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The occupations found recorded in documents
Acater - ship's chandler, one who supplies food provisions to a ship
Accipitrary - falconer
Accomptant - accountant
Accoucheur - one who assists women in childbirth; midwife
Accoutre / Accoutrement maker - one who outfitted or supplied military clothing or equipment
Ackerman, Acreman - ploughman, ox herder
Actuary - accountant
Aeronaut - balloonist or trapeze artist
Affeeror - official in the manorial courts responsible for assessing the monetary penalty and
collecting taxes and dues, assessor
Alblastere - old Scottish term for a crossbow man
Albergatore - inn keeper (Italian)
Alchemist - medieval chemist who claimed to be able to turn metal into gold
Alderman - an elected member of a municipal council; a noble serving the king as chief officer of a
district
Ale conner - official who tested the quality and measure of ale served in public houses
Ale-draper, Ale draper - a tapster or seller of ale
Ale-tunner, Ale tunner - one who worked among or was employed to fill "tuns," great hogshead
barrels or casks used to store ale in medieval times
All spice - grocer
Ale-wife, Alewife - landlady of an ale house, or ale stand
Almoner - one who distributes alms, provides for the needy; in Britain may also refer to a hospital
social worker
Amanuensis - stenographer, one who takes dictation
Ambler - one who worked in a stable to help break in horses
Amen man - parish clerk
Anchor smith - one who made anchors
Ankle beater - young person who helped drive cattle to market
Annatto maker - one who made annatto dye for paint and printing trades, derived from the seeds of
the achiote tree
Annealer - one who processed metal or glass by heating it in a furnace and then slowly cooling it via
chemicals or other means
Antigropelos maker - one who made waterproof leg coverings meant to protect trousers from
splashing and dirt
Apiarian - beekeeper
Apiculteur - beekeeper (French)
Apparitor - official who summoned witnesses for the ecclesiastical courts
Apothecary - One that prepares and sells drugs and medicines, a pharmacist
Aquarius - waterman
Aratore - plowman
Arbalist - a crossbow man
Arbiter - a person who judged disputes
Archiator - doctor, physician
Archil maker - one who made a reddish-purple dye called archil for use in dying textiles; the dye was
made by bruising lichens and then moistening it with urine or spirits mixed with lime
Argenter - silver plater
Arkwright - A skilled craftsman who produced wooden chests or coffers (arks)
Armiger - squire who carried the armor of a knight
Armourer - one who made suits of armor, or plates of armor for ships
Arpenteur - land surveyor (French)
Arrimeur - stevedore, one who is employed in the loading and unloading of ships (French)
Artificer - a skilled craftsman or artisan; an enlisted military man responsible for upkeep of weapons
and small arms; or an inventor
Ashman - one who collected ashes and garbage
Aubergiste - inn keeper (French)
Augermaker - one who made augers for boring holes in wood
Aurifaber - a goldsmith, or one who works with gold
Avenator - merchant of hay and forage
Avvocato - lawyer or soliciter
Axel tree turner - one who made axles for coaches and wagons
Bailie - bailiff
Barker - tanner
Baxter - baker
Blacksmith - one who shoes horses
Bluestocking - female writer
Boniface - inn keeper
Brasiler - dyer
Brazier - one who works with brass
Brewster - beer or ale manufacturer
Brightsmith - metal worker
Brownsmith - copper or brass smith
Burgonmaster - mayor
Burnisher - metal polisher
Carnifex - butcher
Caulker - one who makes things watertight by packing seams in windows, ships, etc., with a
waterproof material, such as oakum or pitch
Chaisemaker - carriage maker
Chandler - dealer or trader; one who makes or sells candles; grocer
Chiffonnier - wig maker
Clark - clerk
Clerk - clergyman; cleric
Cohen - priest
Collier - coal miner
Colporteur - book peddler
Cooper - maker or repairer of wooden barrels, casks, and tubs
Cordwainer - shoemaker (originally any leather worker using Cordovan leather, from Cordova,
Spain)
Costermonger - peddler of fruits and vegetables
Crocker - potter
Crowner - coroner
Currier - tanner of leather; one who curries horses
Dareman - dairyman
Daunsel - gentleman in waiting; groom; squire
Dexter - dyer
Diviner - one who finds water under the ground using dowsing rods or witching stick
Docker - stevedor; dock worker who loads and unloads cargo
Dowser - one who finds water under the ground using dowsing rods or witching stick
Draper - dealer in cloth and dry goods
Drayman - driver of a dray, a long strong cart without fixed sides for carrying heavy loads
Dresser - surgeon's assistant in a hospital
Drover - driver of animals to market; dealer in cattle
Drummer - traveling salesman
Dubbere - cloth dubber, one who raises the nap of cloth
Duffer - peddler
Dyer - one who dyes cloth
Elymaker - oilmaker
Endholdernn - inn keeper
Enumerator - census taker
Executrix - female executor
Faber - smith
Falkner - keeper/trainer of falcons
Farmer - tax-collector or bailiff
Farrier - horse doctor, one in charge of horses
Fell Monger - one who removes hair or wool from hides in preparation for leather making
Felter - cleaner and thickener of cloth
Fence Viewer - one who inspects farmer's fences
Feroner - a dealer in hardware made of iron. Also known as an Ironmonger.
Flauner - confectioner
Flax Dresser - one who works with flax fibers
Fleshewer - butcher
Fletcher - maker of bows and arrows; arrowmaker
Forestarius - forester
Framar - farmer
Frereman - servant of the Friars
Fuller - fuller of cloth, one who shrunk and thickened woolen cloth by washing, heating and pressing
Furber / Furbour - furbisher of armour
Furner - baker
Gaoler - jailer
Garlekmonger - garlicmonger; dealer in garlic
Gatward - goatkeeper
Gelder - a castrator of animals, especially horses
Ginerr - joiner
Glassewryght - glasswright; maker and mender of glassware
Glazier - glazier; repairer of windows
Glover - dealer or maker of gloves
Gobar - jobber
Grecher - grocer
Guilderer - maker of gold or silver coins
Gynour - engineer
Hacker - hoe maker
Hansard - weapon maker or seller
Harper - musician
Hatcheler - one who combed out flax
Hawker - peddler
Haymonger - dealer in hay
Hayward - keeper of fences
Headborough - constable
Hedger - one who trims and tends hedgerows
Hetheleder - provider of heather for fuel
Higgler - itinerant peddler
Hillard / Hillier - tiler one who covers houses with slate
Hind - farm laborer
Hooker - reaper
Hooper - maker of hoops for casks, barrels, tubs etc.
Horsler - stableman or groom; horse servant at an inn
Hosteler - innkeeper
Huckster - seller of small articles/wares
Indentured servant - one who was committed to working for someone for a fixed number of years
(usually 4 to 7), in exchange for passage to a new country or some other financial consideration.
Ironmonger - a dealer in hardware made of iron. Also known as a Feroner.
Intelligencer - a spy
Husbandman - a farmer; animal husbandry; tenant farmer
Jagger - A peddler or hawker of fish
Journeyman - craftsman who had served his apprentice, a master craftsman
Joyner / Joiner - joiner; skilled carpenter
Jouster - A female hawker of fish; a fish monger
Kedger - a fisherman
Keeler - bargeman
Keller - salt keeper
Kellogg - slaughter man
Kempster - wool comber
Kepegest - innkeeper
Kneller / Knuller - a chimney sweep who solicited jobs door-to-door
Lagger - a sailor
Lapidary - one who cuts, polishes, or engraves precious stones; a jeweler
Lattener - one skilled in working with latten, a mixed metal resembling brass
Lavender - washer woman; from French laver, meaning "to wash."
Lederer - leather maker
Leech / Leach - doctor, physician
Limeburner - maker of lime
Limner - draughtsman or artist
Loblolly boy - 1) an errand boy; 2) surgeon's assistant on board ship
Lokeer - locksmith
Longshoreman - stevedor
Lorimer - bridlemaker
Malender - farmer
Malster - brewer of malted beverages (beer)
Manciple - steward
Marescallus - marshall
Marshall - horse servant, or groom
Mason - stone carver
Mayer - physician
Medicus - doctor, physician
Mercator - merchant
Millow - miller
Millwright - one who designs or builds mills
Mintmaster - an issuer of local currency
Monger - seller of goods
Muleskinner - teamster
Neatherder - cow herd
Nedder - needle-maker
Nettir - knitter
Ordinary - an innkeeper; keeper of a fixed price inn
Osler - bird-catcher
Osnard - herder of oxen
Outrider - mounted attendant riding before or behind a carriage
Packman - a peddler; a person who traveled around carrying goods for sale in his pack
Page - a young mail servant
Palmer - a pilgrim; one who had been, or pretended to have been, to the Holy Land. Paneler -
saddler; one who makes, repairs or sells saddles, harnesses, horse collars, bridles, etc. for horses. A
panel or pannel was a short saddle raised on both ends for small burdens carried on horseback.
Pannarius - A Latin name for a clothier or draper, also known as a haberdasher, or a merchant who
sells clothing.
Pannifex - seller of woolen cloth, or sometimes a generic occupational term for someone who worked
in the cloth trade
Pantographer - someone who operated a pantograph, a device used in the engraving process to
draw a replica of an image by tracing.
Pardoner - originally someone who collected money on behalf of a religious foundation, a pardoner
came to be synonymous with an individual who sold pardons, or "indulgences," which implied that
time in purgatory would be "pardoned" if one prayed for the souls there and made a donation to the
church through the "pardoner."
Parochus - rector, pastor
Patten maker, Pattener - one who made "pattens" to fit under normal shoes for use in wet or muddy
conditions.
Pavyler - someone who erected tents and pavilions.
Peever - a seller of pepper
Pelterer - skinner; one who worked with animal skins
Perambulator - a surveyor or someone who made inspection of property on foot.
Peregrinator - an itinerant wanderer, from the Latin peregrīnātus, meaning "to travel abroad."
Peruker or peruke maker - a maker of gentlemans' wigs in the 18th and 19th century
Pessoner - a fishmonger, or seller of fish; from the French poisson, meaning "fish."
Petardier - A person in charge of a petard, a 16th century bomb used to breach fortifications during
sieges.
Pettifogger - a shyster lawyer; especially one who deals with petty cases and raised petty, annoying
objections
Pictor - painter
Pigmaker - someone who poured molten metal to make "pigs" for distribution of raw metals.
Alternatively, a pigmaker could be a crockery or pottery maker.
Pigman - crockery dealer or a pig herder
Pilcher - a maker of pilches, a type of outer garment made of skin or fur, and later of leather or wool.
Pinder - An officer appointed by a parish to impound stray beasts, or a keeper of the pound
Piscarius - fishmonger
Pistor - miller or baker
Pitman / Pit man - a coal miner
Plaitor - someone who makes straw plaits for hat making
Plowman - a farmer
Ploughwright - one who makes or repairs plows
Plumber - one who worked with lead; eventually came to apply to a tradesman who installed or
repaired (lead) pipes and drains
Porcher - pig-keeper
Porter - gate-keeper or door-keeper
Potato Badger - merchant who peddled potatoes
Pot Man - a street merchant selling pots of stout and porter
Poulterer - dealer in poultry; poultry merchant
Prothonotary - principal clerk of a court
Puddler - wrought iron worker
Pynner/Pinner - a maker of pins and needles; sometimes other wire articles such as baskets and
bird cages
Quarrier - quarry worker
Quarryman - stonecutter
Quiller - one who used a machine to wind yarn onto spools
Quister - a person who bleached things
Raffia man - maker of straw or grass goods
Rag cutter - worker in a textile (cloth) or paper factory
Raker - street cleaner; one employed to rake street rubbish into piles
Revenuer - an official who enforced tax laws on liquor, working against illegal manufacturing of
whisky
Rigger - hoist tackler worker, working on a ship's rigging
Ripper - fish monger; seller of fish
Rodman - a surveyor's assistant
Roper - a maker of rope or nets
Rotarius - wheelwright
Saddler - maker and repairer of saddles and bridles
Saddle Tree Maker - one who creates the wooden frame for a horse saddle
Salter - one who makes or deals in salt
Sandler - sandle maker
Savant - servant
Sawbones - physician
Sawyer - sawer of wood; carpenter
Scabbler - person who uses a scabbler (pick) to trim the sides of a tunnel
Scappler - responsible for rough-shaping stone before final dressing by a stonemason
Schumacker - shoemaker or cobbler
Scribler / Scribbler - minor or worthless author
Scrivener - scribe or clerk; professional or public copyist or writer; notary public
Scrutiner - election judge
Scutcher / Skutcher - one who beat flax to extract linen fibers from flax stems
Seinter - girdle maker
Servitor - a clerk or secretary
Sewer rat - a bricklayer who specialized in making and repairing sewers and tunnels
Sexton - a church caretaker, sometimes responsible for digging graves
Sharecropper - a tenant farmer who is allowed to farm (and sometimes live on) another's land in
return for a percentage share of the crops produced on their portion of land
Shearer - sheared wool from sheep
Shearman - one who raised the surface of woolen cloth and then sheared it to a smooth
surface; cutter of woolen cloth; sometimes a cutter of metal
Shepster - dressmaker or sheep shearer
Ship chandler - a dealer in supplies and equipment for ships and boats, known as "ship stores"
Shrieve / Shriever - sheriff
Shunter - railway worker responsible for coupling train cars and carriages; also known as a switcher
Sickleman - a reaper
Silk drawer - one who "drew" silk from silk waste for spinning
Skepper / Skelper - beehive maker or seller
Skinner - a flayer of animal hides for leather
Slagger - a worker in a steel mill responsible for removing slag from a furnace during the smelting
process.
Slater / Slatter - roofer; tiler
Slopseller - seller of ready-made clothes in a slop shop
Slubber - a worker in a cotton or textile mill, responsible for removing the "slubs" or imperfections in
the yarn prior to weaving
Sluicer - one who tended the sluice in a mine (often a gold or silver mine)
Smith - a metal worker, usually a blacksmith.
Snobscat / Snob - shoe repairer; cobbler
Sojourner - a traveler or traveling merchant; sometimes used to refer to a temporary (non-
permanent) resident of a parish
Soper - soapmaker
Sorter - tailor
Sperviter - a keeper of sparrow hawks
Spicer - a grocer or dealer in spices
Spinster - unmarried woman; spinner (female)
Spit boy - a kitchen worker responsible for turning spits in the fireplace so food would cook evenly
Spittleman - hospital attendant
Spurrer / Spurrier - maker of spurs
Squire - country gentleman; farm owner; justice of peace
Staymaker - a maker of bone stays for corsets
Stevedore - a dock worker or laborer who loads and unloads ship's cargos.
Stoddard - a breeder or keeper of horses
Stone cutter - possibly a stone mason, but often a carver of tombstones
Stoner - mason
Stuff Gown / Stuff Gownsman - junior barrister
Surveyor - one who estimates or measures areas of land
Switcher - railway worker responsible for coupling train cars and carriages; also known as a shunter
Tanner - one who tans (cures) animal hide into leather
Taper - candlewick maker or seller
Tapley - one who puts the tap in an ale cask
Tapster - a barman; a person employed to serve beer
Tasker - reaper
Tawer - one who taws (makes hide into leather without the use of tanning)
Teamster - one who drives a team (horses or oxen) for hauling
Textor - weaver
Thatcher - roofer; specifically thatch roofs
Tide waiter - customs inspector
Tinker - an itinerant mender and seller of kettles, tin pots and pans
Tipstaff - policeman
Travers - toll bridge collector
Tucker - cleaner of cloth goods
Turner - one who turns wood on a lathe into spindles
Ulnager - a person appointed to examine woolen goods for quality
Upholder - 1) upholsterer; 2) an auctioneer's assistant
Upright worker - chimney sweep
Vaginarius - maker of sheaths and scabbards
Vassal - a servant of the lowest order
Venator / Venur - huntsman
Victualer - a seller of food and drink; tavern keeper
Vintner - wine merchant
Vulcan - a blacksmith; iron worker
Wabster - weaver
Wadding maker - maker of wadding (usually made of old rags or cotton) for stuffing upholstered
furniture
Wafer maker - maker of church communion wafers
Wagoner / Waggoner - teamster not for hire; see also the
Wailer - Mine worker who removed impure rocks in a coal mine
Wain house proprietor - owner of a building where wagons could be parked for a fee
Wainius - ploughman
Wainwright - wagon maker
Waiter - customs officer or tide waiter; one who waited on the tide to collect duty on goods brought in
Waitman - Night watchman who guarded the gates of a city, usually marking the hours with the
ringing of a small bell
Waker - A person whose job was to wake workers in time for early morning work
Walker / Waulker - fuller; cloth trampler or cleaner
Waller - 1) Specialist in building walls; 2) salt maker
Wardcorn - Watchman armed with a horn for sounding the alarm on the event of intruders or trouble.
Common during medieval times.
Warker - Specialist at building walls, embattlements, and embankments
Warper / Warp Beamer - a textile worker who arranged the individual yarns which created the "warp"
of the fabric upon a large cylinder called a beam.
Water bailiff - 1) A custom's officer who searched ships as they came into port; 2) one employed to
protect fisheries from poachers
Water carter / Water carrier - Someone who sold fresh water from a traveling cart
Waterguard - customs officer
Wattle hurdle maker - one who made a special type of fence from wattle to contain sheep
Weatherspy - astrologer
Webber / Webster - weaver; operator of looms
Wet nurse - A women who feeds the children of others with her own breast milk (usually for a fee)
Wetter - either one who dampened paper during the printing process, or one in the glass industry
who detached glass by wetting
Wharfinger - a person who owned or was in charge of a wharf
Wheel tapper - a railway worker who checked for cracked wheels by striking them with a long
handled hammer and listening to their ring
Wheelwright - builder and repairer of wagon wheels, carriages etc.
Wheeryman - one in charge of a wheery (light row boat)
Whey cutter - a worker in the cheese industry
Whiffler - an officer who went before an army or procession to clear the way by blowing a horn or
trumpet
Whipcorder - a maker of whips
Whipperin - in charge of managing the hounds in a hunt
Whisket weaver - basket maker
White cooper - one who makes barrels from tin or other light metals
White limer - one who painted walls and fences with white lime
Whitesmith - tinsmith; worker of tin who finishes or polishes the work
Whitewing - street sweeper
Whitster - bleacher of cloth
Willow plaiter - one who made baskets
Wing coverer - a worker who covered airplane wings with linen fabric
Wonkey scooper - person who operated a scoop-type contraption from a horse
Woolcomber - one who operated machines that separate fibers for spinning in the woolen industry
Woolen billy piercer - worked in a woolen mill to piece together broken yarns
Wool man / Wool sorter - one who sorted wool into different grades
Wright - a skilled worker in various trades
Xylographer - a person who made wooden printing blocks
Xylopola - wood merchant
Yagger - peddler
Yardman - 1) a rail worker; 2) a farmer
Yatman - doorkeeper or gatekeeper
Year man - one who hired himself out for a year's work at a time, usually agricultural
Yeoman - 1) a farmer who owned his own land; 2) a ship's storeman
Yowler - assistant to a thatcher who held the yowles of straw
Zigarius - Gypsy
Zincographer - One who used zinc plates, known as 'zincos,' for engraving or printing
Zitherist - one who plays a zither, one of a class of simple stringed instruments
Zoographer - one who classifies species of animals
Zythepsarist - brewer

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Old Occupations

  • 1. The occupations found recorded in documents Acater - ship's chandler, one who supplies food provisions to a ship Accipitrary - falconer Accomptant - accountant Accoucheur - one who assists women in childbirth; midwife Accoutre / Accoutrement maker - one who outfitted or supplied military clothing or equipment Ackerman, Acreman - ploughman, ox herder Actuary - accountant Aeronaut - balloonist or trapeze artist Affeeror - official in the manorial courts responsible for assessing the monetary penalty and collecting taxes and dues, assessor Alblastere - old Scottish term for a crossbow man Albergatore - inn keeper (Italian) Alchemist - medieval chemist who claimed to be able to turn metal into gold Alderman - an elected member of a municipal council; a noble serving the king as chief officer of a district Ale conner - official who tested the quality and measure of ale served in public houses Ale-draper, Ale draper - a tapster or seller of ale Ale-tunner, Ale tunner - one who worked among or was employed to fill "tuns," great hogshead barrels or casks used to store ale in medieval times All spice - grocer Ale-wife, Alewife - landlady of an ale house, or ale stand Almoner - one who distributes alms, provides for the needy; in Britain may also refer to a hospital social worker Amanuensis - stenographer, one who takes dictation Ambler - one who worked in a stable to help break in horses Amen man - parish clerk Anchor smith - one who made anchors Ankle beater - young person who helped drive cattle to market Annatto maker - one who made annatto dye for paint and printing trades, derived from the seeds of the achiote tree Annealer - one who processed metal or glass by heating it in a furnace and then slowly cooling it via chemicals or other means Antigropelos maker - one who made waterproof leg coverings meant to protect trousers from splashing and dirt Apiarian - beekeeper Apiculteur - beekeeper (French) Apparitor - official who summoned witnesses for the ecclesiastical courts Apothecary - One that prepares and sells drugs and medicines, a pharmacist Aquarius - waterman Aratore - plowman
  • 2. Arbalist - a crossbow man Arbiter - a person who judged disputes Archiator - doctor, physician Archil maker - one who made a reddish-purple dye called archil for use in dying textiles; the dye was made by bruising lichens and then moistening it with urine or spirits mixed with lime Argenter - silver plater Arkwright - A skilled craftsman who produced wooden chests or coffers (arks) Armiger - squire who carried the armor of a knight Armourer - one who made suits of armor, or plates of armor for ships Arpenteur - land surveyor (French) Arrimeur - stevedore, one who is employed in the loading and unloading of ships (French) Artificer - a skilled craftsman or artisan; an enlisted military man responsible for upkeep of weapons and small arms; or an inventor Ashman - one who collected ashes and garbage Aubergiste - inn keeper (French) Augermaker - one who made augers for boring holes in wood Aurifaber - a goldsmith, or one who works with gold Avenator - merchant of hay and forage Avvocato - lawyer or soliciter Axel tree turner - one who made axles for coaches and wagons Bailie - bailiff Barker - tanner Baxter - baker Blacksmith - one who shoes horses Bluestocking - female writer Boniface - inn keeper Brasiler - dyer Brazier - one who works with brass Brewster - beer or ale manufacturer Brightsmith - metal worker Brownsmith - copper or brass smith Burgonmaster - mayor Burnisher - metal polisher Carnifex - butcher Caulker - one who makes things watertight by packing seams in windows, ships, etc., with a waterproof material, such as oakum or pitch Chaisemaker - carriage maker Chandler - dealer or trader; one who makes or sells candles; grocer Chiffonnier - wig maker Clark - clerk Clerk - clergyman; cleric Cohen - priest Collier - coal miner Colporteur - book peddler Cooper - maker or repairer of wooden barrels, casks, and tubs Cordwainer - shoemaker (originally any leather worker using Cordovan leather, from Cordova, Spain)
  • 3. Costermonger - peddler of fruits and vegetables Crocker - potter Crowner - coroner Currier - tanner of leather; one who curries horses Dareman - dairyman Daunsel - gentleman in waiting; groom; squire Dexter - dyer Diviner - one who finds water under the ground using dowsing rods or witching stick Docker - stevedor; dock worker who loads and unloads cargo Dowser - one who finds water under the ground using dowsing rods or witching stick Draper - dealer in cloth and dry goods Drayman - driver of a dray, a long strong cart without fixed sides for carrying heavy loads Dresser - surgeon's assistant in a hospital Drover - driver of animals to market; dealer in cattle Drummer - traveling salesman Dubbere - cloth dubber, one who raises the nap of cloth Duffer - peddler Dyer - one who dyes cloth Elymaker - oilmaker Endholdernn - inn keeper Enumerator - census taker Executrix - female executor Faber - smith Falkner - keeper/trainer of falcons Farmer - tax-collector or bailiff Farrier - horse doctor, one in charge of horses Fell Monger - one who removes hair or wool from hides in preparation for leather making Felter - cleaner and thickener of cloth Fence Viewer - one who inspects farmer's fences Feroner - a dealer in hardware made of iron. Also known as an Ironmonger. Flauner - confectioner Flax Dresser - one who works with flax fibers Fleshewer - butcher Fletcher - maker of bows and arrows; arrowmaker Forestarius - forester Framar - farmer Frereman - servant of the Friars Fuller - fuller of cloth, one who shrunk and thickened woolen cloth by washing, heating and pressing Furber / Furbour - furbisher of armour Furner - baker Gaoler - jailer Garlekmonger - garlicmonger; dealer in garlic Gatward - goatkeeper Gelder - a castrator of animals, especially horses Ginerr - joiner Glassewryght - glasswright; maker and mender of glassware Glazier - glazier; repairer of windows Glover - dealer or maker of gloves Gobar - jobber Grecher - grocer Guilderer - maker of gold or silver coins Gynour - engineer
  • 4. Hacker - hoe maker Hansard - weapon maker or seller Harper - musician Hatcheler - one who combed out flax Hawker - peddler Haymonger - dealer in hay Hayward - keeper of fences Headborough - constable Hedger - one who trims and tends hedgerows Hetheleder - provider of heather for fuel Higgler - itinerant peddler Hillard / Hillier - tiler one who covers houses with slate Hind - farm laborer Hooker - reaper Hooper - maker of hoops for casks, barrels, tubs etc. Horsler - stableman or groom; horse servant at an inn Hosteler - innkeeper Huckster - seller of small articles/wares Indentured servant - one who was committed to working for someone for a fixed number of years (usually 4 to 7), in exchange for passage to a new country or some other financial consideration. Ironmonger - a dealer in hardware made of iron. Also known as a Feroner. Intelligencer - a spy Husbandman - a farmer; animal husbandry; tenant farmer Jagger - A peddler or hawker of fish Journeyman - craftsman who had served his apprentice, a master craftsman Joyner / Joiner - joiner; skilled carpenter Jouster - A female hawker of fish; a fish monger Kedger - a fisherman Keeler - bargeman Keller - salt keeper Kellogg - slaughter man Kempster - wool comber Kepegest - innkeeper Kneller / Knuller - a chimney sweep who solicited jobs door-to-door Lagger - a sailor Lapidary - one who cuts, polishes, or engraves precious stones; a jeweler Lattener - one skilled in working with latten, a mixed metal resembling brass Lavender - washer woman; from French laver, meaning "to wash." Lederer - leather maker Leech / Leach - doctor, physician Limeburner - maker of lime Limner - draughtsman or artist Loblolly boy - 1) an errand boy; 2) surgeon's assistant on board ship Lokeer - locksmith Longshoreman - stevedor Lorimer - bridlemaker Malender - farmer Malster - brewer of malted beverages (beer) Manciple - steward Marescallus - marshall Marshall - horse servant, or groom Mason - stone carver
  • 5. Mayer - physician Medicus - doctor, physician Mercator - merchant Millow - miller Millwright - one who designs or builds mills Mintmaster - an issuer of local currency Monger - seller of goods Muleskinner - teamster Neatherder - cow herd Nedder - needle-maker Nettir - knitter Ordinary - an innkeeper; keeper of a fixed price inn Osler - bird-catcher Osnard - herder of oxen Outrider - mounted attendant riding before or behind a carriage Packman - a peddler; a person who traveled around carrying goods for sale in his pack Page - a young mail servant Palmer - a pilgrim; one who had been, or pretended to have been, to the Holy Land. Paneler - saddler; one who makes, repairs or sells saddles, harnesses, horse collars, bridles, etc. for horses. A panel or pannel was a short saddle raised on both ends for small burdens carried on horseback. Pannarius - A Latin name for a clothier or draper, also known as a haberdasher, or a merchant who sells clothing. Pannifex - seller of woolen cloth, or sometimes a generic occupational term for someone who worked in the cloth trade Pantographer - someone who operated a pantograph, a device used in the engraving process to draw a replica of an image by tracing. Pardoner - originally someone who collected money on behalf of a religious foundation, a pardoner came to be synonymous with an individual who sold pardons, or "indulgences," which implied that time in purgatory would be "pardoned" if one prayed for the souls there and made a donation to the church through the "pardoner." Parochus - rector, pastor Patten maker, Pattener - one who made "pattens" to fit under normal shoes for use in wet or muddy conditions. Pavyler - someone who erected tents and pavilions. Peever - a seller of pepper Pelterer - skinner; one who worked with animal skins Perambulator - a surveyor or someone who made inspection of property on foot. Peregrinator - an itinerant wanderer, from the Latin peregrīnātus, meaning "to travel abroad." Peruker or peruke maker - a maker of gentlemans' wigs in the 18th and 19th century Pessoner - a fishmonger, or seller of fish; from the French poisson, meaning "fish." Petardier - A person in charge of a petard, a 16th century bomb used to breach fortifications during sieges. Pettifogger - a shyster lawyer; especially one who deals with petty cases and raised petty, annoying objections
  • 6. Pictor - painter Pigmaker - someone who poured molten metal to make "pigs" for distribution of raw metals. Alternatively, a pigmaker could be a crockery or pottery maker. Pigman - crockery dealer or a pig herder Pilcher - a maker of pilches, a type of outer garment made of skin or fur, and later of leather or wool. Pinder - An officer appointed by a parish to impound stray beasts, or a keeper of the pound Piscarius - fishmonger Pistor - miller or baker Pitman / Pit man - a coal miner Plaitor - someone who makes straw plaits for hat making Plowman - a farmer Ploughwright - one who makes or repairs plows Plumber - one who worked with lead; eventually came to apply to a tradesman who installed or repaired (lead) pipes and drains Porcher - pig-keeper Porter - gate-keeper or door-keeper Potato Badger - merchant who peddled potatoes Pot Man - a street merchant selling pots of stout and porter Poulterer - dealer in poultry; poultry merchant Prothonotary - principal clerk of a court Puddler - wrought iron worker Pynner/Pinner - a maker of pins and needles; sometimes other wire articles such as baskets and bird cages Quarrier - quarry worker Quarryman - stonecutter Quiller - one who used a machine to wind yarn onto spools Quister - a person who bleached things Raffia man - maker of straw or grass goods Rag cutter - worker in a textile (cloth) or paper factory Raker - street cleaner; one employed to rake street rubbish into piles Revenuer - an official who enforced tax laws on liquor, working against illegal manufacturing of whisky Rigger - hoist tackler worker, working on a ship's rigging Ripper - fish monger; seller of fish Rodman - a surveyor's assistant Roper - a maker of rope or nets Rotarius - wheelwright Saddler - maker and repairer of saddles and bridles Saddle Tree Maker - one who creates the wooden frame for a horse saddle Salter - one who makes or deals in salt Sandler - sandle maker Savant - servant Sawbones - physician Sawyer - sawer of wood; carpenter
  • 7. Scabbler - person who uses a scabbler (pick) to trim the sides of a tunnel Scappler - responsible for rough-shaping stone before final dressing by a stonemason Schumacker - shoemaker or cobbler Scribler / Scribbler - minor or worthless author Scrivener - scribe or clerk; professional or public copyist or writer; notary public Scrutiner - election judge Scutcher / Skutcher - one who beat flax to extract linen fibers from flax stems Seinter - girdle maker Servitor - a clerk or secretary Sewer rat - a bricklayer who specialized in making and repairing sewers and tunnels Sexton - a church caretaker, sometimes responsible for digging graves Sharecropper - a tenant farmer who is allowed to farm (and sometimes live on) another's land in return for a percentage share of the crops produced on their portion of land Shearer - sheared wool from sheep Shearman - one who raised the surface of woolen cloth and then sheared it to a smooth surface; cutter of woolen cloth; sometimes a cutter of metal Shepster - dressmaker or sheep shearer Ship chandler - a dealer in supplies and equipment for ships and boats, known as "ship stores" Shrieve / Shriever - sheriff Shunter - railway worker responsible for coupling train cars and carriages; also known as a switcher Sickleman - a reaper Silk drawer - one who "drew" silk from silk waste for spinning Skepper / Skelper - beehive maker or seller Skinner - a flayer of animal hides for leather Slagger - a worker in a steel mill responsible for removing slag from a furnace during the smelting process. Slater / Slatter - roofer; tiler Slopseller - seller of ready-made clothes in a slop shop Slubber - a worker in a cotton or textile mill, responsible for removing the "slubs" or imperfections in the yarn prior to weaving Sluicer - one who tended the sluice in a mine (often a gold or silver mine) Smith - a metal worker, usually a blacksmith. Snobscat / Snob - shoe repairer; cobbler Sojourner - a traveler or traveling merchant; sometimes used to refer to a temporary (non- permanent) resident of a parish Soper - soapmaker Sorter - tailor Sperviter - a keeper of sparrow hawks Spicer - a grocer or dealer in spices Spinster - unmarried woman; spinner (female) Spit boy - a kitchen worker responsible for turning spits in the fireplace so food would cook evenly
  • 8. Spittleman - hospital attendant Spurrer / Spurrier - maker of spurs Squire - country gentleman; farm owner; justice of peace Staymaker - a maker of bone stays for corsets Stevedore - a dock worker or laborer who loads and unloads ship's cargos. Stoddard - a breeder or keeper of horses Stone cutter - possibly a stone mason, but often a carver of tombstones Stoner - mason Stuff Gown / Stuff Gownsman - junior barrister Surveyor - one who estimates or measures areas of land Switcher - railway worker responsible for coupling train cars and carriages; also known as a shunter Tanner - one who tans (cures) animal hide into leather Taper - candlewick maker or seller Tapley - one who puts the tap in an ale cask Tapster - a barman; a person employed to serve beer Tasker - reaper Tawer - one who taws (makes hide into leather without the use of tanning) Teamster - one who drives a team (horses or oxen) for hauling Textor - weaver Thatcher - roofer; specifically thatch roofs Tide waiter - customs inspector Tinker - an itinerant mender and seller of kettles, tin pots and pans Tipstaff - policeman Travers - toll bridge collector Tucker - cleaner of cloth goods Turner - one who turns wood on a lathe into spindles Ulnager - a person appointed to examine woolen goods for quality Upholder - 1) upholsterer; 2) an auctioneer's assistant Upright worker - chimney sweep Vaginarius - maker of sheaths and scabbards Vassal - a servant of the lowest order Venator / Venur - huntsman Victualer - a seller of food and drink; tavern keeper Vintner - wine merchant Vulcan - a blacksmith; iron worker Wabster - weaver Wadding maker - maker of wadding (usually made of old rags or cotton) for stuffing upholstered furniture Wafer maker - maker of church communion wafers Wagoner / Waggoner - teamster not for hire; see also the Wailer - Mine worker who removed impure rocks in a coal mine Wain house proprietor - owner of a building where wagons could be parked for a fee Wainius - ploughman Wainwright - wagon maker Waiter - customs officer or tide waiter; one who waited on the tide to collect duty on goods brought in
  • 9. Waitman - Night watchman who guarded the gates of a city, usually marking the hours with the ringing of a small bell Waker - A person whose job was to wake workers in time for early morning work Walker / Waulker - fuller; cloth trampler or cleaner Waller - 1) Specialist in building walls; 2) salt maker Wardcorn - Watchman armed with a horn for sounding the alarm on the event of intruders or trouble. Common during medieval times. Warker - Specialist at building walls, embattlements, and embankments Warper / Warp Beamer - a textile worker who arranged the individual yarns which created the "warp" of the fabric upon a large cylinder called a beam. Water bailiff - 1) A custom's officer who searched ships as they came into port; 2) one employed to protect fisheries from poachers Water carter / Water carrier - Someone who sold fresh water from a traveling cart Waterguard - customs officer Wattle hurdle maker - one who made a special type of fence from wattle to contain sheep Weatherspy - astrologer Webber / Webster - weaver; operator of looms Wet nurse - A women who feeds the children of others with her own breast milk (usually for a fee) Wetter - either one who dampened paper during the printing process, or one in the glass industry who detached glass by wetting Wharfinger - a person who owned or was in charge of a wharf Wheel tapper - a railway worker who checked for cracked wheels by striking them with a long handled hammer and listening to their ring Wheelwright - builder and repairer of wagon wheels, carriages etc. Wheeryman - one in charge of a wheery (light row boat) Whey cutter - a worker in the cheese industry Whiffler - an officer who went before an army or procession to clear the way by blowing a horn or trumpet Whipcorder - a maker of whips Whipperin - in charge of managing the hounds in a hunt Whisket weaver - basket maker White cooper - one who makes barrels from tin or other light metals White limer - one who painted walls and fences with white lime Whitesmith - tinsmith; worker of tin who finishes or polishes the work Whitewing - street sweeper Whitster - bleacher of cloth Willow plaiter - one who made baskets Wing coverer - a worker who covered airplane wings with linen fabric Wonkey scooper - person who operated a scoop-type contraption from a horse Woolcomber - one who operated machines that separate fibers for spinning in the woolen industry Woolen billy piercer - worked in a woolen mill to piece together broken yarns
  • 10. Wool man / Wool sorter - one who sorted wool into different grades Wright - a skilled worker in various trades Xylographer - a person who made wooden printing blocks Xylopola - wood merchant Yagger - peddler Yardman - 1) a rail worker; 2) a farmer Yatman - doorkeeper or gatekeeper Year man - one who hired himself out for a year's work at a time, usually agricultural Yeoman - 1) a farmer who owned his own land; 2) a ship's storeman Yowler - assistant to a thatcher who held the yowles of straw Zigarius - Gypsy Zincographer - One who used zinc plates, known as 'zincos,' for engraving or printing Zitherist - one who plays a zither, one of a class of simple stringed instruments Zoographer - one who classifies species of animals Zythepsarist - brewer