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Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 1
Chapter 9
Organizational Structure and Design
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 2
LEARNING OUTLINE
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.
• Defining Organizational Structure
–Discuss the traditional and contemporary view of work
specialization.
–Describe each of the five forms of departmentalization.
–Explain cross-functional teams.
–Define chain of command, authority, responsibility, and unity
of command.
–Discuss the traditional and contemporary views of chain of
command.
–Discuss the traditional and contemporary views of span of
control.
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 3
LEARNING OUTLINE (cont’d)
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.
• Defining Organizational Structure (cont’d)
–Explain what factors influence the amount of
centralization and decentralization in an organization.
–Explain how formalization is used in organizational
design.
• Organizational Design Decisions
–Contrast mechanistic and organic organizations.
–Explain the relationship between an organization’s
strategy and structure.
–Explain how an organization’s size affects its structure.
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4
LEARNING OUTLINE (cont’d)
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.
• Organizational Design Decisions (cont’d)
–Discuss Woodward’s findings on the relationship of
technology and structure.
–Explain how environmental uncertainty affects an
organization’s structure.
• Common Organizational Designs
–Contrast the three traditional organizational designs.
–Explain team-based, matrix, and project structures.
–Discuss the design of virtual, network, and modular
organizations.
–Describe the characteristics of a learning organization.
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 5
Defining Organizational Structure
• Organizational Structure
– The formal arrangement of jobs within an organization
• Organizational Design
– A process involving decisions about six key elements:
• Work specialization
• Departmentalization
• Chain of command
• Span of control
• Centralization and decentralization
• Formalization
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 6
Exhibit 9.1 Some Purposes of
Organizing
• Divides work to be done into specific jobs and
departments
• Assigns tasks and responsibilities associated with
individual jobs
• Coordinates diverse organizational tasks
• Clusters jobs into units
• Establishes relationships among individuals,
groups, and departments
• Establishes formal lines of authority
• Allocates and deploys organizational resources
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 7
Organizational Structure
• Work Specialization
– The degree to which tasks in the organization are
divided into separate jobs with each step
completed by a different person
• Overspecialization can result in human diseconomies
from boredom, fatigue, stress, poor quality, increased
absenteeism, and higher turnover
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 8
Departmentalization by Type
• Functional
– Grouping jobs by
functions performed
• Product
– Grouping jobs by
product line
• Geographical
– Grouping jobs on the
basis of territory or
geography
• Process
– Grouping jobs on the
basis of product or
customer flow
• Customer
– Grouping jobs by type
of customer and needs
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 9
Exhibit 9.2a Functional
Departmentalization
Plant Manager
Manager,
Manufacturing
Manager,
Human Resources
Manager,
Accounting
Manager,
Engineering
Manager,
Purchasing
+ Efficiencies from putting together similar specialties and
people with common skills, knowledge, and orientations
+ Coordination within functional area
+ In-depth specialization
– Poor communication across functional areas
– Limited view of organizational goals
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 10
Exhibit 9.2b Geographical
Departmentalization
Vice President
for Sales
Sales Director,
Central Region
Sales Director,
Prairies Region
Sales Director,
Western Region
Sales Director,
Eastern Region
+ More effective and efficient handling of specific
regional issues that arise
+ Serve needs of unique geographic markets better
– Duplication of functions
– Can feel isolated from other organizational areas
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 11
Exhibit 9.2c Product Departmentalization
+ Allows specialization in particular products and services
+ Managers can become experts in their industry
+ Closer to customers
– Duplication of functions
– Limited view of organizational goals
Source: Bombardier Annual Report.
Bombardier, Ltd.
Industrial
Equipment Division
Recreational and
Utility Vehicles
Sector
Mass Transit Sector Rail Products
Sector
Rail and Diesel
Products Division
Bombardier–Rotax
(Gunskirchen)
Recreational
Products Division
Logistic
Equipment Division
Mass Transit
Division
Bombardier–Rotax
(Vienna)
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 12
Exhibit 9.2d Process
Departmentalization
+ More efficient flow of work activities
– Can only be used with certain types of products
Plant
Superintendent
Sawing
Departmen
t
Manager
Planing
and Milling
Departmen
t Manager
Assembling
Department
Manager
Lacquering
and Sanding
Department
Manager
Finishing
Department
Manager
Inspection
and
Shipping
Department
Manager
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 13
Exhibit 9.2e Customer
Departmentalization
+ Customers’ needs and problems can be met by specialists
– Duplication of functions
– Limited view of organizational goals
Director
of Sales
Manager,
Wholesale Accounts
Manager,
Retail Accounts
Manager,
Government Accounts
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 14
Organizational Structure (cont’d)
• Chain of Command
– The continuous line of authority that extends from upper
levels of an organization to the lowest levels of the
organization and clarifies who reports to whom
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 15
Organizational Structure (cont’d)
• Authority
– The rights inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to
do and to expect them to do it
• Responsibility
– The obligation or expectation to perform. Responsibility brings
with it accountability (the need to report and justify work to
manager’s superiors)
• Unity of Command
– The concept that a person should have one boss and should report
only to that person
• Delegation
– The assignment of authority to another person to carry out specific
duties
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 16
Organizational Structure (cont’d)
• Line and Staff Authority
– Line managers are responsible for the essential
activities of the organization, including
production and sales. Line managers have the
authority to issue orders to those in the chain of
command
• The president, the production manager, and the sales
manager are examples of line managers
– Staff managers have advisory authority, and
cannot issue orders to those in the chain of
command (except those in their own department)
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 17
Organizational Structure (cont’d)
• Span of Control
– The number of employees who can be effectively and
efficiently supervised by a manager
– Width of span is affected by:
• Skills and abilities of the manager and the employees
• Characteristics of the work being done
• Similarity of tasks
• Complexity of tasks
• Physical proximity of subordinates
• Standardization of tasks
• Sophistication of the organization’s information system
• Strength of the organization’s culture
• Preferred style of the manager
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 18
Exhibit 9.3 Contrasting Spans of
Control
Assuming Span of 4
Span of 4:
Employees:
Managers (level 1–6)
= 4096
= 1365
Span of 8:
Employees:
Managers (level 1–4)
Assuming Span of 8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
(Highest)
(Lowest)
Members at Each Level
1
4
16
64
256
1024
4096
1
8
64
512
4096
OrganizationalLevel
= 4096
= 585
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 19
Organizational Structure (cont’d)
• Centralization
– The degree to which decision making is concentrated at a
single point in the organization
• Organizations in which top managers make all the decisions
and lower-level employees simply carry out those orders
• Decentralization
– The degree to which lower-level employees provide input
or actually make decisions
– Employee Empowerment
• Increasing the decision-making discretion of employees
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 20
Figure 9.4a Factors that Influence
the Amount of Centralization
• More Centralization
– Environment is stable
– Lower-level managers are not as capable or experienced
at making decisions as upper-level managers
– Lower-level managers do not want to have a say in
decisions
– Decisions are significant
– Organization is facing a crisis or the risk of company
failure
– Company is large
– Effective implementation of company strategies depends
on managers retaining say over what happens
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 21
Figure 9.4b Factors that Influence
the Amount of Decentralization
• More Decentralization
– Environment is complex, uncertain
– Lower-level managers are capable and experienced at
making decisions
– Lower-level managers want a voice in decisions
– Decisions are relatively minor
– Corporate culture is open to allowing managers to have a
say in what happens
– Company is geographically dispersed
– Effective implementation of company strategies depends
on managers having involvement and flexibility to make
decisions
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 22
Organizational Structure (cont’d)
• Formalization
– The degree to which jobs within the organization
are standardized and the extent to which
employee behaviour is guided by rules and
procedures
• Highly formalized jobs offer little discretion over what is
to be done
• Low formalization means fewer constraints on how
employees do their work
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 23
Organizational Design Decisions
• Mechanistic Organization
– A rigid and tightly
controlled structure
• High specialization
• Rigid departmentalization
• Narrow spans of control
• High formalization
• Limited information
network (mostly
downward
communication)
• Low decision participation
by lower-level employees
• Organic Organization
– Highly flexible and
adaptable structure
• Nonstandardized jobs
• Fluid team-based structure
• Little direct supervision
• Minimal formal rules
• Open communication
network
• Empowered employees
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 24
Exhibit 9.5 Mechanistic Versus
Organic Organization
Mechanistic
•High Specialization
•Rigid Departmentalization
•Clear Chain of Command
•Narrow Spans of Control
•Centralization
•High Formalization
Organic
•Cross-Functional Teams
•Cross-Hierarchical Teams
•Free Flow of Information
•Wide Spans of Control
•Decentralization
•Low Formalization
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 25
Structural Contingency Factors
• Structural decisions are influenced by:
– Overall strategy of the organization
• Organizational structure follows strategy
– Size of the organization
• Firms change from organic to mechanistic organizations as
they grow in size
– Technology use by the organization
• Firms adapt their structure to the technology they use
– Degree of environmental uncertainty
• Dynamic environments require organic structures; mechanistic
structures need stable environments
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 26
Structural Contingency Factors
(cont’d)
• Strategy Frameworks:
– Innovation
• Pursuing competitive advantage through meaningful and
unique innovations favours an organic structuring
– Cost minimization
• Focusing on tightly controlling costs requires a
mechanistic structure for the organization
– Imitation
• Minimizing risks and maximizing profitability by
copying market leaders requires both organic and
mechanistic elements in the organization’s structure
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 27
Structural Contingency Factors
(cont’d)
• Strategy and Structure
– Achievement of strategic goals is facilitated by
changes in organizational structure that
accommodate and support change
• Size and Structure
– As an organization grows larger, its structure
tends to change from organic to mechanistic with
increased specialization, departmentalization,
centralization, and rules and regulations
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 28
Structural Contingency Factors
(cont’d)
• Technology and Structure
– Organizations adapt their structures to their
technology
– Woodward’s classification of firms based on the
complexity of the technology employed:
• Unit production of single units or small batches
• Mass production of large batches of output
• Process production in continuous process of outputs
– Routine technology = mechanistic organizations
– Non–routine technology = organic organizations
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 29
Structural Contingency Factors
(cont’d)
• Environmental Uncertainty and Structure
– Mechanistic organizational structures tend to be
most effective in stable and simple environments
– The flexibility of organic organizational
structures is better suited for dynamic and
complex environments
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 30
Exhibit 9.6 Woodward’s Findings on
Technology, Structure, and
Effectiveness
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 31
Common Organizational Designs
• Traditional Designs
– Simple Structure
• Low departmentalization, wide spans of control, centralized
authority, little formalization
– Functional Structure
• Departmentalization by function
– Operations, finance, human resources, and product research and
development
– Divisional Structure
• Composed of separate business units or divisions with limited
autonomy under the coordination and control of the parent
corporation
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 32
Exhibit 9.7 Strengths and
Weaknesses of Common Traditional
Organizational Designs
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 33
Organizational Designs (cont’d)
• Contemporary Organizational Designs
– Team Structures
• The entire organization is made up of work groups or
self-managed teams of empowered employees
– Matrix Structures
• Specialists for different functional departments are
assigned to work on projects led by project managers
• Matrix participants have two managers
– Project Structures
• Employees work continuously on projects, moving on to
another project as each project is completed
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 34
Exhibit 9.8 Contemporary
Organizational Designs
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 35
Exhibit 9.9 A Matrix Organization
in an Aerospace Firm
Design
Engineering
Manufacturing
Contract
Administration
Purchasing Accounting
Human
Resources (HR)
Design
Group
Alpha
Project
Manufacturing
Group
Contract
Group
Purchasing
Group
Accounting
Group
HR
Group
Design
Group
Beta
Project
Manufacturing
Group
Contract
Group
Purchasing
Group
Accounting
Group
HR
Group
Design
Group
Gamma
Project
Manufacturing
Group
Contract
Group
Purchasing
Group
Accounting
Group
HR
Group
Design
Group
Omega
Project
Manufacturing
Group
Contract
Group
Purchasing
Group
Accounting
Group
HR
Group
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 36
Organizational Designs (cont’d)
• Contemporary Organizational Designs (cont’d)
– Boundaryless Organization
• A flexible and an unstructured organizational design that
is intended to break down external barriers between the
organization and its customers and suppliers
• Removes internal (horizontal) boundaries:
– Eliminates the chain of command
– Has limitless spans of control
– Uses empowered teams rather than departments
• Eliminates external boundaries:
– Uses virtual, network, and modular organizational
structures to get closer to stakeholders
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 37
Removing Boundaries
• Virtual Organization
– An organization that consists of a small core of full-time
employees and that temporarily hires specialists to work
on opportunities that arise
• Network Organization
– A small core organization that outsources its major
business functions (e.g., manufacturing) in order to
concentrate on what it does best
• Modular Organization
– A manufacturing organization that uses outside suppliers
to provide product components for its final assembly
operations
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 38
Outsourcing Issues
• Problems in Outsourcing
– Choosing the wrong activities to outsource
– Choosing the wrong vendor
– Writing a poor contract
– Failing to consider personnel issues
– Losing control over the activity
– Ignoring the hidden costs
– Failing to develop an exit strategy (for either moving to
another vendor, or deciding to bring the activity back in-
house)
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 39
Organizational Designs (cont’d)
• Learning Organization
– An organization that has developed the capacity to
continuously learn, adapt, and change through the practice
of knowledge management by employees
– Characteristics of a learning organization:
• An open team-based organization design that empowers
employees
• Extensive and open information sharing
• Leadership that provides a shared vision of the organization’s
future; support; and encouragement
• A strong culture of shared values, trust, openness, and a sense
of community
Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and
Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian
Edition.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 40
Exhibit 9.10 Characteristics of a
Learning Organization
Organizational Design
• Boundaryless
• Teams
• Empowerment
Organizational Culture
•Strong Mutual Relationships
• Sense of Community
• Caring
• Trust
Information Sharing
• Open
• Timely
• Accurate
Leadership
• Shared Vision
• Collaboration
THE LEARNING
ORGANIZATION

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Robbins mng8ce 09

  • 1. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 1 Chapter 9 Organizational Structure and Design
  • 2. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 2 LEARNING OUTLINE Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. • Defining Organizational Structure –Discuss the traditional and contemporary view of work specialization. –Describe each of the five forms of departmentalization. –Explain cross-functional teams. –Define chain of command, authority, responsibility, and unity of command. –Discuss the traditional and contemporary views of chain of command. –Discuss the traditional and contemporary views of span of control.
  • 3. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 3 LEARNING OUTLINE (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. • Defining Organizational Structure (cont’d) –Explain what factors influence the amount of centralization and decentralization in an organization. –Explain how formalization is used in organizational design. • Organizational Design Decisions –Contrast mechanistic and organic organizations. –Explain the relationship between an organization’s strategy and structure. –Explain how an organization’s size affects its structure.
  • 4. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4 LEARNING OUTLINE (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. • Organizational Design Decisions (cont’d) –Discuss Woodward’s findings on the relationship of technology and structure. –Explain how environmental uncertainty affects an organization’s structure. • Common Organizational Designs –Contrast the three traditional organizational designs. –Explain team-based, matrix, and project structures. –Discuss the design of virtual, network, and modular organizations. –Describe the characteristics of a learning organization.
  • 5. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 5 Defining Organizational Structure • Organizational Structure – The formal arrangement of jobs within an organization • Organizational Design – A process involving decisions about six key elements: • Work specialization • Departmentalization • Chain of command • Span of control • Centralization and decentralization • Formalization
  • 6. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 6 Exhibit 9.1 Some Purposes of Organizing • Divides work to be done into specific jobs and departments • Assigns tasks and responsibilities associated with individual jobs • Coordinates diverse organizational tasks • Clusters jobs into units • Establishes relationships among individuals, groups, and departments • Establishes formal lines of authority • Allocates and deploys organizational resources
  • 7. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 7 Organizational Structure • Work Specialization – The degree to which tasks in the organization are divided into separate jobs with each step completed by a different person • Overspecialization can result in human diseconomies from boredom, fatigue, stress, poor quality, increased absenteeism, and higher turnover
  • 8. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 8 Departmentalization by Type • Functional – Grouping jobs by functions performed • Product – Grouping jobs by product line • Geographical – Grouping jobs on the basis of territory or geography • Process – Grouping jobs on the basis of product or customer flow • Customer – Grouping jobs by type of customer and needs
  • 9. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 9 Exhibit 9.2a Functional Departmentalization Plant Manager Manager, Manufacturing Manager, Human Resources Manager, Accounting Manager, Engineering Manager, Purchasing + Efficiencies from putting together similar specialties and people with common skills, knowledge, and orientations + Coordination within functional area + In-depth specialization – Poor communication across functional areas – Limited view of organizational goals
  • 10. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 10 Exhibit 9.2b Geographical Departmentalization Vice President for Sales Sales Director, Central Region Sales Director, Prairies Region Sales Director, Western Region Sales Director, Eastern Region + More effective and efficient handling of specific regional issues that arise + Serve needs of unique geographic markets better – Duplication of functions – Can feel isolated from other organizational areas
  • 11. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 11 Exhibit 9.2c Product Departmentalization + Allows specialization in particular products and services + Managers can become experts in their industry + Closer to customers – Duplication of functions – Limited view of organizational goals Source: Bombardier Annual Report. Bombardier, Ltd. Industrial Equipment Division Recreational and Utility Vehicles Sector Mass Transit Sector Rail Products Sector Rail and Diesel Products Division Bombardier–Rotax (Gunskirchen) Recreational Products Division Logistic Equipment Division Mass Transit Division Bombardier–Rotax (Vienna)
  • 12. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 12 Exhibit 9.2d Process Departmentalization + More efficient flow of work activities – Can only be used with certain types of products Plant Superintendent Sawing Departmen t Manager Planing and Milling Departmen t Manager Assembling Department Manager Lacquering and Sanding Department Manager Finishing Department Manager Inspection and Shipping Department Manager
  • 13. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 13 Exhibit 9.2e Customer Departmentalization + Customers’ needs and problems can be met by specialists – Duplication of functions – Limited view of organizational goals Director of Sales Manager, Wholesale Accounts Manager, Retail Accounts Manager, Government Accounts
  • 14. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 14 Organizational Structure (cont’d) • Chain of Command – The continuous line of authority that extends from upper levels of an organization to the lowest levels of the organization and clarifies who reports to whom
  • 15. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 15 Organizational Structure (cont’d) • Authority – The rights inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to do and to expect them to do it • Responsibility – The obligation or expectation to perform. Responsibility brings with it accountability (the need to report and justify work to manager’s superiors) • Unity of Command – The concept that a person should have one boss and should report only to that person • Delegation – The assignment of authority to another person to carry out specific duties
  • 16. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 16 Organizational Structure (cont’d) • Line and Staff Authority – Line managers are responsible for the essential activities of the organization, including production and sales. Line managers have the authority to issue orders to those in the chain of command • The president, the production manager, and the sales manager are examples of line managers – Staff managers have advisory authority, and cannot issue orders to those in the chain of command (except those in their own department)
  • 17. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 17 Organizational Structure (cont’d) • Span of Control – The number of employees who can be effectively and efficiently supervised by a manager – Width of span is affected by: • Skills and abilities of the manager and the employees • Characteristics of the work being done • Similarity of tasks • Complexity of tasks • Physical proximity of subordinates • Standardization of tasks • Sophistication of the organization’s information system • Strength of the organization’s culture • Preferred style of the manager
  • 18. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 18 Exhibit 9.3 Contrasting Spans of Control Assuming Span of 4 Span of 4: Employees: Managers (level 1–6) = 4096 = 1365 Span of 8: Employees: Managers (level 1–4) Assuming Span of 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (Highest) (Lowest) Members at Each Level 1 4 16 64 256 1024 4096 1 8 64 512 4096 OrganizationalLevel = 4096 = 585
  • 19. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 19 Organizational Structure (cont’d) • Centralization – The degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization • Organizations in which top managers make all the decisions and lower-level employees simply carry out those orders • Decentralization – The degree to which lower-level employees provide input or actually make decisions – Employee Empowerment • Increasing the decision-making discretion of employees
  • 20. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 20 Figure 9.4a Factors that Influence the Amount of Centralization • More Centralization – Environment is stable – Lower-level managers are not as capable or experienced at making decisions as upper-level managers – Lower-level managers do not want to have a say in decisions – Decisions are significant – Organization is facing a crisis or the risk of company failure – Company is large – Effective implementation of company strategies depends on managers retaining say over what happens
  • 21. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 21 Figure 9.4b Factors that Influence the Amount of Decentralization • More Decentralization – Environment is complex, uncertain – Lower-level managers are capable and experienced at making decisions – Lower-level managers want a voice in decisions – Decisions are relatively minor – Corporate culture is open to allowing managers to have a say in what happens – Company is geographically dispersed – Effective implementation of company strategies depends on managers having involvement and flexibility to make decisions
  • 22. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 22 Organizational Structure (cont’d) • Formalization – The degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized and the extent to which employee behaviour is guided by rules and procedures • Highly formalized jobs offer little discretion over what is to be done • Low formalization means fewer constraints on how employees do their work
  • 23. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 23 Organizational Design Decisions • Mechanistic Organization – A rigid and tightly controlled structure • High specialization • Rigid departmentalization • Narrow spans of control • High formalization • Limited information network (mostly downward communication) • Low decision participation by lower-level employees • Organic Organization – Highly flexible and adaptable structure • Nonstandardized jobs • Fluid team-based structure • Little direct supervision • Minimal formal rules • Open communication network • Empowered employees
  • 24. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 24 Exhibit 9.5 Mechanistic Versus Organic Organization Mechanistic •High Specialization •Rigid Departmentalization •Clear Chain of Command •Narrow Spans of Control •Centralization •High Formalization Organic •Cross-Functional Teams •Cross-Hierarchical Teams •Free Flow of Information •Wide Spans of Control •Decentralization •Low Formalization
  • 25. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 25 Structural Contingency Factors • Structural decisions are influenced by: – Overall strategy of the organization • Organizational structure follows strategy – Size of the organization • Firms change from organic to mechanistic organizations as they grow in size – Technology use by the organization • Firms adapt their structure to the technology they use – Degree of environmental uncertainty • Dynamic environments require organic structures; mechanistic structures need stable environments
  • 26. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 26 Structural Contingency Factors (cont’d) • Strategy Frameworks: – Innovation • Pursuing competitive advantage through meaningful and unique innovations favours an organic structuring – Cost minimization • Focusing on tightly controlling costs requires a mechanistic structure for the organization – Imitation • Minimizing risks and maximizing profitability by copying market leaders requires both organic and mechanistic elements in the organization’s structure
  • 27. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 27 Structural Contingency Factors (cont’d) • Strategy and Structure – Achievement of strategic goals is facilitated by changes in organizational structure that accommodate and support change • Size and Structure – As an organization grows larger, its structure tends to change from organic to mechanistic with increased specialization, departmentalization, centralization, and rules and regulations
  • 28. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 28 Structural Contingency Factors (cont’d) • Technology and Structure – Organizations adapt their structures to their technology – Woodward’s classification of firms based on the complexity of the technology employed: • Unit production of single units or small batches • Mass production of large batches of output • Process production in continuous process of outputs – Routine technology = mechanistic organizations – Non–routine technology = organic organizations
  • 29. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 29 Structural Contingency Factors (cont’d) • Environmental Uncertainty and Structure – Mechanistic organizational structures tend to be most effective in stable and simple environments – The flexibility of organic organizational structures is better suited for dynamic and complex environments
  • 30. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 30 Exhibit 9.6 Woodward’s Findings on Technology, Structure, and Effectiveness
  • 31. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 31 Common Organizational Designs • Traditional Designs – Simple Structure • Low departmentalization, wide spans of control, centralized authority, little formalization – Functional Structure • Departmentalization by function – Operations, finance, human resources, and product research and development – Divisional Structure • Composed of separate business units or divisions with limited autonomy under the coordination and control of the parent corporation
  • 32. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 32 Exhibit 9.7 Strengths and Weaknesses of Common Traditional Organizational Designs
  • 33. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 33 Organizational Designs (cont’d) • Contemporary Organizational Designs – Team Structures • The entire organization is made up of work groups or self-managed teams of empowered employees – Matrix Structures • Specialists for different functional departments are assigned to work on projects led by project managers • Matrix participants have two managers – Project Structures • Employees work continuously on projects, moving on to another project as each project is completed
  • 34. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 34 Exhibit 9.8 Contemporary Organizational Designs
  • 35. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 35 Exhibit 9.9 A Matrix Organization in an Aerospace Firm Design Engineering Manufacturing Contract Administration Purchasing Accounting Human Resources (HR) Design Group Alpha Project Manufacturing Group Contract Group Purchasing Group Accounting Group HR Group Design Group Beta Project Manufacturing Group Contract Group Purchasing Group Accounting Group HR Group Design Group Gamma Project Manufacturing Group Contract Group Purchasing Group Accounting Group HR Group Design Group Omega Project Manufacturing Group Contract Group Purchasing Group Accounting Group HR Group
  • 36. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 36 Organizational Designs (cont’d) • Contemporary Organizational Designs (cont’d) – Boundaryless Organization • A flexible and an unstructured organizational design that is intended to break down external barriers between the organization and its customers and suppliers • Removes internal (horizontal) boundaries: – Eliminates the chain of command – Has limitless spans of control – Uses empowered teams rather than departments • Eliminates external boundaries: – Uses virtual, network, and modular organizational structures to get closer to stakeholders
  • 37. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 37 Removing Boundaries • Virtual Organization – An organization that consists of a small core of full-time employees and that temporarily hires specialists to work on opportunities that arise • Network Organization – A small core organization that outsources its major business functions (e.g., manufacturing) in order to concentrate on what it does best • Modular Organization – A manufacturing organization that uses outside suppliers to provide product components for its final assembly operations
  • 38. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 38 Outsourcing Issues • Problems in Outsourcing – Choosing the wrong activities to outsource – Choosing the wrong vendor – Writing a poor contract – Failing to consider personnel issues – Losing control over the activity – Ignoring the hidden costs – Failing to develop an exit strategy (for either moving to another vendor, or deciding to bring the activity back in- house)
  • 39. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 39 Organizational Designs (cont’d) • Learning Organization – An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change through the practice of knowledge management by employees – Characteristics of a learning organization: • An open team-based organization design that empowers employees • Extensive and open information sharing • Leadership that provides a shared vision of the organization’s future; support; and encouragement • A strong culture of shared values, trust, openness, and a sense of community
  • 40. Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 40 Exhibit 9.10 Characteristics of a Learning Organization Organizational Design • Boundaryless • Teams • Empowerment Organizational Culture •Strong Mutual Relationships • Sense of Community • Caring • Trust Information Sharing • Open • Timely • Accurate Leadership • Shared Vision • Collaboration THE LEARNING ORGANIZATION

Editor's Notes

  1. Organizational structure can play an important role in an organization’s success. The process of organizing—the second management function—is how an organization’s structure is created. Managers seek structural designs that will best support and allow employees to effectively and efficiently do their work. A. Before we look at the elements of organizational structure and design, we need to define some important terms. 1. Organizing is the process of creating an organization’s structure. That process has several purposes, as shown in Exhibit 9.1 . 2. An organizational structure is the formal arrangement of jobs within an organization. 3. Organizational design is the process of developing or changing an organization’s structure. It involves decisions about six key elements: work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization/decentralization, and formalization. We need to take a closer look at each of these structural elements.
  2. Work specialization is the degree to which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs. Most managers today see work specialization as an important organizing mechanism but not as a source of ever-increasing productivity.
  3. Departmentalization. Once work tasks have been defined, they must be grouped together in some way through a process called departmentalization—the basis on which jobs are grouped in order to accomplish organizational goals. There are five major ways to departmentalize ( Exhibit 9.2 ): 1. Functional departmentalization is grouping jobs by functions performed. 2. Product departmentalization is grouping jobs by product line. 3. Geographical departmentalization is grouping jobs on the basis of territory or geography. 4. Process departmentalization is grouping jobs on the basis of product or customer flow. 5. Customer departmentalization is grouping jobs on the basis of common customers. 6. Two popular trends in departmentalization include: a. Customer departmentalization continues to be a highly popular approach because it allows better monitoring of customers’ needs and responding to those changes in needs. b. Cross-functional teams , a hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties (or functions) and who work together, are being used along with traditional departmental arrangements.
  4. Functional departmentalization is grouping jobs by functions performed.
  5. Geographical departmentalization is grouping jobs on the basis of territory or geography.
  6. Product departmentalization is grouping jobs by product line.
  7. Process departmentalization is grouping jobs on the basis of product or customer flow.
  8. Customer departmentalization is grouping jobs on the basis of common customers.
  9. The chain of command is the continuous line of authority that extends from the upper organizational levels to the lowest levels and clarifies who reports to whom. Three related concepts include authority, responsibility, and unity of command.
  10. 1. Authority is the right inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to do and to expect them to do it. 2. Responsibility is the obligation or expectation to perform. Responsibility brings with it accountability , which is the need to report and justify work to a manager’s superiors. 3. Unity of command is the classical management principle that a subordinate should have one and only one superior to whom he or she is directly responsible; that is, a person should report to only one manager. a. Because managers have limited time and knowledge, they may choose to delegate some of their responsibilities to other employees. Delegation is the assignment of authority to another person to carry out specific duties, allowing employees to make some of the decisions.
  11. a. Line managers are responsible for the essential activities of the organization, including production and sales. b. Staff managers have advisory authority, and cannot issue orders to those in the chain of command, except for those in their own department.
  12. The concept of span of control refers to the number of subordinates a manager can supervise effectively and efficiently. 1. The span of control concept is important because it determines how many levels and managers an organization will have (see Exhibit 9.3 for an example). 2. What determines the “ideal” span of control? Contingency factors such as the skills and abilities of the manager and the employees, the characteristics of the work being done, similarity of employee tasks, the complexity of those tasks, the physical proximity of subordinates, the degree to which standardized procedures are in place, the sophistication of the organization’s information system, the strength of the organization’s culture, and the preferred style of the manager will influence the ideal number of subordinates. 3. The trend in recent years has been toward larger spans of control.
  13. As Exhibit 9.3 shows, if one organization has a uniform span of four and the other a span of eight, the wider span will have two fewer levels and approximately 800 fewer managers. If the average manager made $42 000 a year, the organization with the wider span would save over $33 million a year in management salaries alone!
  14. The concepts of centralization and decentralization address who, where, and how decisions are made in organizations. 1. Centralization is the degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization, usually in the upper levels of the organization. 2. Decentralization is the handing down of decision-making authority to lower levels in an organization. 3. The trend is toward decentralizing decision making in order to make organizations more flexible and responsive. 4. Employee empowerment is another term for increased decentralization and is the increasing of the decision-making discretion of employees. 5. A number of factors will influence the amount of centralization or decentralization an organization uses (see Exhibit 9.4 ).
  15. Formalization refers to the degree to which jobs within an organization are standardized and the extent to which employee behaviour is guided by rules and procedures. 1. In a highly formalized organization, employees have little discretion, and there’s a high level of consistent and uniform output. Formalized organizations have explicit job descriptions, lots of organizational rules, and clearly defined procedures. 2. In a less-formalized organization, employees have a lot of freedom and can exercise discretion in the way they do their work. 3. Standardization not only eliminates the possibility that employees will engage in alternative behaviours, it even removes the need for employees to consider alternatives. 4. The degree of formalization can vary widely between organizations and even within organizations.
  16. Organizations don’t have the same structures. Even companies of similar size do not necessarily have similar structures. A. Mechanistic and Organic organizational forms (see Exhibit 9.5 ). 1) A mechanistic organization is an organizational structure that’s characterized by high specialization, rigid departmentalization, narrow spans of control, high formalization, a limited information network, and little participation in decision making by low-level employees. 2) An organic organization is a structure that’s highly adaptive and flexible with little work specialization, minimal formalization, and little direct supervision of employees. 3) When is each design favoured? It “depends” on the contingency variables.
  17. Mechanistic and Organic organizational forms (see Exhibit 9.5 ).
  18. Contingency factors—appropriate structure depends on four contingency variables: 1. Strategy and Structure . One of the contingency variables that influences organizational design is the organization’s strategy. 2. Size and Structure . There’s considerable historical evidence that an organization’s size significantly affects its structure. Larger organizations tend to have more specialization, departmentalization, centralization, and formalization although the size-structure relationship is not linear. 3. Technology also has been shown to affect an organization’s choice of structure. Every organization uses some form of technology to transform inputs into outputs.
  19. 1. Strategy and Structure . One of the contingency variables that influences organizational design is the organization’s strategy. a. Most current strategy-structure frameworks tend to focus on three strategy dimensions: 1) Innovation—needs the flexibility and free flow of information of the organic organization 2) Cost minimization—needs the efficiency, stability, and tight controls of the mechanistic organization 3) Imitation—which uses characteristics of both mechanistic and organic 2. Size and Structure . There’s considerable historical evidence that an organization’s size significantly affects its structure. Larger organizations tend to have more specialization, departmentalization, centralization, and formalization although the size-structure relationship is not linear.
  20. 3. Technology also has been shown to affect an organization’s choice of structure. a. Every organization uses some form of technology to transform inputs into outputs. b. Joan Woodward’s study of structure and technology found that organizations adapted to their technology. She found that three distinct technologies had increasing levels of complexity and sophistication. 1) Unit production is the production of items in units or small batches. 2) Mass production is large-batch manufacturing. 3) Process production is continuous-process production. c. Woodward found in her study of these three groups that distinct relationships existed between these technologies, the subsequent structure of the organization, and the effectiveness of the organization. Exhibit 9.6 provides a summary of these findings.
  21. The final contingency factor that has been shown to affect organizational structure is environmental uncertainty. One way to manage environmental uncertainty is through adjustments in the organization’s structure. The more uncertain the environment, the more flexible and responsive the organization may need to be.
  22. Woodward found in her study of these three groups that distinct relationships existed between these technologies, the subsequent structure of the organization, and the effectiveness of the organization. Exhibit 9.6 provides a summary of these findings.
  23. We now need to look at various organizational designs that you might see in today’s organizations. Exhibit 9.7 summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of each of these designs. 1. A simple structure is an organizational design with low departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization. a. Its strengths are its flexibility, speed, and low cost to maintain. b. Its major drawback is that it’s most effective in small organizations. 2. As an organization grows, the structure tends to become more specialized and formalized. When contingency factors favour a bureaucratic or mechanistic design, one of two options is likely to be used. 3. One option expands functional departmentalization into the functional structure, which is an organizational design that groups similar or related occupational specialties together. 4. The other option is the divisional structure, which is an organizational structure made up of autonomous, self-contained units.
  24. Exhibit 9.7 summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of each of the traditional organizational designs.
  25. However, many of today’s organizations are finding that the traditional hierarchical organizational designs aren’t appropriate for the increasingly dynamic and complex environments they face. 1. Team structures . One of the newer concepts in organizational design is the team structure, which is an organizational structure made up of work groups or teams that perform the organization’s work. 2. Matrix and Project Structures . Another variation in organizational arrangements is based on the fact that many of today’s organizations deal with work activities of different time requirements and magnitude. a. One of these arrangements is the matrix organization, which assigns specialists from different functional departments to work on one or more projects being led by project managers (see Exhibit 9.9 ). b. Another of these designs is the project structure, which is a structure in which employees are permanently assigned to projects.
  26. Exhibit 9.8 summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of each of the contemporary organizational designs.
  27. A matrix organization assigns specialists from different functional departments to work on one or more projects being led by project managers (see Exhibit 9.9 ).
  28. Another approach to organizational design is the boundaryless organization , which describes an organization whose design is not defined by, or limited to, the horizontal, vertical, or external boundaries imposed by a predefined structure.
  29. a. A virtual organization is one that consists of a small core of full-time employees and that temporarily hires outside specialists to work on opportunities that arise b. A network organization is a small core organization that outsources major business functions c. A modular organization is a manufacturing organization that uses outside suppliers to provide product components that are then assembled into final products.
  30. A review of 91 outsourcing activities found that the most likely reasons for an outsourcing venture to fail were writing a poor contract and losing control of the activity. Canadian managers say they are reluctant to outsource. In a 2004 survey of 603 Canadian companies by Ipsos-Reid, 60% were not eager to ship software development overseas. Reasons: Concerned with controlling costs (36%) Preferred to keep jobs in Canada (32%) Concerned about losing control of projects that went overseas (33%)
  31. Some organizations have adopted an organizational philosophy of a learning organization —an organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change because all members take an active role in identifying and resolving work-related issues. Exhibit 9.10 shows the characteristics of a learning organization.
  32. Exhibit 9.10 shows the characteristics of a learning organization.