day 3:                   Day 4:               Day 5:
                         Soil                    Soil                   Soil                 Soil Erosion          Soil Erosion
                      Exploration             Exploration            Exploration

  Daily Question:     What is soil made         What are the              How do                What are the         How can soil
                             of?              different types of     earthworms help         effects of weather        erosion be
                                                     soil?                  soil?                 on soil?            prevented?
Learning Outcomes:   Students will learn      Students will be          Students will           Students will        Students will
                     that soil is made of    able to identify the      understand the         understand what      determine the best
                      worn-down rocks           layers of soil.          symbiotic            happens to loose     methods to prevent
                     (pebbles, sand, silt,    (Subsoil, humus,          relationship        soil on a windy day.      soil erosion.
                        and clay) and         bedrock, topsoil)           between
                      decaying matter.                                earthworms and
                                                                            soil.
    Activities:      Students will collect      Students will       Students will set up     Students in small        Students, with
                     soil from outside of    examine the layers         a worm bin.             groups will        their wind erosion
                       the schoolhouse.       of soil in a precut                            construct a wind         recorders, will
                                               section of soil.                              erosion recorder.       investigate wind
                                                                                                                   erosion prevention
                                                                                                                         methods.
 Assessment Plan:      Participation in         Students will              Student              Lab jobs will        Students will be
                          classroom           complete an exit        participation in         identified and         assessed on the
                     discussion and soil     card to identify the    creating the worm       distributed among     creative ways that
                     collection. Students       layers of soil.     bin and reflecting in     group members.          they determine
                       will document                                    their science                              how wind erosion
                                                                           journal.                                 can be prevented.
Day 6:                Day 7:                  Day 8:                   Day 9:               Day 10:
                        Growing             Properties of             Breaking                 Growing              Making Soil
                        Crystals               Rocks                   Rocks                   Crystals

  Daily Question:    How can you grow        Can you identify         How do rocks          Can you describe         How can you
                        crystals?              rocks by their         break apart?         the characteristics      model soil layers
                                               properties and                                  of different           with food?
                                             characteristics of                                 crystals?
                                                how they are
                                                  formed?
Learning Outcomes:     Students will be      Students, using a        Students will           Students will         Students will sum
                      introduced to how       rock field guide,    explore the ways in      examine crystals       up their knowledge
                     crystals are formed.      will be able to      which rocks can        and their properties.    gained in this unit
                                            identify three types      break apart.                                   by creating their
                                                   of rocks                                                          own soil model.
                                               (metamorphic,
                                             sedimentary, and
                                                  igneous).
    Activities:         Under teacher       Using hand lenses,       Students will be       Students will use         Students will
                         supervision,           students will         engaged in an          hand lenses to         create models of
                     students will create    examine different      exploration of the       investigate the        soil layers using
                     crystals using three   types of rocks with    school grounds and         formation of         chocolate pudding,
                     different solutions.     sight and touch.     will participate in a        crystals.          Oreo cookies, and
                                                                    group discussion                                gummy worms.
                                                                   about the rocks they
                                                                        collected.
 Assessment Plan:    Safety officers will    Observations in        Group discussions        Students will be         Accuracy and
                     monitor cooperative    science notebooks        will be assessed        assessed on their      creativity will be
                         groups for          will be assessed.         based on the          discussion of the       assessed in the
                      compliance with                              engaging discourse       various properties      models made by
                      determined rules.                             between students.       and characteristics         students.
                                                                                           of crystal formation.
Overview

             Theme: What is soil and how does it affect the animal and plant
                                       kingdom?

    Virginia Standards of Learning:
3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
a) predictions and observations are made;
b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets;
c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses;
g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph);
j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and
k) natural events are sequenced chronologically.

Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems
3.7 The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and
importance to plants and animals including humans. Key concepts include
a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth;
b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock;
c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and
d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved.

Essential Understandings, Knowledge, and Skills
The students should be able to
       • observe and recognize that soil, as a natural resource, provides
       the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth;
       • explain how soil forms over time;
       • analyze and describe the different components of soil,
       including rock fragments, clay, silt, sand, and humus;
       • comprehend the key terminology related to soil, including
       humus, nutrients, topsoil, and bedrock;
       • interpret and illustrate a basic diagram showing major soil
       layers, including bedrock, subsoil, and topsoil;
       • design an investigation to compare how different types of soil
       affect plant growth. This includes organizing data in tables and
       constructing simple graphs;
       • collect, chart, and analyze data on soil conservation on the
       school grounds;
       • evaluate the importance of soil to people;
       • describe how soil can be conserved.

    National Science Education Standards
Content Standard A:
As a result of their activities in grades K-4, all students should develop
       • Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
       • Understanding about scientific inquiry

Content Standard D:
As a result of their activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of
       • Properties of earth materials
       • Objects in the sky
       • Changes in earth and sky

Content Standard F:
As a result of their activities in grades K-4, all students should develop understanding of
       • Personal health
       • Characteristics and changes in population
       • Types of resources
       • Changes in environments
       • Science and technology in local challenges

Teaching Standard B:
Teachers of science guide and facilitate learning. In doing this, teachers
      • Focus and support inquiries while interacting with students.
      • Orchestrate discourse among students about scientific ideas.
      • Challenge students to accept and share responsibility for their own learning.
      • Recognize and respond to student diversity and encourage all students to participate
      fully in science learning.
      • Encourage and model the skills of scientific inquiry, as well as the curiosity, openness
      to new ideas and data, and skepticism that characterize science.

Teaching Standard C:
Teachers of science engage in ongoing assessment of their teaching and of student learning. In
doing this, teachers
       • Use multiple methods and systematically gather data about student understanding and
       ability.
       • Analyze assessment data to guide teaching.
       • Guide students in self-assessment.
       • Use student data, observations of teaching, and interactions with colleagues to reflect on
       and improve teaching practice.
       • Use student data, observations of teaching, and interactions with colleagues to report
       student achievement and opportunities to learn to students, teachers, parents, policy
       makers, and the general public.

Teaching Standard D:
Teachers of science design and manage learning environments that provide students with the
time, space, and resources needed for learning science. In doing this, teachers
• Structure the time available so that students are able to engage in extended
       investigations.
       • Create a setting for student work that is flexible and supportive of science inquiry.
       • Ensure a safe working environment.
       • Make the available science tools, materials, media, and technological resources
       accessible to students.
       • Identify and use resources outside the school.
       • Engage students in designing the learning environment.

Teaching Standard E:
Teachers of science develop communities of science learners that reflect the intellectual rigor of
scientific inquiry and the attitudes and social values conducive to science learning. In doing this,
teachers
        • Display and demand respect for the diverse ideas, skills, and experiences of all students.
        • Enable students to have a significant voice in decisions about the content and context of
        their work and require students to take responsibility for the learning of all members of
        the community.
        • Nurture collaboration among students.
        • Structure and facilitate ongoing formal and informal discussion based on a shared
        understanding of rules of scientific discourse.
        • Model and emphasize the skills, attitudes, and values of scientific inquiry.

    Description of Students

    This unit is designed for a 3rd grade class of 24 students at Matoaka Elementary School in
Williamsburg, Va. The students range in age from 8 to 9. Demographically, there are three
minority students in the class. There are two students who will need assistance with writing in
their science journal and completing science worksheets. During the science period, the Special
Education teacher comes to aid the students with these activities.

    Connectivity

Day-to-day: The first week of the unit focuses on the make-up of soil and soil erosion. The
lessons for days 1-3 explore the components of soil, the layers of soil, and how earthworms help
the soil. Students are first introduced to what soil is and how it is important before the impact of
soil erosion can be understood. Soil erosion is then explored in days 4-5. These three lessons
connect to lessons for days 4-5. The second week of the unit focuses on rocks (which is a
composition of soil). Days 7-8 focus on the properties of rocks and how rocks become part of the
soil. These two lessons connect to days 1-3 when students learn the components of soil. Day 10
connects to days 1-9 by allowing students to demonstrate the knowledge they gained over the
two weeks.
Connection to Students: Students are surrounded by soil, and it is important for students to look
at soil as more than just dirt. Students will see the importance of objects in their environment that
may are usually overlooked (soil, earthworms and rocks). Most students have had experiences
playing in soil or with rocks and the opportunity to work with soil and rocks in the classroom
will motivate students. Also having the opportunity to grow crystals and create an edible model
soil model will interest students.



    Nature of Science and Inquiry-based activities
    The nature of science is addressed in our lessons on days one, two, four, five, seven, and ten.
On Day 1 the students are introduced to a different method of science (observation) than is
typically thought of, use empirical evidence in their observations (using hand lenses to determine
the composition of soil), and base their conclusions on evidence (see what the soil looks like to
determine what it is made up of). On Day 2 the nature of science is addressed through the use of
empirical evidence (identifying the layers of soil using sight) and by using another method
(geologists stratify soil to gather information). The nature of science is addressed on Day 4
through observation and inference. On Days 5 and 10, the nature of science is seen in the
creative aspect of the lessons. The nature of science on Day 7 revolves around the use of hand
lenses to identify rocks (empirical evidence).
     All of our lessons are inquiry-based and all of them are hands-on activities. Days 1 through 9
(90%) are authentic as well. Day 10 is the only lesson that is not authentic because food
(pudding, Oreo cookies, gummy worms, etc.) is used to model soil layers. All of the other
lessons use real science/natural materials to encourage students to explore and think about soil.


    Technology and Safety
Technology will be utilized throughout the module. Access to a computer, projector, and
document camera is required for the lessons plans, particularly for Lesson 4 when teacher-tube is
accessed. Most of the lessons are hands-on, authentic activities not requiring the use of
technology.

Safety will be monitored both by instructor and by students. Each cooperative group will have
one student as the Care and Safety Officer for every day of the unit. When necessary, each
station will be equipped with a bottle of hand sanitizer, paper towels, newspapers, and an extra
set of goggles. When working outside, as occurs in lessons 1 and 8, students will treat the
outdoors as a classroom, following the outdoor classroom rules (stay together, listen to each
other, and respect plants and animals).
Daily Lesson Plans

Lesson Plan Days #1-3: Soil Exploration
Topic: Investigating Soil                                                   Day: 1-3
NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E              Grade level: 3rd
SOL:
3.1     The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
        a) predictions and observations are made;
        b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets;
        c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses;
        g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph);
        j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and
        k) natural events are sequenced chronologically.
3.7     The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals
        including humans. Key concepts include
        a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth;
        b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock;
        c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and
        d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved.
                                                                              Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems
Daily Question: What is soil?
What are the different types of soil?

   Procedures for Learning Experience              Guiding Questions            Materials           Evaluation       Approximate
                                                                                Needed            (Assessment)       Time Needed
Engagement: Gather the students’ attention            What is soil?                            Observation of       5 min.
and explain that today you are going to be                                                     discussion
talking about soil. Ask them ―what is soil?‖   What can you find in soil?                      participation (see
and ―what can you find in soil?‖ After                                                         rubric)
fielding a few answers, explain to the
students that today we are going to find out
what soil is made up of. (If someone gives
the ―correct‖ answer – that soil is composed
of worn-down rocks and decaying plants and
animals – then say something along the lines
of ―Interesting idea. Let’s test it out.‖)
Exploration: Explain that today they will be      3 plastic      Observation of soil     20 min.
taking samples of soil from around the            containers for activity (see rubric)
school and then examining the soil to see         each pair
what soil is made up of. Students will be
paired for this activity. After pairing off the   3 spoons for
students, give each pair the position cards       each pair
and explain that they will need to decide who
is the Communications Specialist                  science
(responsible for recording observations and       journals
reporting them) and who is the Investigator
(responsible for collecting the soil samples).
Both students are responsible for examining
the soil samples. Once they have done this,
remind the students that the outdoors
classroom has the same rules as the indoor
classroom. Tell them that they will be going
to three different sites, and that at each site
they will collect a small soil sample and put
it in their cups. Tell them to use a spoon to
collect the sample, and to use a different
spoon for each sample to avoid
contamination. Then have the pairs gather
their supplies for collecting (three clear
plastic containers and three spoons), and go
outside to the first location. Collect samples
from all three locations, having the
Communications Specialist record
observations of the site while the Investigator
collects the soil sample. Then return inside.
Tell the students to examine each of the
samples carefully, and to record what they
see in the soil. Walk around the room
observing and assisting as necessary.
Explanation: Once all the students have             What did you find in the   Observation of       10 min.
examined their soil samples and recorded                soil samples?          discussion
their observations, gather their attention                                     participation (see
again. Ask them what they observed. What           Was it what you expected?   rubric)
was in the soil samples? Was it what you
expected What does this tell you about what         What does this tell you
is in soil? Allow the students to lead the          about what is in soil?
discussion. Direct the discussion toward the
common features the students found in each
sample. Make a chart listing those common
features. Explain the main components of
soil: worn-down rocks and decaying plants
and animals. Tell the students that a lot of the
other things they saw in the soil help the soil
to be nutritious for plants (see ―notes‖ for
more information).
Extension: Ask the students ―Are the                Are the different soil                      Observation of         5 min.
different soil samples the same? What makes          samples the same?                          discussion
them different? What do you think this tells                                                    participation (see
you about soil?‖ Make a chart listing those           What makes them                           rubric)
differences, and explain that there are three            different?
types of soil: sand, silt, and clay. The
differences are based on how fine the            What do you think this tells
particles are ground up (sand having the              you about soil?
largest particles and clay the finest).


Notes: Soil makes up the outermost layer of our planet. Topsoil is the most productive soil layer. Soil has varying amounts of organic
matter (living and dead organisms), minerals, and nutrients. Five tons of topsoil spread over an acre is only as thick as a dime. Natural
processes can take more than 500 years to form one inch of topsoil. Soil scientists have identified over 70,000 kinds of soil in the
United States. Soil is formed from rocks and decaying plants and animals. An average soil sample is 45 percent minerals, 25 percent
water, 25 percent air, and five percent organic matter. Different-sized mineral particles, such as sand, silt, and clay, give soil its
texture. Fungi and bacteria help break down organic matter in the soil. Plant roots and lichens break up rocks which become part of
new soil. Roots loosen the soil, allowing oxygen to penetrate. This benefits animals living in the soil. Roots hold soil together and help
prevent erosion. Five to 10 tons of animal life can live in an acre of soil. Earthworms digest organic matter, recycle nutrients, and
make the surface soil richer. Mice take seeds and other plant materials into underground burrows, where this material eventually
decays and becomes part of the soil. Mice, moles, and shrews dig burrows which help aerate the soil.

Sources: http://www.epa.gov/gmpo/edresources/soil.htm
http://www.math.louisville.edu/gems/LessonPlans/SoilLessonPlan.pdf
Soil Exploration: Layers of Soil


Name: _______________________Date:_________________


   Label the soil layers in the diagram, using the following terms:

                                subsoil

                                humus

                                bedrock

                                topsoil
Lesson Plan Days #1-3: Soil Exploration
Topic: Soil Exploration                                                   Day: 3
NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E            Grade level: 3rd
SOL:
3.1     The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
        a) predictions and observations are made;
        b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets;
        c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses;
        g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph);
        j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and
        k) natural events are sequenced chronologically.
3.7     The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals
        including humans. Key concepts include
        a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth;
        b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock;
        c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and
        d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved.
                                                                              Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems
Daily Question: How do earthworms help soil?

    Procedures for Learning Experience             Guiding Questions         Materials           Evaluation         Approximate
                                                                             Needed             (Assessment)        Time Needed
Engagement: Gather the students’ attention and          What are                             Observation of        5 min.
explain that today you are going to be talking        earthworms?                            discussion
about earthworms. Ask them ―what are                                                         participation (see
earthworms?‖ and ―how do earthworms help           How do earthworms                         rubric)
soil?‖ and ―what does composting mean?‖ After          help soil?
fielding a few answers, explain to the students
that today we are going to make a worm bin and         What does
that by observing the worm bin every day for a         “composting” mean?
few weeks we will find out more about
earthworms. (If someone gives the ―correct‖
answer – that earthworms help aerate soil and
produce good fertilizer by eating soil – then say
something along the lines of ―Interesting idea.
Let’s make a worm bin to test out your
hypothesis.‖)
Exploration: Explain that today each group                                  1 large plastic     Observation of     15 min.
will be making a worm bin. (Students will be                                tub (5+ gallons)    penny experiment
grouped into fours.) Give each group the                                    with lid per        (see rubric)
position cards and explain that each group will                             group
need to pick a Communications Specialist
(responsible for recording observations and                                 shredded
reporting them), a Materials Manager                                        newspaper
(responsible for gathering the needed supplies),
a Safety Officer (responsible for making sure                               tub of red
everyone is being safe), and a Principal                                    wigglers
Investigator (responsible for relaying
instructions from the teacher, helping                                      1 cup of soil per
teammates when needed, and making sure                                      group
everyone knows what to do and is
participating). Once they have done this, call the                          ½ cup sand per
Principle Investigators (PIs) up and give them                              group
the list of materials for the materials manager.
Also tell them that their first direction is to tear                        vegetables/other
the newspaper into strips (show them an                                     organic items
example), and to come back to you when they                                 (worm food)
are done. Walk around the room observing and
assisting. When the PIs start to come back to
you, tell them to fill half of the container with
shredded newspaper and to put a tablespoon of
soil and a half-cup of sand in as well. Tell them
to come back to you when they have finished.
Walk around the room observing and assisting.
When the PIs come back to you, tell them to
mix everything up and then to bury the worm
food half way into the newspaper. Tell them to
choose some of the ―random objects‖ they have
in their collection and to put those in the worm
bin. Tell them to come back to you when
they’re done. Walk around the room observing
and assisting. When the PIs come back to you
tell them to put the worms in the container and
to observe/take notes on what they see.
Explanation: Once all the students have had a       What did the worms     Observation of       10 min.
chance to observe their worm bins for five                 do?             discussion
minutes, gather their attention again. Ask them                            participation (see
what they observed. What did the worms do?          What do you think is   rubric)
What do you think is going to happen to the          going to happen to
newspaper? The worm wood? The worms? The            the newspaper? The
plastic caps/pieces of wood/peanuts in the shell?     worm wood? The
Allow the students to lead the discussion. Direct   worms? The plastic
the discussion toward how the students think           caps/pieces of
earthworms might help the soil that they have       wood/peanuts in the
put in the containers. Then explain to the                 shell?
students that over the next two weeks they will
be observing the worms and what happens to
them.




Extension: Have the students observe their           What changes do they worm bins               Observation of         10 min.
worm bins for a few minutes at the start of           notice over time?                           project
every science class. Then lead them in a                                                          participation and
discussion about what they have observed.            How long does it take                        discussion
                                                         the worms to                             participation (see
                                                     consume the food you                         rubric)
                                                          give them?

                                                       Are there certain
                                                      foods they seem to
                                                      prefer over others?

                                                     Is there anything the
                                                       worms won't eat
                                                     (plastic caps, wood,
                                                     peanut in the shell)?

Notes: Earthworms dig large burrows which let water and air into the soil. This helps stop erosion and lets the water and air get down
to the roots of plants. The burrows also helps plant roots to move more easily through the soil and into new spaces. Worms drag leaves
and plant bits down into the earth. As they burrow, the worms swallow soil and eat the plant matter that is in it. The soil they swallow
passes though the worm's body and is left in little piles on top of the ground. This is called castings and is excellent fertilizer (food for
plants). People who farm worms do it to collect the castings to sell to gardeners.
Sources: http://archive.fieldmuseum.org/undergroundadventure/teachers/worm_bins.shtml
Rubric: Soil Exploration—How do earthworms help soil?

                  Discussion Participation          Participation in Worm Bin              Scientific Concepts and
                                                            Creation                           Related Content

                  Displays little to no              Makes little to no effort to        No use, or mostly inappropriate
                  understanding of earthworms        complete tasks for the worm bin.    use, of scientific terminology.
                  and composting during              Occasionally or never follows       No mention or inappropriate
                  discussion.                        directions.                         references to the relevant
                  Does not volunteer information     Cannot state what the worm bin      scientific concepts, principles, or
   Novice         on earthworms and composting       taught him/her about earthworms     theories (big ideas) of earthworms
                  during discussion.                 and composting when asked.          and composting.
                  Listens infrequently when                                              Some evidence of understanding
                  others are talking during                                              observable characteristics and
                  discussion.                                                            properties of earthworms and
                                                                                         composting.
                  Displays a fractured               Makes an effort to complete tasks   Used some relevant scientific
                  understanding of earthworms        for the worm bin.                   terminology.
                  and composting during              Follows directions for the worm     Minimal reference to relevant
                  discussion, but also displays a    bin.                                scientific concepts, principles, or
                  willingness to learn.              Can vaguely state what the worm     theories (big ideas) of earthworms
 Apprentice
                  Volunteers information on          bin taught him/her about            and composting.
                  earthworms and composting          earthworms and composting when      Evidence of understanding
                  during discussion.                 asked.                              observable characteristics and
                  Mostly listens when others are                                         properties of earthworms and
                  talking during discussion.                                             composting.
                  Displays an understanding of       Makes a determined effort to        Appropriately used scientific
                  earthworms and composting          complete tasks for the worm bin.    terminology.
                  during discussion.                 Follows directions for the worm     Provided evidence of
Practitioner
                  Volunteers astute and relevant     bin.                                understanding of relevant
                  information on earthworms and      Can clearly state what the worm     scientific concepts, principles or
                  composting during discussion.      bin taught him/her about            theories (big ideas) of earthworms
Listens attentively when others    earthworms and composting when     and composting.
         are talking during discussion.     asked.                             Evidence of understanding
                                                                               observable characteristics and
                                                                               properties of earthworms and
                                                                               composting.
         Displays an excellent              Makes a clear and determined       Precisely and appropriately used
         understanding of earthworms        effort to complete tasks for the   scientific terminology.
         and composting during              worm bin.                          Provided evidence of in depth,
         discussion.                        Follows directions for the worm    sophisticated understanding of
         Volunteers astute, relevant, and   bin.                               relevant scientific concepts,
         novel information on               Volunteers and can clearly state   principles or theories (big ideas)
         earthworms and composting          what the worm bin taught him/her   of earthworms and composting.
Expert
         during discussion.                 about earthworms and               Revised prior misconceptions
         Listens attentively when others    composting.                        when appropriate.
         are talking during discussion                                         Observable characteristics and
         and then responds to what they                                        properties of earthworms and
         said.                                                                 composting went beyond the
                                                                               task/investigation to make other
                                                                               connections or extend thinking.
Lesson Plan Day #4-5: Soil Erosion
   Topic: Soil Erosion                                                       Day: 4-5
   NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E            Grade level: 3rd
   SOL:
   3.1     The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
           a) predictions and observations are made;
           b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets;
           c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses;
           g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph);
           j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and
           k) natural events are sequenced chronologically.
   3.7     The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals
           including humans. Key concepts include
           a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth;
           b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock;
           c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and
           d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved.
                                                                                 Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems
   Daily Question: What are the effects of weather on soil?

   Procedures for Learning Experience               Guiding Questions              Materials Needed          Evaluation        Approxi
                                                                                                            (Assessment)        mate
                                                                                                                                Time
                                                                                                                               Needed
Engagement: Begin with the video ―Wind         Why do you think the soil was     ―Water Erosion and the   The teacher will    7 minutes
Erosion and the American Dustbowl‖ (2:44-      able to move around like that?    American Dustbowl‖       walk around and
5:00). Have students watch the video, and         Do you think the farmers       http://www.teachertube   listen to the
then discuss in groups of four what they        thought this would happen?       .com/viewVideo.php?v     group
observed in the video and how it applies to     What effects did this have on    ideo_id=147083&title=    discussions
us today.                                             people? Animals?           Wind_Erosion_and_the     making note if
                                                                                 _American_Dustbowl       the students are
on task, and the
                                                                                                                    ideas that are
                                                                                                                    formulated.


Exploration:The teacher will explain to the           What were the effects of wind     Wind erosion recorder       The teacher will     25
students that they will be simulating (on a           on the soil/sand? What effect     materials: Shoeboxes        walk around to       minutes
smaller scale) what they observed in the             did the “trees” and rocks have     with lids, clay, popsicle   see if students
video. Students will be placed in groups of          on this process? If you wanted     sticks, sand, dry soil,     have created
four. Each group will be given wind erosion          to prevent erosion, what could     rocks, tape, straws (for    their wind
recorder materials. Have students poke a            you do? Discuss your ideas with     each student).              erosion recorder.
pole in one short side of their shoebox. Have        your group. Make a prediction                                  The teacher will
students push each popsicle stick in a ball of        for what will happen if there     Observation sheet,          listen to the
clay to stand up at the bottom of their             are no trees/rocks? Is the effect   markers, pencils, ruler     group
shoebox. Place a thin layer of sand and soil                better or worse?                                        discussion, and
at the bottom of the shoebox. Scatter rocks at                                                                      will later collect
the bottom as well. Have students mark on                                                                           the observation
each craft stick the level of the sand or soil.                                                                     sheets for
Now have students draw a picture of how                                                                             summative
their diagram looks. Have students place the                                                                        assessment.
lid on top of their shoebox and tape it closed.
Have students take turns blowing once
through the hole with their straw (remind
students not to shake the box). After each
round of students, have them mark where the
sand or soil is on the stick in different colors.
After they have made their observations,
have students repeat the activity without
rocks and trees. Record observations.
Explanation: Soil erosion occurs when the          How do you think water erosion     Observation sheet        The teacher will   10
upper part of the soil cover is washed or          is similar to or different than                             listen to          minutes
blown away by rain and wind. Soil erosion is       wind erosion? Record your                                   students’
a problem in almost every county. There is         thoughts. Is soil a natural                                 responses.
evidence that human activity is accelerating       resource? What are ways the
the erosion of the Earth’s soil. Soil erosion is   soil erodes naturally, and how
an important environmental issue because           do humans accelerate this
humans depend on the soil for food, forestry,      process? Who/what depends on
and wildlife.                                      the soil, and in what way?
Extension: Have students use their erosion         Besides natural objects (trees     Pebbles, small sticks,   The teacher will   20
diagram to come up with ways to prevent            and rocks) are there other         gravel, mud, clay, and   listen to group    minutes
erosion. Have students create a sand hill, and     things that can be used to         water.                   discussions and
repeat the above activity. Then have students      prevent wind erosion? Why do                                make note of the
use additional materials to see if they can        you think trees can help prevent                            objects being
slow down erosion.                                 wind erosion? Do any of the                                 used by each
                                                   objects provided slow erosion?                              group.
                                                   If so, which objects work
                                                   best/least? Discuss with your
                                                   group. Record observation.

   Notes:
   Soil-Net (2010). Soil erosion. Retrieved from
          http://www.soil-net.com/dev/page.cfm?pageid=secondary_threats_erosion

   GK-12 Fellows Program (2010). Wind erosion and how we can prevent it. Retrieved from http://gk-
   12.osu.edu/Lessons/4th%20Grade/Wind%20Erosion%204.pdf

   Teacher Tube (2010). Wind erosion and the American dustbowl. Retrieved from
         http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=147083&title=Wind_Erosion_and_the_American_Dustbowl

   California Science Center (2011). Post visit activity: Wind erosion. Retrieved from
          http://www.californiasciencecenter.org/Education/GroupPrograms/BigLab/Erosion/docs/ ErosionPost.pdf
Soil Erosion
Record the level of sand or soil in your wind erosion recorder.

_____________centimeters



                   Draw a picture of your wind erosion recorder.




Record the level of sand or soil in your wind erosion recorder after the first round.


______________centimeters
Record the level of sand or soil in your wind erosion recorder after the second
round.


______________centimeters
Record the level of sand or soil in your wind erosion recorder without trees or
rocks after round one.


______________centimeters
Record the level of sand or soil in your wind erosion recorder without trees or
rocks after round two.


______________centimeters
What do you notice?


______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
Preventing Soil Erosion
What are ways soil erosion can be prevented?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________


Why do you think these ways will prevent soil erosion?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________


                   Using the given materials, test your methods.


Were you able to help prevent or slow down soil erosion with your method? Why
do you think this method worked or did not work?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
Lesson Plan Day #6 and 9: Growing Crystals
Topic: Soil Components                                                          Day: 6 and 9
NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E                  Grade level: 3rd
SOL:
3.1     The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
        a) predictions and observations are made;
        b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets;
        c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses;
        g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph);
        j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and
        k) natural events are sequenced chronologically.
3.7     The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals
        including humans. Key concepts include
        a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth;
        b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock;
        c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and
        d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved.
                                                                              Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems
Daily Question: How can you grow crystals?

   Procedures for Learning Experience                  Guiding Questions              Materials           Evaluation         Approximate
                                                                                      Needed             (Assessment)        Time Needed
Engagement: Remind students of the short             It is interesting to see the   1 saucer with     Students should be     10 minutes
science project they did on Day 6 ago. Remind       crystals that make up some      table salt        able to correctly
students that they were wearing safety goggles        rocks. Most crystals are      crystals, 1       answer that we placed
when they stirred as much salt as would dissolve    formed underground when         saucer with       the separate liquids
into a half-cup of boiling hot water. Then          melted minerals collect and     sugar crystals,   into two separate
students added sugar into boiling hot water.       grow in size as they cool. You   1 saucer with     saucers. They should
Finally we added Epsom Salts to boiling water.         can learn more about         Epsom salt        also recall that every
Ask student what steps we did on Day 6.                crystals and how they        crystals.         Friday we check the
                                                     “grow” by making some                            saucers, dump off the
yourself. How can you grow                     excess water and
                                                               crystals?                            added a string to
                                                                                                    drain off the excess
                                                                                                    water.
Exploration: Have students come up to the             How do the salt crystals      24 Hand lens    Students should          20 minutes
science table in groups of three where the           look? What is their shape                      record observations
three saucers are located. Have each student         and size compared to the                       in science notebook.
make observations of the three crystal types.
                                                          sugar crystals?
Ask students what they think happened over
the time from Day 6. Ask students if they can
think of another solution that
Explanation: Explain to the students that            How do you think cooling                                                10 minuets
crystals form from molten rock or may be grown       of the water affects crystal
from mineral solutions. Ask them what we have                   size?
done in class. The size of crystals depends on
how fast the molten rock and solutions cool.



Extension: Create another solution of mineral         What do you think these       ½ cup boiling   Predictions should be    20 minuets
solution using salt. Immediately place the crystal      crystals will look like     water, table    made about what will
solution into the refrigerator. Have students make    tomorrow? Do you think        salt, Pyrex     happen to the
predictions in their science notebooks about what       they will resemble the      bowl, mini      crystals. Observations
they think will happen. Take the solution out of                                    refrigerator    will be made in
                                                         crystals we looked at
the refrigerator. Let students examine and have                                                     cooperative groups of
                                                                today?
them discuss in cooperative groups.                                                                 the characteristics of
                                                                                                    crystal formations.

Notes: Crystals should NOT be eaten.
http://www.geologyshop.co.uk/educat~1.htm
http://sosclassroom.org/summersciencefair2011/grades-k-2-chemistry-growing-crystals
http://www.lessonplanspage.com/scienceartmdchristmascrystals46-htm
Lesson Plan Day #7: Properties of Rocks
Topic: Soil Components                                                    Day: 7
NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E            Grade level: 3rd
SOL:
3.1     The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
        a) predictions and observations are made;
        b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets;
        c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses;
        g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph);
        j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and
        k) natural events are sequenced chronologically.
3.7     The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals
        including humans. Key concepts include
        a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth;
        b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock;
        c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and
        d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved.
                                                                              Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems
Daily Question: Can you identify rocks by their properties and characteristics of how they are formed?


 Procedures for Learning Experience               Guiding Questions            Materials         Evaluation            Approximate
                                                                                Needed          (Assessment)           Time Needed
Engagement: Have students cover the             Have you ever heard the      24              Students will make     10 minutes
desks in newspapers. Project three types       saying, “It’s as hard as a    metamorphic     observations of the
of rocks onto the screen. Pass out three       rock”? Does this mean all     rocks, 24       rocks in science
different types of rocks. Have students      rocks are equally hard? What    sedimentary     notebooks.
examine them with hand lens. Ask              do you think? How can you      rocks, 24
students if they see similarities and           find out the hardness of     igneous
differences. Have students record these       different rocks? What other    rocks, 24
observations in their science notebooks.       properties of rocks can you    hand lens,
Ask students to sketch each rock.                observe and describe?        newspapers

Exploration: Hand out rock field guide.           What are some of the        24 copies of     15 minutes
Have students once again make                 characteristics of an igneous   rock field
observations of the rocks in front of them.    rock? How are sedimentary      guide
Tell them to use the field guide to see if
                                              rocks formed? Where could I
they can properly identify the rocks. Have
them label them igneous, sedimentary, and         find an example of a
metamorphic. In their science notebooks,           metamorphic rock?
have them write a description of the three
different types of rocks and how each is
formed. Project a copy of the rock cycle
on the board.
Explanation: Rocks are earth materials           What are some of the         24 copies of     20 minutes
made up of minerals. Minerals are             characteristics that can help   the rock cycle
elements or compounds that occur              us determine the differences
naturally in the earth’s crust. Geologists     between the three types of
study rocks and minerals to help us learn     rocks? What does each rock
about the formation of the earth.                      feel like?
Geologists classify rocks according to
their properties or characteristics that
can be observed (hardness, color, shape,
size, luster, texture, number of
minerals). Give students a copy of the
blank rock cycle worksheet.
Extension: Ask students to gather in a           What is happening to the                      15 minutes
circle in the middle of the classroom. Ask     sediments right now? What
three students to represent igneous,            are the two things that are
sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.           needed to create metamorphic
Have students act out the rock cycle by               rocks?
enacting erosion, magma, heat, cooling,
and pressure.


Evaluation: Give students an exit card.                                  24 cards with
Each card will have one type of rock on it.                              random rocks
Students can use their science notebooks                                 on them.
to help them identify the rock.


Notes: Newspapers will be laid out on the students’ desks. For students with visual impairments, use the sense of touch to have
them describe what the rock feels like. Students must tie shoes before the rock cycle activity can take place.


http://www.rocksforkids.com/RFK/identification.html
Rockin’ It! Properties of Rocks

          Identify this type of rock




   This rock is an example of________

Sedimentary     Metamorphic            Igneous
Lesson Plan Day #8: Breaking Rocks
Topic: Soil Components                                                    Day: 8
NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E            Grade level: 3rd
SOL:
3.1     The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
        a) predictions and observations are made;
        b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets;
        c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses;
        g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph);
        j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and
        k) natural events are sequenced chronologically.
3.7     The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals
        including humans. Key concepts include
        a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth;
        b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock;
        c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and
        d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved.
                                                                              Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems
Daily Question: How do rocks break apart?


   Procedures for Learning Experience              Guiding Questions          Materials           Evaluation        Approximate
                                                                               Needed            (Assessment)       Time Needed
Engagement: The teacher will ask the              How do rocks break        Ice cubes and      The teacher will       7 minutes
students, ―How do rocks break apart to           apart? What does the        plastic eggs         make note of
become part of the soil?‖ Write their            plastic egg represent?       (for each      students’ ideas, and
                                                                              student).       if students stay on
responses on the board. After students have     What happened when you
                                                                                                     task.
finished responding, give each student a            shook the egg?
plastic egg and a sugar cube. Model placing
the sugar cube (rock) inside the egg
(representing weathering) and shaking the
cube. Have the students shake their eggs for
several minutes. Have the students open their
eggs and pour out the ―soil.‖ Lead a
discussion asking students what the plastic
egg represents. After the brief discussion, the
teacher will tell the students’ that they will
be learning about the effects of weather or
rocks and how rocks become a part of the
soil.
Exploration: The teacher will lead a field        What are some ways rocks       Students will   Teacher will see if    20 minutes
exploration for broken and weathered rocks.       are broken? How can wind       choose their      each student has
Remind students of the rules when traveling        or rain break rocks, but it    own rocks      chosen a rock. The
                                                     is hard for us to break     from outside     teacher will listen
outside. Before leading students outside,
                                                  them with our hands? How        the school.      to each group’s
explain that students will be looking for          do you think your group’s                         discussion.
rocks to bring back inside. When students                rock got here?
have collected their rocks, lead them back
inside. Students will be given magnifying
classes to examine their rocks. Students will
then discuss in groups how they think rocks
break apart. Students will record their
thoughts and provide reasons for their ideas.
Students will then be asked to share their
thoughts.
Explanation: Rocks are broken down in            Can you think of any other                      The teacher will        10 minutes
different ways-by wind, rain, and rock slides.   ways rocks can be broken?                      listen to students’
Over the years, rocks are continuously                                                               responses.
broken down and they become a part of the
soil.


Extension: Each student group will choose       Predict what will happen      Plastic bottle     The teacher will      Over the course
one rock from their group to keep. The class   to the rocks when they are       for each         make note if the        of 3 days.
will then attempt to break apart a rock. Each   repeatedly frozen. Justify        group,          students stay on
                                                     your prediction.           students’       task, and will later
group will be given a plastic bottle with
                                               Why do you think the water     chosen rock,     collect the students’
water inside. Each group will drop their rock    breaks apart the rocks          freezer.           observation
inside. The containers will be placed in a        (aren’t rocks solid)?                            worksheet for
freezer to be repeatedly frozen and thawed in                                                        summative
an attempt to break apart the rocks. Have the                                                       assessment.
students record their observations of the rock
in the bottle before and after it is frozen.
Have students discuss with one another about
their prediction, and if they found evidence
to support it.

Notes:

http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/standards_docs/science/index.shtml (Engagement activity)
http://www.hometrainingtools.com/rock-cycle-project/a/1349/ (Extension activity)
How Rocks Break Apart?
               Draw how your rock looks before it is frozen below.




What do you think will happen to your rock after it is repeatedly frozen? Explain
your answer.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
Draw how your rock looks after it has been frozen




Was your prediction supported? Explain you answer.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
Lesson Plan Day #10 : Making Soil
Topic: Soil Exploration                                                   Day: 10
NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E            Grade level: 3rd
SOL:
3.1     The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
        a) predictions and observations are made;
        b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets;
        c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses;
        g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph);
        j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and
        k) natural events are sequenced chronologically.
3.7     The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals
        including humans. Key concepts include
        a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth;
        b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock;
        c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and
        d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved.
                                                                              Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems
Daily Question: How can you model soil layers with food?

   Procedures for Learning Experience           Guiding Questions         Materials Needed          Evaluation      Approximate
                                                                                                   (Assessment)     Time Needed
Engagement: Ask students what kind of                                                                                 5 minutes
models they can think of. Show examples of         What are some
different models such as solar system made      different models that
out of Styrofoam balls and a volcano made         you can think of?
out of clay.                                       Can you make a
                                                 model using food?
Exploration: Give each student a plastic                                                    35 minutes
cup. Have each student layer the ingredients     Clear plastic cups,          Students
in the following way:                            Vanilla cookies (semi-       ability to
        1. ¼‖ layer of vanilla cookie (semi-     crushed), Vanilla             follow
            crushed for larger crumbs)                                      directions in
                                                 pudding, Graham
        2. ½‖ layer of vanilla pudding                                      constructing
                                                 crackers (crushed),         their own
        3. ½‖ layer of graham cracker
                                                 Butterscotch pudding,       edible soil
            crumbs
        4. ½‖layer of butterscotch pudding       Chocolate cookies (semi-      will be
        5. ¼‖ layer of chocolate pudding /       crushed), 1 gummy            assessed.
            chocolate cookies mixture            worm per student,
        6. sprinkle of dyed coconut (enough      Chocolate pudding (mix
            to cover top layer)                  with chocolate cookies
        7. gummy worm                            (semi-crushed)
                                                 Shredded coconut (dyed
                                                 green)
Explanation: As a class, students should         Spoons                                     15 minutes
discuss what each layer of food represents in
reference to soil layers:
• vanilla cookie (semi-crushed) = rock
• vanilla pudding = sand
• graham cracker crumbs = silt
• butterscotch pudding = clay
• chocolate pudding / chocolate cookies
(semi-crushed) = topsoil with humus
There are three main types of soil—sand, silt
and clay. When all three are mixed together
they create loam. Humus, anything in the
process of decaying, is the organic matter
found in soil. In this activity, students will
layer pudding and cookies to model the
major components and layers of soil.
This lesson will review the layers of soil as
they are in the ground. On the bottom is
bedrock, which is the parent material for the
soil that will not be shown until erosion or an
earthquake exposes it to the world.
Next is subsoil, which is mostly sand/silt and
clay. This is where most of the nutrients are
found and deep plant roots will come here
for water. Next is topsoil, which is where
plant roots grow and animals live. This is
sometimes called the organic layer where
decomposers recycle dead plants and animals
into the top layer. On top is humus, which
includes more decomposing organic material.
Students will enjoy their own edible soil
models.
Extension: While students are enjoying their What are the different                                                 5 minutes
soil models, lead a review discussion on the    layers of soil? Why is
major components of soil and rocks and how         it important to
                                                   conserve soil?
they interact with the plant and animal
kingdoms.

Notes: Students must wash hands before beginning creating their models. Students with food allergies should be given alternative
foods. Students should also understand that NOTHING in the science laboratory should be eaten, that this experiment was with food
and thus alright to enjoy.

http://www.agintheclass.org/Teachers/Documents/Dirt%20Pudding.pdf
Stories of Use

  The following are a series of email, text messages, and Twitter messages sent to our fellow
              colleague, Gertrude Okyere, on the execution of our lesson plans.




Hey Trudy!
You will not believe the day we had in science today! You know
that we are finishing up our soil unit, right? Well, I had two
boys in my class today dare each other to eat the crystals that
we made! Stressing the importance of NOT eating anything that we
make during labs is really not sinking in with the students.
If you don’t lay the foundation for the understanding of how to
work safely in the scientific laboratory now, what do you think
it is going to be like for these kids in freshman chemistry? It
was totally chaotic for the first half of the lesson. Although
we had made the solutions on the sixth day, and I had stressed
the importance wearing goggles, I still had students who would
put the goggles on their head and not over their eyes! Having
bad vision myself, and a touch of the claustrophobia I can
understand how goggles can be uncomfortable. The lab coats that
we got them really seemed to motivate them!
Hope you are well!
Take care,
Rob

Hey Trudy!
Last day of the soil module. We made models with pudding and
cookies. Everything went alright at the beginning. I was quite
impressed with how much the students remembered about the layers
of soil. Then it happened! Ricky took a giant gob of chocolate
pudding on his spoon and flung it at Mackenzie. The whole class
was in chaos. I had the principal investigators take charge of
their groups, while I dismissed Mackenzie to the restroom. I had
Taylor go with her. I pulled Ricky out into the hall. I had him
explain his actions. I told him that he wasn’t making a good
choice by flinging pudding across the classroom. I had to send
him down to Ms. Pickles. By the time I got back into the class,
they had settled down and were enjoying their yummy models.
Sadly, I don’t think my blood sugar could take all the richness,
so I just had one gummy worm and no cookies or pudding. Hope
everything is going well in your classes. Let me know.

Take care,
Rob




Day 1: Soil Exploration

Me (7:30am): Hey Gertrude! Startin’ my unit today! Wish me luck!
Me (9:45 am): I don’t no y I wasted by breath explaining the class rules. The moment we got
outside the kids took off runnin’. its gonna be one of those days…

Day 3: Earthworms

Me (10:00am): I shouldve known, I should’ve known! I just sent one of my boys to the nurse
bcuz he swallowed a worm. He said his group dared him to. Now he is crying bcuz his group
also told him that the worm is gonna to eat his insides >_<

Day 5: Soil Erosion
Me (9:30): ________                      ___________

                 _____________________
Me: (10:15): TGIF!!!!!!!!!!

Day 6: Growing Crystals
Me (9:35): So you kno the boy who ate the worm? Well he is now sittin’ in the principal’s office
bcuz he threw salt into another boy’s eyes after the boy asked him how the worm was doing.
You know, no matter how much you prepare, something is bound to go wrong.

Day 7: Properties of Rock
Me (9:50): So far so good. Today has been pretty good. I can’t wait to
Me (10:15): Fire Drill….it was raining

Day 8: Breaking Rocks
Me (945): I’m in a dark corner somewhere, please HELP.ME!

Day 10: Making Soil
Me (9:30): Last day of the unit! Hooray!
Me (10:00): Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, I’m free at last!
DAY 1
        klchelak Kate Chelak
        @gertrude Starting our unit on soil today! Woo!!! #soexcited
        7:45am
        klchelak Kate Chelak
        @gertrude Just saw a third grader high-tailing it out of here,
        @ericca flying behind him. Shielding my students’ eyes so they
        don’t get ideas.
        9:44am
        klchelak Kate Chelak
        @gertrude The sky is blue, the air is warm, the warn-down rocks
        and decaying matter are in the kids’ hands…
        10:02am


DAY 2
        klchelak Kate Chelak
        @gertrude Overheard today at the end of class: subsoil, humus,
        bedrock, topsoil, these are the things for which we toil
        #studentsongs
        10:05am
DAY 3
        klchelak Kate Chelak
        @gertrude #worried about how my squeamish girls are going to
        react today to the worm bins
        7:43am
        klchelak Kate Chelak
        @gertrude the girls were awesome! “Totally into it” as one of
        them said. #wormbinforthewin
        11:37am


DAY 5
        klchelak Kate Chelak
        @gertrude You wouldn’t believe how creative some of these kids
        are! Erosion wouldn’t be a problem if they were in charge of
        things.
        3:14pm
DAY 6
         klchelak Kate Chelak
         @gertrude Growing crystals today! Wish us luck.
         7:32am
         klchelak Kate Chelak
         @gertrude No one ate anything! #success
         5:56pm


DAY 9
         klchelak Kate Chelak
         @gertrude No success. Remember those crystals we made?
         Two kids decided they wanted to see how they tasted today.
         #goingtothenurse
         11:34pm


DAY 10
         klchelak Kate Chelak
         @gertrude They’ve learned SO MUCH this unit! #soproud Also,
         #tgif
         4:01pm
Bibliography

California Science Center (2011). Post visit activity: Wind erosion. Retrieved from
       http://www.californiasciencecenter.org/Education/GroupPrograms/BigLab/Erosion/docs/
       ErosionPost.pdf

Dent, E. (2011). Breaking Rocks: Exploration activity.

Geology Shop (2002). Education, geology. Retrieved from
      http://www.geologyshop.co.uk/educat~1.htm

GK-12 Fellows Program (2010). Wind erosion and how we can prevent it. Retrieved from
      http://gk-12.osu.edu/Lessons/4th%20Grade/Wind%20Erosion%204.pdf

Home Science Tools: The Gateway to Discovery (2011). Rock experiments. Retrieved from
      http://www.hometrainingtools.com/rock-cycle-project/a/1349/

Hot Chalk Education (2011). Crystals, Christmas, and Science. Retrieved from
       http://www.lessonplanspage.com/scienceartmdchristmascrystals46-htm
Rocks for Kids (2011). Identifying Minerals. Retrieved from
       http://www.rocksforkids.com/RFK/identification.html

Soil-Net (2010). Soil erosion. Retrieved from
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S.O.S Classroom (2010). Crystal growing- cool science experiment. Retrieved from
       http://sosclassroom.org/summersciencefair2011/grades-k-2-chemistry-growing-crystals

Teacher Tube (2010). Wind erosion and the American dustbowl. Retrieved from
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eAmericanDustbowl

Underground Adventure (2005). Worm bins for you classroom. Retrieved from
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University of Louisville Department of Mathematics (2005). Lesson Planning Guide. Retrieved
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2009). What on Earth is soil? Retrieved from
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Science module.playing in the dirt

  • 1. Playing in the Dirt!: A Module on Soil and Rocks and their Connection to the Plant & Animal Kingdom Third Grade Science Topic: Soil and Rocks Authors: Kate Chelak, Ericca Dent, and Rob Schupbach November 6, 2011
  • 2. Schedule Day 1: Day 2: Day 3: Day 4: Day 5: Soil Soil Soil Soil Erosion Soil Erosion Exploration Exploration Exploration Daily Question: What is soil made What are the How do What are the How can soil of? different types of earthworms help effects of weather erosion be soil? soil? on soil? prevented? Learning Outcomes: Students will learn Students will be Students will Students will Students will that soil is made of able to identify the understand the understand what determine the best worn-down rocks layers of soil. symbiotic happens to loose methods to prevent (pebbles, sand, silt, (Subsoil, humus, relationship soil on a windy day. soil erosion. and clay) and bedrock, topsoil) between decaying matter. earthworms and soil. Activities: Students will collect Students will Students will set up Students in small Students, with soil from outside of examine the layers a worm bin. groups will their wind erosion the schoolhouse. of soil in a precut construct a wind recorders, will section of soil. erosion recorder. investigate wind erosion prevention methods. Assessment Plan: Participation in Students will Student Lab jobs will Students will be classroom complete an exit participation in identified and assessed on the discussion and soil card to identify the creating the worm distributed among creative ways that collection. Students layers of soil. bin and reflecting in group members. they determine will document their science how wind erosion journal. can be prevented.
  • 3. Day 6: Day 7: Day 8: Day 9: Day 10: Growing Properties of Breaking Growing Making Soil Crystals Rocks Rocks Crystals Daily Question: How can you grow Can you identify How do rocks Can you describe How can you crystals? rocks by their break apart? the characteristics model soil layers properties and of different with food? characteristics of crystals? how they are formed? Learning Outcomes: Students will be Students, using a Students will Students will Students will sum introduced to how rock field guide, explore the ways in examine crystals up their knowledge crystals are formed. will be able to which rocks can and their properties. gained in this unit identify three types break apart. by creating their of rocks own soil model. (metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous). Activities: Under teacher Using hand lenses, Students will be Students will use Students will supervision, students will engaged in an hand lenses to create models of students will create examine different exploration of the investigate the soil layers using crystals using three types of rocks with school grounds and formation of chocolate pudding, different solutions. sight and touch. will participate in a crystals. Oreo cookies, and group discussion gummy worms. about the rocks they collected. Assessment Plan: Safety officers will Observations in Group discussions Students will be Accuracy and monitor cooperative science notebooks will be assessed assessed on their creativity will be groups for will be assessed. based on the discussion of the assessed in the compliance with engaging discourse various properties models made by determined rules. between students. and characteristics students. of crystal formation.
  • 4. Overview Theme: What is soil and how does it affect the animal and plant kingdom?  Virginia Standards of Learning: 3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which a) predictions and observations are made; b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets; c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses; g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph); j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and k) natural events are sequenced chronologically. Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems 3.7 The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals including humans. Key concepts include a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth; b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock; c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved. Essential Understandings, Knowledge, and Skills The students should be able to • observe and recognize that soil, as a natural resource, provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth; • explain how soil forms over time; • analyze and describe the different components of soil, including rock fragments, clay, silt, sand, and humus; • comprehend the key terminology related to soil, including humus, nutrients, topsoil, and bedrock; • interpret and illustrate a basic diagram showing major soil layers, including bedrock, subsoil, and topsoil; • design an investigation to compare how different types of soil affect plant growth. This includes organizing data in tables and constructing simple graphs; • collect, chart, and analyze data on soil conservation on the school grounds; • evaluate the importance of soil to people; • describe how soil can be conserved.  National Science Education Standards
  • 5. Content Standard A: As a result of their activities in grades K-4, all students should develop • Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry • Understanding about scientific inquiry Content Standard D: As a result of their activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of • Properties of earth materials • Objects in the sky • Changes in earth and sky Content Standard F: As a result of their activities in grades K-4, all students should develop understanding of • Personal health • Characteristics and changes in population • Types of resources • Changes in environments • Science and technology in local challenges Teaching Standard B: Teachers of science guide and facilitate learning. In doing this, teachers • Focus and support inquiries while interacting with students. • Orchestrate discourse among students about scientific ideas. • Challenge students to accept and share responsibility for their own learning. • Recognize and respond to student diversity and encourage all students to participate fully in science learning. • Encourage and model the skills of scientific inquiry, as well as the curiosity, openness to new ideas and data, and skepticism that characterize science. Teaching Standard C: Teachers of science engage in ongoing assessment of their teaching and of student learning. In doing this, teachers • Use multiple methods and systematically gather data about student understanding and ability. • Analyze assessment data to guide teaching. • Guide students in self-assessment. • Use student data, observations of teaching, and interactions with colleagues to reflect on and improve teaching practice. • Use student data, observations of teaching, and interactions with colleagues to report student achievement and opportunities to learn to students, teachers, parents, policy makers, and the general public. Teaching Standard D: Teachers of science design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources needed for learning science. In doing this, teachers
  • 6. • Structure the time available so that students are able to engage in extended investigations. • Create a setting for student work that is flexible and supportive of science inquiry. • Ensure a safe working environment. • Make the available science tools, materials, media, and technological resources accessible to students. • Identify and use resources outside the school. • Engage students in designing the learning environment. Teaching Standard E: Teachers of science develop communities of science learners that reflect the intellectual rigor of scientific inquiry and the attitudes and social values conducive to science learning. In doing this, teachers • Display and demand respect for the diverse ideas, skills, and experiences of all students. • Enable students to have a significant voice in decisions about the content and context of their work and require students to take responsibility for the learning of all members of the community. • Nurture collaboration among students. • Structure and facilitate ongoing formal and informal discussion based on a shared understanding of rules of scientific discourse. • Model and emphasize the skills, attitudes, and values of scientific inquiry.  Description of Students This unit is designed for a 3rd grade class of 24 students at Matoaka Elementary School in Williamsburg, Va. The students range in age from 8 to 9. Demographically, there are three minority students in the class. There are two students who will need assistance with writing in their science journal and completing science worksheets. During the science period, the Special Education teacher comes to aid the students with these activities.  Connectivity Day-to-day: The first week of the unit focuses on the make-up of soil and soil erosion. The lessons for days 1-3 explore the components of soil, the layers of soil, and how earthworms help the soil. Students are first introduced to what soil is and how it is important before the impact of soil erosion can be understood. Soil erosion is then explored in days 4-5. These three lessons connect to lessons for days 4-5. The second week of the unit focuses on rocks (which is a composition of soil). Days 7-8 focus on the properties of rocks and how rocks become part of the soil. These two lessons connect to days 1-3 when students learn the components of soil. Day 10 connects to days 1-9 by allowing students to demonstrate the knowledge they gained over the two weeks. Connection to Students: Students are surrounded by soil, and it is important for students to look at soil as more than just dirt. Students will see the importance of objects in their environment that
  • 7. may are usually overlooked (soil, earthworms and rocks). Most students have had experiences playing in soil or with rocks and the opportunity to work with soil and rocks in the classroom will motivate students. Also having the opportunity to grow crystals and create an edible model soil model will interest students.  Nature of Science and Inquiry-based activities The nature of science is addressed in our lessons on days one, two, four, five, seven, and ten. On Day 1 the students are introduced to a different method of science (observation) than is typically thought of, use empirical evidence in their observations (using hand lenses to determine the composition of soil), and base their conclusions on evidence (see what the soil looks like to determine what it is made up of). On Day 2 the nature of science is addressed through the use of empirical evidence (identifying the layers of soil using sight) and by using another method (geologists stratify soil to gather information). The nature of science is addressed on Day 4 through observation and inference. On Days 5 and 10, the nature of science is seen in the creative aspect of the lessons. The nature of science on Day 7 revolves around the use of hand lenses to identify rocks (empirical evidence). All of our lessons are inquiry-based and all of them are hands-on activities. Days 1 through 9 (90%) are authentic as well. Day 10 is the only lesson that is not authentic because food (pudding, Oreo cookies, gummy worms, etc.) is used to model soil layers. All of the other lessons use real science/natural materials to encourage students to explore and think about soil.  Technology and Safety Technology will be utilized throughout the module. Access to a computer, projector, and document camera is required for the lessons plans, particularly for Lesson 4 when teacher-tube is accessed. Most of the lessons are hands-on, authentic activities not requiring the use of technology. Safety will be monitored both by instructor and by students. Each cooperative group will have one student as the Care and Safety Officer for every day of the unit. When necessary, each station will be equipped with a bottle of hand sanitizer, paper towels, newspapers, and an extra set of goggles. When working outside, as occurs in lessons 1 and 8, students will treat the outdoors as a classroom, following the outdoor classroom rules (stay together, listen to each other, and respect plants and animals).
  • 8. Daily Lesson Plans Lesson Plan Days #1-3: Soil Exploration Topic: Investigating Soil Day: 1-3 NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E Grade level: 3rd SOL: 3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which a) predictions and observations are made; b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets; c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses; g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph); j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and k) natural events are sequenced chronologically. 3.7 The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals including humans. Key concepts include a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth; b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock; c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved. Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Daily Question: What is soil? What are the different types of soil? Procedures for Learning Experience Guiding Questions Materials Evaluation Approximate Needed (Assessment) Time Needed Engagement: Gather the students’ attention What is soil? Observation of 5 min. and explain that today you are going to be discussion talking about soil. Ask them ―what is soil?‖ What can you find in soil? participation (see and ―what can you find in soil?‖ After rubric) fielding a few answers, explain to the
  • 9. students that today we are going to find out what soil is made up of. (If someone gives the ―correct‖ answer – that soil is composed of worn-down rocks and decaying plants and animals – then say something along the lines of ―Interesting idea. Let’s test it out.‖) Exploration: Explain that today they will be 3 plastic Observation of soil 20 min. taking samples of soil from around the containers for activity (see rubric) school and then examining the soil to see each pair what soil is made up of. Students will be paired for this activity. After pairing off the 3 spoons for students, give each pair the position cards each pair and explain that they will need to decide who is the Communications Specialist science (responsible for recording observations and journals reporting them) and who is the Investigator (responsible for collecting the soil samples). Both students are responsible for examining the soil samples. Once they have done this, remind the students that the outdoors classroom has the same rules as the indoor classroom. Tell them that they will be going to three different sites, and that at each site they will collect a small soil sample and put it in their cups. Tell them to use a spoon to collect the sample, and to use a different spoon for each sample to avoid contamination. Then have the pairs gather their supplies for collecting (three clear
  • 10. plastic containers and three spoons), and go outside to the first location. Collect samples from all three locations, having the Communications Specialist record observations of the site while the Investigator collects the soil sample. Then return inside. Tell the students to examine each of the samples carefully, and to record what they see in the soil. Walk around the room observing and assisting as necessary. Explanation: Once all the students have What did you find in the Observation of 10 min. examined their soil samples and recorded soil samples? discussion their observations, gather their attention participation (see again. Ask them what they observed. What Was it what you expected? rubric) was in the soil samples? Was it what you expected What does this tell you about what What does this tell you is in soil? Allow the students to lead the about what is in soil? discussion. Direct the discussion toward the common features the students found in each sample. Make a chart listing those common features. Explain the main components of soil: worn-down rocks and decaying plants and animals. Tell the students that a lot of the other things they saw in the soil help the soil to be nutritious for plants (see ―notes‖ for more information).
  • 11. Extension: Ask the students ―Are the Are the different soil Observation of 5 min. different soil samples the same? What makes samples the same? discussion them different? What do you think this tells participation (see you about soil?‖ Make a chart listing those What makes them rubric) differences, and explain that there are three different? types of soil: sand, silt, and clay. The differences are based on how fine the What do you think this tells particles are ground up (sand having the you about soil? largest particles and clay the finest). Notes: Soil makes up the outermost layer of our planet. Topsoil is the most productive soil layer. Soil has varying amounts of organic matter (living and dead organisms), minerals, and nutrients. Five tons of topsoil spread over an acre is only as thick as a dime. Natural processes can take more than 500 years to form one inch of topsoil. Soil scientists have identified over 70,000 kinds of soil in the United States. Soil is formed from rocks and decaying plants and animals. An average soil sample is 45 percent minerals, 25 percent water, 25 percent air, and five percent organic matter. Different-sized mineral particles, such as sand, silt, and clay, give soil its texture. Fungi and bacteria help break down organic matter in the soil. Plant roots and lichens break up rocks which become part of new soil. Roots loosen the soil, allowing oxygen to penetrate. This benefits animals living in the soil. Roots hold soil together and help prevent erosion. Five to 10 tons of animal life can live in an acre of soil. Earthworms digest organic matter, recycle nutrients, and make the surface soil richer. Mice take seeds and other plant materials into underground burrows, where this material eventually decays and becomes part of the soil. Mice, moles, and shrews dig burrows which help aerate the soil. Sources: http://www.epa.gov/gmpo/edresources/soil.htm http://www.math.louisville.edu/gems/LessonPlans/SoilLessonPlan.pdf
  • 12. Soil Exploration: Layers of Soil Name: _______________________Date:_________________ Label the soil layers in the diagram, using the following terms: subsoil humus bedrock topsoil
  • 13. Lesson Plan Days #1-3: Soil Exploration Topic: Soil Exploration Day: 3 NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E Grade level: 3rd SOL: 3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which a) predictions and observations are made; b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets; c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses; g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph); j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and k) natural events are sequenced chronologically. 3.7 The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals including humans. Key concepts include a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth; b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock; c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved. Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Daily Question: How do earthworms help soil? Procedures for Learning Experience Guiding Questions Materials Evaluation Approximate Needed (Assessment) Time Needed Engagement: Gather the students’ attention and What are Observation of 5 min. explain that today you are going to be talking earthworms? discussion about earthworms. Ask them ―what are participation (see earthworms?‖ and ―how do earthworms help How do earthworms rubric) soil?‖ and ―what does composting mean?‖ After help soil? fielding a few answers, explain to the students that today we are going to make a worm bin and What does
  • 14. that by observing the worm bin every day for a “composting” mean? few weeks we will find out more about earthworms. (If someone gives the ―correct‖ answer – that earthworms help aerate soil and produce good fertilizer by eating soil – then say something along the lines of ―Interesting idea. Let’s make a worm bin to test out your hypothesis.‖) Exploration: Explain that today each group 1 large plastic Observation of 15 min. will be making a worm bin. (Students will be tub (5+ gallons) penny experiment grouped into fours.) Give each group the with lid per (see rubric) position cards and explain that each group will group need to pick a Communications Specialist (responsible for recording observations and shredded reporting them), a Materials Manager newspaper (responsible for gathering the needed supplies), a Safety Officer (responsible for making sure tub of red everyone is being safe), and a Principal wigglers Investigator (responsible for relaying instructions from the teacher, helping 1 cup of soil per teammates when needed, and making sure group everyone knows what to do and is participating). Once they have done this, call the ½ cup sand per Principle Investigators (PIs) up and give them group the list of materials for the materials manager. Also tell them that their first direction is to tear vegetables/other the newspaper into strips (show them an organic items example), and to come back to you when they (worm food) are done. Walk around the room observing and
  • 15. assisting. When the PIs start to come back to you, tell them to fill half of the container with shredded newspaper and to put a tablespoon of soil and a half-cup of sand in as well. Tell them to come back to you when they have finished. Walk around the room observing and assisting. When the PIs come back to you, tell them to mix everything up and then to bury the worm food half way into the newspaper. Tell them to choose some of the ―random objects‖ they have in their collection and to put those in the worm bin. Tell them to come back to you when they’re done. Walk around the room observing and assisting. When the PIs come back to you tell them to put the worms in the container and to observe/take notes on what they see. Explanation: Once all the students have had a What did the worms Observation of 10 min. chance to observe their worm bins for five do? discussion minutes, gather their attention again. Ask them participation (see what they observed. What did the worms do? What do you think is rubric) What do you think is going to happen to the going to happen to newspaper? The worm wood? The worms? The the newspaper? The plastic caps/pieces of wood/peanuts in the shell? worm wood? The Allow the students to lead the discussion. Direct worms? The plastic the discussion toward how the students think caps/pieces of earthworms might help the soil that they have wood/peanuts in the put in the containers. Then explain to the shell? students that over the next two weeks they will be observing the worms and what happens to
  • 16. them. Extension: Have the students observe their What changes do they worm bins Observation of 10 min. worm bins for a few minutes at the start of notice over time? project every science class. Then lead them in a participation and discussion about what they have observed. How long does it take discussion the worms to participation (see consume the food you rubric) give them? Are there certain foods they seem to prefer over others? Is there anything the worms won't eat (plastic caps, wood, peanut in the shell)? Notes: Earthworms dig large burrows which let water and air into the soil. This helps stop erosion and lets the water and air get down to the roots of plants. The burrows also helps plant roots to move more easily through the soil and into new spaces. Worms drag leaves and plant bits down into the earth. As they burrow, the worms swallow soil and eat the plant matter that is in it. The soil they swallow passes though the worm's body and is left in little piles on top of the ground. This is called castings and is excellent fertilizer (food for plants). People who farm worms do it to collect the castings to sell to gardeners.
  • 18. Rubric: Soil Exploration—How do earthworms help soil? Discussion Participation Participation in Worm Bin Scientific Concepts and Creation Related Content Displays little to no Makes little to no effort to No use, or mostly inappropriate understanding of earthworms complete tasks for the worm bin. use, of scientific terminology. and composting during Occasionally or never follows No mention or inappropriate discussion. directions. references to the relevant Does not volunteer information Cannot state what the worm bin scientific concepts, principles, or Novice on earthworms and composting taught him/her about earthworms theories (big ideas) of earthworms during discussion. and composting when asked. and composting. Listens infrequently when Some evidence of understanding others are talking during observable characteristics and discussion. properties of earthworms and composting. Displays a fractured Makes an effort to complete tasks Used some relevant scientific understanding of earthworms for the worm bin. terminology. and composting during Follows directions for the worm Minimal reference to relevant discussion, but also displays a bin. scientific concepts, principles, or willingness to learn. Can vaguely state what the worm theories (big ideas) of earthworms Apprentice Volunteers information on bin taught him/her about and composting. earthworms and composting earthworms and composting when Evidence of understanding during discussion. asked. observable characteristics and Mostly listens when others are properties of earthworms and talking during discussion. composting. Displays an understanding of Makes a determined effort to Appropriately used scientific earthworms and composting complete tasks for the worm bin. terminology. during discussion. Follows directions for the worm Provided evidence of Practitioner Volunteers astute and relevant bin. understanding of relevant information on earthworms and Can clearly state what the worm scientific concepts, principles or composting during discussion. bin taught him/her about theories (big ideas) of earthworms
  • 19. Listens attentively when others earthworms and composting when and composting. are talking during discussion. asked. Evidence of understanding observable characteristics and properties of earthworms and composting. Displays an excellent Makes a clear and determined Precisely and appropriately used understanding of earthworms effort to complete tasks for the scientific terminology. and composting during worm bin. Provided evidence of in depth, discussion. Follows directions for the worm sophisticated understanding of Volunteers astute, relevant, and bin. relevant scientific concepts, novel information on Volunteers and can clearly state principles or theories (big ideas) earthworms and composting what the worm bin taught him/her of earthworms and composting. Expert during discussion. about earthworms and Revised prior misconceptions Listens attentively when others composting. when appropriate. are talking during discussion Observable characteristics and and then responds to what they properties of earthworms and said. composting went beyond the task/investigation to make other connections or extend thinking.
  • 20. Lesson Plan Day #4-5: Soil Erosion Topic: Soil Erosion Day: 4-5 NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E Grade level: 3rd SOL: 3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which a) predictions and observations are made; b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets; c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses; g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph); j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and k) natural events are sequenced chronologically. 3.7 The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals including humans. Key concepts include a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth; b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock; c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved. Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Daily Question: What are the effects of weather on soil? Procedures for Learning Experience Guiding Questions Materials Needed Evaluation Approxi (Assessment) mate Time Needed Engagement: Begin with the video ―Wind Why do you think the soil was ―Water Erosion and the The teacher will 7 minutes Erosion and the American Dustbowl‖ (2:44- able to move around like that? American Dustbowl‖ walk around and 5:00). Have students watch the video, and Do you think the farmers http://www.teachertube listen to the then discuss in groups of four what they thought this would happen? .com/viewVideo.php?v group observed in the video and how it applies to What effects did this have on ideo_id=147083&title= discussions us today. people? Animals? Wind_Erosion_and_the making note if _American_Dustbowl the students are
  • 21. on task, and the ideas that are formulated. Exploration:The teacher will explain to the What were the effects of wind Wind erosion recorder The teacher will 25 students that they will be simulating (on a on the soil/sand? What effect materials: Shoeboxes walk around to minutes smaller scale) what they observed in the did the “trees” and rocks have with lids, clay, popsicle see if students video. Students will be placed in groups of on this process? If you wanted sticks, sand, dry soil, have created four. Each group will be given wind erosion to prevent erosion, what could rocks, tape, straws (for their wind recorder materials. Have students poke a you do? Discuss your ideas with each student). erosion recorder. pole in one short side of their shoebox. Have your group. Make a prediction The teacher will students push each popsicle stick in a ball of for what will happen if there Observation sheet, listen to the clay to stand up at the bottom of their are no trees/rocks? Is the effect markers, pencils, ruler group shoebox. Place a thin layer of sand and soil better or worse? discussion, and at the bottom of the shoebox. Scatter rocks at will later collect the bottom as well. Have students mark on the observation each craft stick the level of the sand or soil. sheets for Now have students draw a picture of how summative their diagram looks. Have students place the assessment. lid on top of their shoebox and tape it closed. Have students take turns blowing once through the hole with their straw (remind students not to shake the box). After each round of students, have them mark where the sand or soil is on the stick in different colors. After they have made their observations, have students repeat the activity without rocks and trees. Record observations.
  • 22. Explanation: Soil erosion occurs when the How do you think water erosion Observation sheet The teacher will 10 upper part of the soil cover is washed or is similar to or different than listen to minutes blown away by rain and wind. Soil erosion is wind erosion? Record your students’ a problem in almost every county. There is thoughts. Is soil a natural responses. evidence that human activity is accelerating resource? What are ways the the erosion of the Earth’s soil. Soil erosion is soil erodes naturally, and how an important environmental issue because do humans accelerate this humans depend on the soil for food, forestry, process? Who/what depends on and wildlife. the soil, and in what way? Extension: Have students use their erosion Besides natural objects (trees Pebbles, small sticks, The teacher will 20 diagram to come up with ways to prevent and rocks) are there other gravel, mud, clay, and listen to group minutes erosion. Have students create a sand hill, and things that can be used to water. discussions and repeat the above activity. Then have students prevent wind erosion? Why do make note of the use additional materials to see if they can you think trees can help prevent objects being slow down erosion. wind erosion? Do any of the used by each objects provided slow erosion? group. If so, which objects work best/least? Discuss with your group. Record observation. Notes: Soil-Net (2010). Soil erosion. Retrieved from http://www.soil-net.com/dev/page.cfm?pageid=secondary_threats_erosion GK-12 Fellows Program (2010). Wind erosion and how we can prevent it. Retrieved from http://gk- 12.osu.edu/Lessons/4th%20Grade/Wind%20Erosion%204.pdf Teacher Tube (2010). Wind erosion and the American dustbowl. Retrieved from http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=147083&title=Wind_Erosion_and_the_American_Dustbowl California Science Center (2011). Post visit activity: Wind erosion. Retrieved from http://www.californiasciencecenter.org/Education/GroupPrograms/BigLab/Erosion/docs/ ErosionPost.pdf
  • 23. Soil Erosion Record the level of sand or soil in your wind erosion recorder. _____________centimeters Draw a picture of your wind erosion recorder. Record the level of sand or soil in your wind erosion recorder after the first round. ______________centimeters Record the level of sand or soil in your wind erosion recorder after the second round. ______________centimeters Record the level of sand or soil in your wind erosion recorder without trees or rocks after round one. ______________centimeters Record the level of sand or soil in your wind erosion recorder without trees or rocks after round two. ______________centimeters
  • 24. What do you notice? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
  • 25. Preventing Soil Erosion What are ways soil erosion can be prevented? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Why do you think these ways will prevent soil erosion? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Using the given materials, test your methods. Were you able to help prevent or slow down soil erosion with your method? Why do you think this method worked or did not work? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
  • 26. Lesson Plan Day #6 and 9: Growing Crystals Topic: Soil Components Day: 6 and 9 NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E Grade level: 3rd SOL: 3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which a) predictions and observations are made; b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets; c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses; g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph); j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and k) natural events are sequenced chronologically. 3.7 The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals including humans. Key concepts include a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth; b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock; c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved. Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Daily Question: How can you grow crystals? Procedures for Learning Experience Guiding Questions Materials Evaluation Approximate Needed (Assessment) Time Needed Engagement: Remind students of the short It is interesting to see the 1 saucer with Students should be 10 minutes science project they did on Day 6 ago. Remind crystals that make up some table salt able to correctly students that they were wearing safety goggles rocks. Most crystals are crystals, 1 answer that we placed when they stirred as much salt as would dissolve formed underground when saucer with the separate liquids into a half-cup of boiling hot water. Then melted minerals collect and sugar crystals, into two separate students added sugar into boiling hot water. grow in size as they cool. You 1 saucer with saucers. They should Finally we added Epsom Salts to boiling water. can learn more about Epsom salt also recall that every Ask student what steps we did on Day 6. crystals and how they crystals. Friday we check the “grow” by making some saucers, dump off the
  • 27. yourself. How can you grow excess water and crystals? added a string to drain off the excess water. Exploration: Have students come up to the How do the salt crystals 24 Hand lens Students should 20 minutes science table in groups of three where the look? What is their shape record observations three saucers are located. Have each student and size compared to the in science notebook. make observations of the three crystal types. sugar crystals? Ask students what they think happened over the time from Day 6. Ask students if they can think of another solution that Explanation: Explain to the students that How do you think cooling 10 minuets crystals form from molten rock or may be grown of the water affects crystal from mineral solutions. Ask them what we have size? done in class. The size of crystals depends on how fast the molten rock and solutions cool. Extension: Create another solution of mineral What do you think these ½ cup boiling Predictions should be 20 minuets solution using salt. Immediately place the crystal crystals will look like water, table made about what will solution into the refrigerator. Have students make tomorrow? Do you think salt, Pyrex happen to the predictions in their science notebooks about what they will resemble the bowl, mini crystals. Observations they think will happen. Take the solution out of refrigerator will be made in crystals we looked at the refrigerator. Let students examine and have cooperative groups of today? them discuss in cooperative groups. the characteristics of crystal formations. Notes: Crystals should NOT be eaten. http://www.geologyshop.co.uk/educat~1.htm http://sosclassroom.org/summersciencefair2011/grades-k-2-chemistry-growing-crystals http://www.lessonplanspage.com/scienceartmdchristmascrystals46-htm
  • 28. Lesson Plan Day #7: Properties of Rocks Topic: Soil Components Day: 7 NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E Grade level: 3rd SOL: 3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which a) predictions and observations are made; b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets; c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses; g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph); j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and k) natural events are sequenced chronologically. 3.7 The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals including humans. Key concepts include a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth; b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock; c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved. Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Daily Question: Can you identify rocks by their properties and characteristics of how they are formed? Procedures for Learning Experience Guiding Questions Materials Evaluation Approximate Needed (Assessment) Time Needed Engagement: Have students cover the Have you ever heard the 24 Students will make 10 minutes desks in newspapers. Project three types saying, “It’s as hard as a metamorphic observations of the of rocks onto the screen. Pass out three rock”? Does this mean all rocks, 24 rocks in science different types of rocks. Have students rocks are equally hard? What sedimentary notebooks. examine them with hand lens. Ask do you think? How can you rocks, 24 students if they see similarities and find out the hardness of igneous differences. Have students record these different rocks? What other rocks, 24
  • 29. observations in their science notebooks. properties of rocks can you hand lens, Ask students to sketch each rock. observe and describe? newspapers Exploration: Hand out rock field guide. What are some of the 24 copies of 15 minutes Have students once again make characteristics of an igneous rock field observations of the rocks in front of them. rock? How are sedimentary guide Tell them to use the field guide to see if rocks formed? Where could I they can properly identify the rocks. Have them label them igneous, sedimentary, and find an example of a metamorphic. In their science notebooks, metamorphic rock? have them write a description of the three different types of rocks and how each is formed. Project a copy of the rock cycle on the board. Explanation: Rocks are earth materials What are some of the 24 copies of 20 minutes made up of minerals. Minerals are characteristics that can help the rock cycle elements or compounds that occur us determine the differences naturally in the earth’s crust. Geologists between the three types of study rocks and minerals to help us learn rocks? What does each rock about the formation of the earth. feel like? Geologists classify rocks according to their properties or characteristics that can be observed (hardness, color, shape, size, luster, texture, number of minerals). Give students a copy of the blank rock cycle worksheet. Extension: Ask students to gather in a What is happening to the 15 minutes circle in the middle of the classroom. Ask sediments right now? What three students to represent igneous, are the two things that are sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. needed to create metamorphic
  • 30. Have students act out the rock cycle by rocks? enacting erosion, magma, heat, cooling, and pressure. Evaluation: Give students an exit card. 24 cards with Each card will have one type of rock on it. random rocks Students can use their science notebooks on them. to help them identify the rock. Notes: Newspapers will be laid out on the students’ desks. For students with visual impairments, use the sense of touch to have them describe what the rock feels like. Students must tie shoes before the rock cycle activity can take place. http://www.rocksforkids.com/RFK/identification.html
  • 31. Rockin’ It! Properties of Rocks Identify this type of rock This rock is an example of________ Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous
  • 32. Lesson Plan Day #8: Breaking Rocks Topic: Soil Components Day: 8 NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E Grade level: 3rd SOL: 3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which a) predictions and observations are made; b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets; c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses; g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph); j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and k) natural events are sequenced chronologically. 3.7 The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals including humans. Key concepts include a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth; b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock; c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved. Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Daily Question: How do rocks break apart? Procedures for Learning Experience Guiding Questions Materials Evaluation Approximate Needed (Assessment) Time Needed Engagement: The teacher will ask the How do rocks break Ice cubes and The teacher will 7 minutes students, ―How do rocks break apart to apart? What does the plastic eggs make note of become part of the soil?‖ Write their plastic egg represent? (for each students’ ideas, and student). if students stay on responses on the board. After students have What happened when you task. finished responding, give each student a shook the egg? plastic egg and a sugar cube. Model placing the sugar cube (rock) inside the egg
  • 33. (representing weathering) and shaking the cube. Have the students shake their eggs for several minutes. Have the students open their eggs and pour out the ―soil.‖ Lead a discussion asking students what the plastic egg represents. After the brief discussion, the teacher will tell the students’ that they will be learning about the effects of weather or rocks and how rocks become a part of the soil. Exploration: The teacher will lead a field What are some ways rocks Students will Teacher will see if 20 minutes exploration for broken and weathered rocks. are broken? How can wind choose their each student has Remind students of the rules when traveling or rain break rocks, but it own rocks chosen a rock. The is hard for us to break from outside teacher will listen outside. Before leading students outside, them with our hands? How the school. to each group’s explain that students will be looking for do you think your group’s discussion. rocks to bring back inside. When students rock got here? have collected their rocks, lead them back inside. Students will be given magnifying classes to examine their rocks. Students will then discuss in groups how they think rocks break apart. Students will record their thoughts and provide reasons for their ideas. Students will then be asked to share their thoughts.
  • 34. Explanation: Rocks are broken down in Can you think of any other The teacher will 10 minutes different ways-by wind, rain, and rock slides. ways rocks can be broken? listen to students’ Over the years, rocks are continuously responses. broken down and they become a part of the soil. Extension: Each student group will choose Predict what will happen Plastic bottle The teacher will Over the course one rock from their group to keep. The class to the rocks when they are for each make note if the of 3 days. will then attempt to break apart a rock. Each repeatedly frozen. Justify group, students stay on your prediction. students’ task, and will later group will be given a plastic bottle with Why do you think the water chosen rock, collect the students’ water inside. Each group will drop their rock breaks apart the rocks freezer. observation inside. The containers will be placed in a (aren’t rocks solid)? worksheet for freezer to be repeatedly frozen and thawed in summative an attempt to break apart the rocks. Have the assessment. students record their observations of the rock in the bottle before and after it is frozen. Have students discuss with one another about their prediction, and if they found evidence to support it. Notes: http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/standards_docs/science/index.shtml (Engagement activity) http://www.hometrainingtools.com/rock-cycle-project/a/1349/ (Extension activity)
  • 35. How Rocks Break Apart? Draw how your rock looks before it is frozen below. What do you think will happen to your rock after it is repeatedly frozen? Explain your answer. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Draw how your rock looks after it has been frozen Was your prediction supported? Explain you answer. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
  • 36. Lesson Plan Day #10 : Making Soil Topic: Soil Exploration Day: 10 NSES: Content Standards A, D, F; Teaching Standards B, C, D, E Grade level: 3rd SOL: 3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which a) predictions and observations are made; b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets; c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses; g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph); j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and k) natural events are sequenced chronologically. 3.7 The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals including humans. Key concepts include a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth; b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock; c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved. Subject: Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Daily Question: How can you model soil layers with food? Procedures for Learning Experience Guiding Questions Materials Needed Evaluation Approximate (Assessment) Time Needed Engagement: Ask students what kind of 5 minutes models they can think of. Show examples of What are some different models such as solar system made different models that out of Styrofoam balls and a volcano made you can think of? out of clay. Can you make a model using food?
  • 37. Exploration: Give each student a plastic 35 minutes cup. Have each student layer the ingredients Clear plastic cups, Students in the following way: Vanilla cookies (semi- ability to 1. ¼‖ layer of vanilla cookie (semi- crushed), Vanilla follow crushed for larger crumbs) directions in pudding, Graham 2. ½‖ layer of vanilla pudding constructing crackers (crushed), their own 3. ½‖ layer of graham cracker Butterscotch pudding, edible soil crumbs 4. ½‖layer of butterscotch pudding Chocolate cookies (semi- will be 5. ¼‖ layer of chocolate pudding / crushed), 1 gummy assessed. chocolate cookies mixture worm per student, 6. sprinkle of dyed coconut (enough Chocolate pudding (mix to cover top layer) with chocolate cookies 7. gummy worm (semi-crushed) Shredded coconut (dyed green) Explanation: As a class, students should Spoons 15 minutes discuss what each layer of food represents in reference to soil layers: • vanilla cookie (semi-crushed) = rock • vanilla pudding = sand • graham cracker crumbs = silt • butterscotch pudding = clay • chocolate pudding / chocolate cookies (semi-crushed) = topsoil with humus There are three main types of soil—sand, silt and clay. When all three are mixed together they create loam. Humus, anything in the process of decaying, is the organic matter found in soil. In this activity, students will
  • 38. layer pudding and cookies to model the major components and layers of soil. This lesson will review the layers of soil as they are in the ground. On the bottom is bedrock, which is the parent material for the soil that will not be shown until erosion or an earthquake exposes it to the world. Next is subsoil, which is mostly sand/silt and clay. This is where most of the nutrients are found and deep plant roots will come here for water. Next is topsoil, which is where plant roots grow and animals live. This is sometimes called the organic layer where decomposers recycle dead plants and animals into the top layer. On top is humus, which includes more decomposing organic material. Students will enjoy their own edible soil models. Extension: While students are enjoying their What are the different 5 minutes soil models, lead a review discussion on the layers of soil? Why is major components of soil and rocks and how it important to conserve soil? they interact with the plant and animal kingdoms. Notes: Students must wash hands before beginning creating their models. Students with food allergies should be given alternative foods. Students should also understand that NOTHING in the science laboratory should be eaten, that this experiment was with food and thus alright to enjoy. http://www.agintheclass.org/Teachers/Documents/Dirt%20Pudding.pdf
  • 39. Stories of Use The following are a series of email, text messages, and Twitter messages sent to our fellow colleague, Gertrude Okyere, on the execution of our lesson plans. Hey Trudy! You will not believe the day we had in science today! You know that we are finishing up our soil unit, right? Well, I had two boys in my class today dare each other to eat the crystals that we made! Stressing the importance of NOT eating anything that we make during labs is really not sinking in with the students. If you don’t lay the foundation for the understanding of how to work safely in the scientific laboratory now, what do you think it is going to be like for these kids in freshman chemistry? It was totally chaotic for the first half of the lesson. Although we had made the solutions on the sixth day, and I had stressed the importance wearing goggles, I still had students who would put the goggles on their head and not over their eyes! Having bad vision myself, and a touch of the claustrophobia I can understand how goggles can be uncomfortable. The lab coats that we got them really seemed to motivate them! Hope you are well! Take care, Rob Hey Trudy! Last day of the soil module. We made models with pudding and cookies. Everything went alright at the beginning. I was quite impressed with how much the students remembered about the layers of soil. Then it happened! Ricky took a giant gob of chocolate pudding on his spoon and flung it at Mackenzie. The whole class was in chaos. I had the principal investigators take charge of their groups, while I dismissed Mackenzie to the restroom. I had Taylor go with her. I pulled Ricky out into the hall. I had him explain his actions. I told him that he wasn’t making a good choice by flinging pudding across the classroom. I had to send him down to Ms. Pickles. By the time I got back into the class, they had settled down and were enjoying their yummy models. Sadly, I don’t think my blood sugar could take all the richness,
  • 40. so I just had one gummy worm and no cookies or pudding. Hope everything is going well in your classes. Let me know. Take care, Rob Day 1: Soil Exploration Me (7:30am): Hey Gertrude! Startin’ my unit today! Wish me luck! Me (9:45 am): I don’t no y I wasted by breath explaining the class rules. The moment we got outside the kids took off runnin’. its gonna be one of those days… Day 3: Earthworms Me (10:00am): I shouldve known, I should’ve known! I just sent one of my boys to the nurse bcuz he swallowed a worm. He said his group dared him to. Now he is crying bcuz his group also told him that the worm is gonna to eat his insides >_< Day 5: Soil Erosion Me (9:30): ________ ___________ _____________________ Me: (10:15): TGIF!!!!!!!!!! Day 6: Growing Crystals Me (9:35): So you kno the boy who ate the worm? Well he is now sittin’ in the principal’s office bcuz he threw salt into another boy’s eyes after the boy asked him how the worm was doing. You know, no matter how much you prepare, something is bound to go wrong. Day 7: Properties of Rock Me (9:50): So far so good. Today has been pretty good. I can’t wait to Me (10:15): Fire Drill….it was raining Day 8: Breaking Rocks Me (945): I’m in a dark corner somewhere, please HELP.ME! Day 10: Making Soil Me (9:30): Last day of the unit! Hooray! Me (10:00): Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, I’m free at last!
  • 41. DAY 1 klchelak Kate Chelak @gertrude Starting our unit on soil today! Woo!!! #soexcited 7:45am klchelak Kate Chelak @gertrude Just saw a third grader high-tailing it out of here, @ericca flying behind him. Shielding my students’ eyes so they don’t get ideas. 9:44am klchelak Kate Chelak @gertrude The sky is blue, the air is warm, the warn-down rocks and decaying matter are in the kids’ hands… 10:02am DAY 2 klchelak Kate Chelak @gertrude Overheard today at the end of class: subsoil, humus, bedrock, topsoil, these are the things for which we toil #studentsongs 10:05am DAY 3 klchelak Kate Chelak @gertrude #worried about how my squeamish girls are going to react today to the worm bins 7:43am klchelak Kate Chelak @gertrude the girls were awesome! “Totally into it” as one of them said. #wormbinforthewin 11:37am DAY 5 klchelak Kate Chelak @gertrude You wouldn’t believe how creative some of these kids are! Erosion wouldn’t be a problem if they were in charge of things. 3:14pm
  • 42. DAY 6 klchelak Kate Chelak @gertrude Growing crystals today! Wish us luck. 7:32am klchelak Kate Chelak @gertrude No one ate anything! #success 5:56pm DAY 9 klchelak Kate Chelak @gertrude No success. Remember those crystals we made? Two kids decided they wanted to see how they tasted today. #goingtothenurse 11:34pm DAY 10 klchelak Kate Chelak @gertrude They’ve learned SO MUCH this unit! #soproud Also, #tgif 4:01pm
  • 43. Bibliography California Science Center (2011). Post visit activity: Wind erosion. Retrieved from http://www.californiasciencecenter.org/Education/GroupPrograms/BigLab/Erosion/docs/ ErosionPost.pdf Dent, E. (2011). Breaking Rocks: Exploration activity. Geology Shop (2002). Education, geology. Retrieved from http://www.geologyshop.co.uk/educat~1.htm GK-12 Fellows Program (2010). Wind erosion and how we can prevent it. Retrieved from http://gk-12.osu.edu/Lessons/4th%20Grade/Wind%20Erosion%204.pdf Home Science Tools: The Gateway to Discovery (2011). Rock experiments. Retrieved from http://www.hometrainingtools.com/rock-cycle-project/a/1349/ Hot Chalk Education (2011). Crystals, Christmas, and Science. Retrieved from http://www.lessonplanspage.com/scienceartmdchristmascrystals46-htm Rocks for Kids (2011). Identifying Minerals. Retrieved from http://www.rocksforkids.com/RFK/identification.html Soil-Net (2010). Soil erosion. Retrieved from http://www.soil-net.com/dev/page.cfm?pageid=secondary_threats_erosion S.O.S Classroom (2010). Crystal growing- cool science experiment. Retrieved from http://sosclassroom.org/summersciencefair2011/grades-k-2-chemistry-growing-crystals Teacher Tube (2010). Wind erosion and the American dustbowl. Retrieved from http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=147083&title=WindErosionandth eAmericanDustbowl Underground Adventure (2005). Worm bins for you classroom. Retrieved from http://archive.fieldmuseum.org/undergroundadventure/teachers/worm_bins.shtml University of Louisville Department of Mathematics (2005). Lesson Planning Guide. Retrieved from http://www.math.louisville.edu/gems/LessonPlans/SoilLessonPlan.pdf U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2009). What on Earth is soil? Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/gmpo/edresources/soil.html
  • 44. Virginia Department of Education (2011). Science standards of learning curriculum framework: Grade three. Retrieved from http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/standards_docs/science/index.shtml