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A ~1U111e of St. Jolm of Nepom11k, tl1e club's
adopted patron saim, Jiflll't'$ tlw Gro•·e. Ortler~c/
drowned by ajealolts king In the Urh CCIIIIIf)' for
rej11Sing 10 re•·eul the lflll!e/1'5 confes.Yion. hr
.~randr, finfltr ro lips. a model ofloytll dircrerion
for the Bohemians.
world. And it is a place that, last sum-
mer, had its veil of privacy pierced by a
MotherJones undercover reporter.
The Grove is the retreat for members
and guestsofSan Francisco's Bohemian
Club, which was founded in 1872 by
journalists and artists but quickly be-
came one of the most exclusive men's
associations in the United States. Each
July. some 2,000 members of America's
elite- from banking and finance, poli-
tics, the military and the nation'scorpo-
rate boardrooms-convene here for a
two-and-a-half-week encampment. No
women are allowed; even the waiters,
camp valets and kitchen staff are all
male. The annual fest has been called
"the greatest men's party on Earth"-a
mixture of camping trip, college beer
blast and stag night.
Officially, the Bohemians bill it a lit-
tle more politely. Employees learn
from official guidelines that "members
and their guests are housed in private
camps similar to college fraternities"
and "receive the enjoyment of being
togetherwith fellow Bohemiansandthe
chance to reminisce about the good old
days." A midsummer's respite from re-
sponsibility. Even the Bohemians' mot-
to, "Weaving spiders, come not here,"
admonishes the members not to use the
time for establishing or extending
worldly connections. The club main-
tains,in its literature, that it issimply an
"association of men . . . devoted to
literature, art, music and the drama.''
But tbe Grove has long been sus-
pected ofbeing morethanit claims. The
annual encampment, rumor had it, was
where the "old boy network" did its
networking. After all, the chairman of
Southern California Edison's executive
committeecomes here and shares quar-
ters with the head of the Bechtel
Group, safe from publicity and public
scrutiny. Government officials visit as
guests of private industrialists. And
here, in the 1930s, Ernest 0. Lawrence,
America's premier nuclear physicist,
forged the tiesthat ensured him funding
to develop his massive cyclotron, con-
nections that sped him and the country
on the way to the development of the
atomic bomb.
The suspicions linger, also, because
the Grove keeps itself so secretive. It is
strictly off-limits to the public. Aside
from the occasional news story about
dignitaries arriving in private jets at
nearby Sonoma County Airport, press
coverage is almost nonexistent.
MOTHER ]ONES
eventy-five miles north of San
Francisco, the small town of
Monte Rio straddles the Rus-
~_, sian River. On one side there is
the movie house, a gas station, the pub-
lic beach; on the other, a few stores, a
cafe, the local bar. Barely half a mile
back from the river, on a narrow black-
top road, a sign reads: Private Property
. .. Members & Guests Only. Farther
along the road are several checkpoints.
Members and guests must sign in when
they arrive; workers are scrutinized by
security and must wear ID badges at all
times. Would-be spies who have tried to
get jobs as staffat the Grove have been
frustrated: most staffers are hired only
offthe rolls of the San Francisco restau-
rant workers union. Other avenues of
infiltration are closed: hikers who "in-
advertently" wander in overland are
quickly ejected. But last summer, with
some help from an insider whose name
I cannot disclose-but whose identity
might surprise some Iong-tim.e Bohe-
mians-! managed to slip through the
Grove's security net and, for four days,
became part of the prime retreat for
America's ruling class.
Inside, the overwhelming feeling is a
contradictory one: space and isolation.
A woodland paradise; an island in har-
mony with Nature. Trespassers will be
prosecuted. The Grove covers some
2,700 acres, and within its confines are
two outdoor theaters built into the con-
tours ofhillsides, an infirmary, a private
beach on the river and a "diningcircle"
with ornate gas-fed lighting fixtures and
redwood tables to seat more than a
thousand.
And there are the camps, home to
the Bohemians and their guests. Isle of
Aves. Lost Angels. Whiskey Aat. Toy-
land. In all, 122 of them. Each has a
main building with a bar, a kitchen and
a small dining area where most mem-
bers eat lunch. Oose by, each camp has
sleeping quarters. Some are little more
than flooring among the trees on which
to raise tents. But others are level after
level of fine cabins rising sharply up a
hillside, intersecting planes of redwood
and glass suspended in the trees with no
visible means ofsupport. Ifsome future
episode ofthe Star Wars saga takes us to
an arboreal planet, where dwellings
hang weightless amid the tangled
branches ofthe forest, this is what it will
look like.
The wondrous surroundings aside,
there are reasonswhy men accustomed
AUGUST 198 1
3 0
to the height of luxury would come to
such an isolated setting. Privacy is one,
of course. But social scientists tell us
that other factors are at work. Any soci-
ety- and these men certainly constitute
a society of power-has as a part of its
culture the notion of festival, a break
from worldly routine, a time ofregener-
ation. Group solidarity is strengthened
through festival because it reflects and
reinforces the group's collectively held
values. Ritual and setting, often tinged
with religion, further serve to separate
the group from "outsiders."
Between two of the Grove's road-
ways is a small lake. It is the site of the
Lakeside Talks, a Grove tradition.
Here, Bohemians gather·daily, some-
times more often, to hear speeches
given by fellow members and selected
guests. Henry Kissinger has spoken
here, as has astronaut Neil Armstrong
. ,,
MOTHER JONES
- • r .;If'., ,. •• ..,..
.
• 'l~ · ' J
··Here <litheGro•·e,•· William Buckley rold tilearsembled marses ofBohemia, ..onesensesalmost illS/all/sancwary from theroiling warers
o11rside.·· In r!rissereneseuing. membt•rs all(/inviredguesLrenjCJ)' rhe high poinrofrlrefesrivities- rhe Gro•·e Play. Theamp!rirhearerlogs are
fiued wirh C
llm'assear backs, llll(lthesrage irfilled witit Bohemians cavoning ar woodnymphs, heroes andfair da_msels.
and, in their time, Nelson Rockefeller
and Dwight Eisenhower.
"How doyou like theowl?" my guide
to the inside asks suddenly.
Only then do I see it. It stands at the
headofthe lake- perhaps30feet tall or
more-rough-hewn stone, moss-
covered. The figure of a perched owl,
symbol of the Bohemians, wise and
taciturn. Even in the glaring sunlight it
appears dark and brooding. The icon
looms behind every lakeside speaker
and figures prominently in the Bohe-
mians' most arcane ceremony, the Cre-
mation of Care. During the rite, an
effigy symbolizing responsibility is
burned on a pyre while robed acolytes
dance in front of the owl shrine.
"It's fake,you know," my guide says.
"Concrete. There's a door in back."
We leave the lake and part company,
but I will be coming back later. During
the early part of the week, there have
been lectures here on the history of
magic and on the America's Cup yacht
races. In the past two days, though,
Bohemians have heard the American
Enterprise Institute's George Lenc-
zowski talk on the Persian Gulf crisis;
Admiral Thomas Hayward of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff on U.S. naval strength;
and Union Oil's Chairman Fred Hart-
ley on the world petroleum situation.
Today they will gather to listen to the
man who hasbeen called "the unrepen-
tent father of the H-bomb"-Dr. Ed-
ward Teller.
17"Tlr""":l he Soviets now surround the
Persian Gulf," Teller says to
this crowd of some 700 Bo-
hemians. "And that means
that on some unknown timetable, but
not on an extended one, they will even-
AUGUS T l 98t
j l
tually take over the Gulf...
This is Teller at his "Red menace"
best, and the crowd loves it. Through-
out the speech, the Bohemians collec-
tively murmur approval, nod their
heads or break into applause. "If there
is a small war, a conventional war, we
will lose. If there is an all-out nuclear
war, the U.S. will be wiped out, but the
Soviet Union will survive and survive
easily."
Teller hammers away at his point,
saying that the Soviets pose such a
threat because they stand ready to take
over the world's oil supply. But, he
says, our defense policies have allowed
the Soviets to pass us by.
Teller has never shied away from
controversial, unpopular opinions
(more than once he has claimed that the
Three Mile Island accident proves that
the system works),but here histal.kgets
M O THER JONES
~ r-------------~----~-------.------------------------------~--------------------------
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I
l
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GF:T tH!i GUHt The Bolrtmian Club is mlrutytar'sretreat. Givtup? Well, herrau
right·lipfJ<'d about tiS cu""" members and u frw clues: John Swearillgm. tht head of
their invited [(lltsto. Abo••t are four such the cowury's sixth·largestoil company, sits
pairs taktn from official club luiS. Try tO on the board of Willard Butcher's Ooase
match tl.- lrmt (ltft) with the man ht im·ittd Mmohatlfm; William Simon is a direl'tor of
Justin Dart's DonJndu.sme:r. andbollr were
m the select group thlll helped ptclc the
Reagan Cabmtt; 1/.S pasttrtii.Srtry Stertrary,
George Shultz already travels m nalter
Wriston's bankmg crrc/1!$, but Beclutl has
the warm reception of pany line. "Un-
les.~ we have a new beginning ~oon ," he
concludes, " Idon't know what will hap·
pen." But Teller need not have wor·
ried. His words of 1980 were destined to
become the actions of 1981. Reagan's
Cabinet and advisors- Bohemians like
Justin Dan, William French Smith and
Caspar Weinberger among them- are
already implementing many ofthe ideas
that filled the air last summer.
!though the Lakeside Talks
punctuate the Bohemians'
days among ihe redwoods,
most members would insist
thai the ~tuff of Bohemia is the cama-
raderie- the catching up on old friends,
the visiting from camp tO camp. With
Teller's talk over and afternoon fading,
the members drifted away from lake-
side to resume those pleasures. The
crowd thinned out the farther it went,as
A UGUS T 1 98t
3 l
groups of men split off to head for their
quarters, sometimes pausing to piss by
the roadside. Sounds from the camps
broke the afternoon stillness: the sharp
clack of dominoes, the riffle or cards
and, from up on a hillside, the wail of
bagpipes.
It is this camaraderie- especially the
interconnections between members-
tbat, more than an}'lhing else, has
earned the Grove its reputation as a
strengthenedthm connection bytaking over
Dillon, Read & Co., a New York invest·
mem banking house; Robert Stuart was in·
vited by Secretary of Defense Weinberger,
who. obviously, isfeeling his oms.
breeding ground for ruling class ethos.
University of California sociologist G.
William Domhoff has written exten-
sively about the circles of power in the
United States and about the Grove in
pan icular. The men who belong to the
club and the guests they invite to the
Grove, he says, constitute a cohesive
ruling upper class in this country. The
ties are formed early-a year rooming
together at Choate or a summer friend·
M O THER J ON E S
ship at Newport. Business connections
later on nurture the bonds. Exclusive
clubs like the Bohemian are just one
more institution through which the ties,
and thus the values, are maintained.
The Grove, like many exclusive
men's clubs, has its sprinkling of "pub-
.lic" faces-the Merv Griffins, the
Lowell Thomases. The chance to camp
out with famous figuresoftheentertain·
ment world is one of the many com·
modities that, in this country, great
wealth can buy. But the members ofthe
Grove who really count are the hun·
dreds upon hundreds of "faceless" men
who stalk the corridors of power. For
starters, there's Daniel Ludwig, the
richest living American. Ludwig be-
kmgs to Pelicans camp, as do Senator
Charles Percy and Grayson Kirk, for·
mer president of Columbia University.
Just down the road is Stowaway, home
camp to William Randolph Hearst, Jr.;
William Hewitt, chief executive officer
of Deere and Company; and Harold
Haynes, the just-retired chairman of
Standard Oil ofCalifornia.
Similar lists apply to almost anycamp
within the Grove. Medicine Lodge
counts newspaper publisher C. K.
McClatchy among its ranks. Midway
camp has James Harvey, president of
the Transamerica Corporation; and C.
J. Medberry, chairman of BankArner-
ica Corporation. Owlers can boast of
James Bancroft, who heads the board
of UNC Resources, the holding com-
pany for the United Nuclear Corpora-
tion. And Wayside camp can point
proudly to nuclear scientist and former
Atomic Energy Commission Chairman
Glenn Seaborg.
But even a once-over reading of the
membership list will make it clear that
here, in this refuge from the rat race,
some camps are " more e.qual than
others." There may be no overt rules,
but the etiquette is there. While most
camps are open to fellow Bohemians,
entrance to some is by invitation only.
These are the heavyweights: Mandalay,
Cave Man's, Hill Billies, Owl's Nest
and, to a lesser degree, Stowaway and
Midway. Among their rosters are
Ronald Reagan and George Bush; A.
W. Clausen, who recently left the top
spot at Bank of America to become
head of the World Bank; Attorney
General William French Smith; astro-
naut Frank Borman, now president of
Eastern Airlines; Stephen Bechtel and
his son, Stephen, Jr.; Richard Cooley,
AUGUST t98 t
3 3
chairman of Wells Fargo; John Mc-
Cone, former head ofthe Atomi.cEner·
gy Commission and the CIA; Henry
Kearns, president of the American-
Asian Bank and former head of the
U.S. Export-Import Bank; Jack How-
ard, head ofScripps-Howard broadcas-
ting; and W. Glenn Campbell, director
of the Hoover Institution. Black and
brown faces, incidentally, are almost
totally absent among Grove members.
Author John van der Zee notes in his
book The Greatest Men's Party on
Earth that in 1972 the only nonwhite
member was Carlos Romulo, former
president of the Philippines.
What makes these men doubly in-
fluential is that their power is not re-
stricted to either public service or the
private sector. They move between the
two like offensive and defensive squads
shuttling on and off a football field. For
years, George Shultz of Mandalay
camp has been one of the nation's
busiest utility players. Currently he is
the president ofthe Bechtel Group, the
world's largest engineering and con-
struction company and a leader in the
nuclear field. He just recently resigned
from the boards of J. P. Morgan and
Co. and Morgan Guaranty Trust. But
in the past he has served also as secre-
tary of the treasury and secretary of
labor. And the Reagan administration
has not overlooked hun. Touted for
several Cabinet posts, he was named
last spring to be chairman of tbe presi-
dent's economic advisory board.
Ofcourse, when you sit on the board
of someone's company and he sits on
yours, chances are the two of you are
very much alike-same class, same
values, same friends. It's natural that
you will start socializing. It's under-
standable that Edward Carlson ofUnit-
ed Airlines would invite to the Grove
one ofhis directors, Charles Luce, who
also happens to bechairman ofConsoli-
dated Edison. Likewise, it's natural that
Justin Dart of Dart Industries would
invite one of his directors, former
Treasury Secretary William Simon.
But the more interesting connections
are the ones not so easily explained. We
may neverknowwhy Caspar Weinberg-
er invited the chairman ofQuaker Oats
to be his guest. Or why Geronimo
Velasco, minister ofenergy of the Phil-
ippines, received an invitation from
Fred Hartley of Union Oil. Is Union
prospecting the South China Sea? Has
the Defense Department engineered
some secret plan to hide MX missiles in
Quaker's grain silos, so they can be
"shot from guns''?
h, why must the world be
husband-father-son? I am
woman . . . what is my
role?" The questions could
rightly be asked by the wife of any Bo-
hemian, denied entrance to the Grove
for the two weeks her husband is there,
but in this case they are not. They are
being sung by a Bohemian himself.
Olympus, the 1980 Grove Play, has
reached one of its high points and, in
this ethereal forest amphitheater with
some I,500 men hushed and looking
on , Rhea, goddess of Earth , the
"female" lead. is agonizing over
woman's place in the unive~l order.
The play is a long-standing tradition
at the Grove, the first having been writ-
ten for the 1902 encampment. It is not
unusual for the annual Grove Play,
commissioned for a one-time-only per-
formance. to cost upward of about
$25.000 to stage. Last summer's play
told of a struggle among gods. Briefly:
Cronus, the Harvester. has declared
himself God of the Universe. In the
past, gods have had their power
usurped by succeeding generations. To
prevent this. Cronus devours his own
offspring. But he is undone by his wife,
Rhea, and his mother, Gaea, who·help
one son escape. That son, Zeus, returns
full-grown to challenge his father. Hav-
ing freed an armyofdemigods banished
by his father to the Underworld, Zeus
leads the attack against Cronus' forces.
Along the switchback trails that rise up
the tree-covered hillside at the back of
the stage, the battle ebbs and flows.
Rockets streak off into the night over
the heads of the audience; smoke
bombs explode and columns of fire
shoot skyward; spotlights careen off
each other as the armies clash. In the
end, Zeus pledges to establish a new,
just reign and to create a race of hu-
mans, touched by divinity yet humbled
by mortality.
For the Bohemians, surrounded by
their comrades and still wrapped in the
glow of good food and drink, Olympus
is not just entertaining- it's inspiring.
By the time the last wisps ofsmoke drift
over the back rows, Bohemian and
guest have been reassured by the play's
message: the world is dominated by
men because that is the way the uni-
verse is meant to be. When the time is
MOTHER jONES
right, a father passes his reinsof author-
ity down to his son; that son does like-
wise when his time comes. As for
woman, she exists to bear children and
strengthen and maintain the integrityof
the family. Her place is to honor and
support her husband, except if he re-
fuses to abide by the natural order; only
then must she rise up againsthim so that
theson may take his rightful place in the
cosmic scheme.
The play's message must gladden the
corporate heart of Bohemia. It speaks
ofsimpler times, when the linesofpow-
erwere clearlydrawn and therewere no
special interest groups to pacify or gov-
ernment interference to worry about. A
man could build an empire and pass
that legacy on to his son, or to a trusted
protege in the hierarchy who had
become like a son. And all the while his
wife would be there for him, building a
stable homelife.
It's also the kind of message that
could have been written by one particu-
lar man invited to the 1980 encamp-
ment: Senator Paul Laxalt ofNevada.
Laxalt, who served as Ronald Rea-
gan's national campaign chairman and
on the president's transition team, was
apparently too busy with campaign
matters to be able to attend the mid-
summer encampment. But be is cer-
tainly on the Bohemians' wavelength.
Laxalt is the Senate sponsor of the
Family Protection Act, a bill which,
among other things, seeks to cut off
federal funds to schools or publicly
funded institutions that would not allow
prayer or which allow the view that
homosexuality is acceptable.
he's great," one Bohemian said
to the other, as the woman
headed toward the bar. "A few
years ago, she bad ·me in a
canoe, and we screwed all the way
down the river back to the Grove. She
must be a nymphomaniac."
The place is a combination res-
taurant-motel on the outskirtsof Guer-
neviUe, five miles upriver from Monte
Rio. The 1980 Grove Play received an
extended standing ovation less than 24
hours ago, but the conve~tion here
tonight has little to do with strengthen-
ing the familyor bearing children. Male
bonding may be the stuff of Bohemia,
but for some of these men such cama-
raderie goes only so far. They've gotten
their fill of Woman as Madonna in
Olympus; tonight the emphasis is on
A UGUST t981
H
Woman as something else. Though the
number ofmenwhoseek out local pros-
titutes is small compared to the total
membership-probably less than ten
percent- the traffic has long been a
fixture of the midsummer frolic, and
tales of sexual exploits are much a part
of the Grove.
The bar is packed. Perhaps because
this is the final Saturday night, more
Bohemians than usual are out for a last
fling. The women on hand are obvious-
ly capable ofcatering to every taste and
not afraid to flaunt it: dresses slit to the
thigh. leotard tops and spike heels. A
brunettewalks through wearingflowing
harem pants and a delicate chain halter
with saucer-sized metal breastplates.
Another woman particularly causes
heads to tum. She wears a simplewhite
dress that stops inches above her knees.
Her strawberry blonde hair bangs in
curls around a clean, fresh face. She
wears plain white stockings and, on her
feet, schoolgirl shoes with bows. Her
appearance clearly shakes the men,
especially some of the older ones. It
must be hard to buy the services of a
woman dressed up like your grand-
daughter.
A blonde man hovers nearby. Ap-
parently a bar employee, he seems to
direct traffic, takingnoteofthecomings
and goings, talking to the prostitutes,
the waitresses and bartenders. Despite
his presence, the wOmen are very much
in control of this ritualized seduction
dance. They move through the bar jok-
ing and flirting, playing just the right
roles to bolster the Bohemians' egos.
"I'm independent,"saysone, stretching
herself to her full height just inches in
front of one man. " But I don't think of
myself as a feminist. I'm just a hundred
and ten percentfemale."
This is, after all, business, and all the
ploys are designed to get these women
out the door and to a waiting motel
room, client in tow. On a previous
night, the bar was the soene of an im-
promptu mini-striptease. A pert
blonde, having spent close to an hour
teasing and coaxing one man at the bar,
finally escalated her attack. With his
eyes glued to her. she wriggled out of
her slip and first dangled it in front of
him playfullyand then pressed it against
his face. The man seemed, at once, de-
lighted and flustered at the display, un- .
sure of how to react. Tonight, others,
too, seem paralyzed by similarly direct
behavior. The men joke, buy drinks
and fl.irt back. Yet many suffer from
inertia, slowing them in making that
move toward the exit. Perhaps this slice
of life is just too real for them, too
spontaneous, not like a boardroom
agenda. These men have been im-
mersed in a nostalgic, woodsy setting,
steeped in tradition; now they've run
into working women of the 1980s:
aggressive, in control and as capable of
manipulation as any corporate honcho.
Role-reversal can be unsettling. By
.evening's end, however, some 20 men
have made the move and left with
women.
ere at the Grove," William
Buckley is telling the
assembled masses ofBohe-
........,... mia, "one senses almost in-
stant sanctuary from the roiling waters
outside, where there is so much tumult,
so much anxiety."
Buckley has been given the honored
place on the program, the Lakeside
Talk on the encampment's penultimate
, day, a time traditionally reserved for
Herbert Hoover white he was alive. He
clearly relishes the spot. And, he admits
to the group, his topic, "As I See It,"
gives him a free hand to pronounce at
length on anything he wishes-within
limitations. Telling the group what it
;Uready knows-that "one always does
as one is told in Bohemia"-Buckley
recounts that the club leaders have
warned him not to be political.
"I told them that the last time I
uttered a complete sentence without
political bias was when I proposed to
my wife-having previously established
her political bias. . . . But one always
does as one is told ... so I will not tell
you why you should work for Ronald
Reagan and George Bush."
His groundwork laid, Buckley
launches into a wealth of reminiscences
about the Grove. At one point,though,
he shifts gears and, despite his pledge,
tells an extended anecdote, the point of
which is a pitch for free-market eco-
nomics. Subsidizing unemployed work-
ers,hesays, allows them toearn a living
for not doing their jobs. Bailing out
Chrysler is an extension of the same
philosophy and is equally ill-advised.
"'There must be a high rate of failure,"
he says, "for without that there will not
be a tolerable rate ofsuccess."
Butmostofthe talk, delivered in true
Buckley style, pokes fun at himself and
some of his favorite targets, including
-
'
MOTHER ]ONES
friend and political opposite John Ken-
neth Galbraith. There was the year,
Buckley says, that he wanted to sponsor
Galbraith as his guest at the Grove. "I
met him in London and asked him what
he was doing the last week in July. He
took out his book, looked at it and said,
'I'm sorry. That week I'm lecturing at
the University of Moscow.' 'Oh,' I re-
plied. 'What do you have left to teach
them?' "
Conspiracy buffs write about Bohe-
mian Grove and its campers, hoping to
stumble across some plot to take over
the world. Sociologists analyze its sig-
nificance. Club officials try to desensa-
tionalize it. But in the end it takes no
expert to see what Bohemian Grove is
all about: in this country money and
power are entwined. Perhaps the best
comment about the Grove was madeby
the small movie house down the road in
Monte Rio. During the Grove's en-
campment it showed a very pointed
double feature: The Magic Christian-
and Dr. Strangelove. o
You,Too, Can Go To
Each year, by torchlight, robed priests and acolytes bum aneffigyof Dull Care
in front ofthe Owl Shrinetoofficiallyopen the Grove's midsummer encamp-
ment.Theceremony signifies that Bohemianscan forgetthe.ireveryday respon~i­
bilities. But this year there will be a constant reminder to the contrary.
Last summer. activists from SONOMore Atomics held a 15-day vigil attbe
Grove gate. This year, as part of the Bohemian Grove Action Network
(BGAN), they are ~calating their efforts. SOAN hopes to educme the publi.,
about how the policiesofthe elite,on defense and theenvironment, threatenour
survivaL BGAN is also looking to the state to ru.le against the G rove's strict
oo-W<lmen hiring policy ina pending discrimination hearing.
The Bohemians value their privacy, but ifyou want to join in the action. bead
north on Route lOl from San FranciSt.'O. Near Cotati. take Route 116 west and
follow it into Monte Rio (25 miles). Pass the movie house and cross the bridge:
take the secondleft and inless thanamile you're at tbegate to the Grove. O n July
10, BGAN hopes to line the Bohemians' route from Sonoma County Airport.
On July IS there will be a public forum in Santa Rosa about the Grove. and there
will be a vigil for the durationoftheencampmcnL Youc~n write BGAN at883-E
Sonuma Avenue. Santa Rosa. California 95404. - R. C.
AUGUST t 98 t
3 5

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Mother Jones Magazine, August 1981

  • 1.
  • 2. • ,.' A ~1U111e of St. Jolm of Nepom11k, tl1e club's adopted patron saim, Jiflll't'$ tlw Gro•·e. Ortler~c/ drowned by ajealolts king In the Urh CCIIIIIf)' for rej11Sing 10 re•·eul the lflll!e/1'5 confes.Yion. hr .~randr, finfltr ro lips. a model ofloytll dircrerion for the Bohemians.
  • 3. world. And it is a place that, last sum- mer, had its veil of privacy pierced by a MotherJones undercover reporter. The Grove is the retreat for members and guestsofSan Francisco's Bohemian Club, which was founded in 1872 by journalists and artists but quickly be- came one of the most exclusive men's associations in the United States. Each July. some 2,000 members of America's elite- from banking and finance, poli- tics, the military and the nation'scorpo- rate boardrooms-convene here for a two-and-a-half-week encampment. No women are allowed; even the waiters, camp valets and kitchen staff are all male. The annual fest has been called "the greatest men's party on Earth"-a mixture of camping trip, college beer blast and stag night. Officially, the Bohemians bill it a lit- tle more politely. Employees learn from official guidelines that "members and their guests are housed in private camps similar to college fraternities" and "receive the enjoyment of being togetherwith fellow Bohemiansandthe chance to reminisce about the good old days." A midsummer's respite from re- sponsibility. Even the Bohemians' mot- to, "Weaving spiders, come not here," admonishes the members not to use the time for establishing or extending worldly connections. The club main- tains,in its literature, that it issimply an "association of men . . . devoted to literature, art, music and the drama.'' But tbe Grove has long been sus- pected ofbeing morethanit claims. The annual encampment, rumor had it, was where the "old boy network" did its networking. After all, the chairman of Southern California Edison's executive committeecomes here and shares quar- ters with the head of the Bechtel Group, safe from publicity and public scrutiny. Government officials visit as guests of private industrialists. And here, in the 1930s, Ernest 0. Lawrence, America's premier nuclear physicist, forged the tiesthat ensured him funding to develop his massive cyclotron, con- nections that sped him and the country on the way to the development of the atomic bomb. The suspicions linger, also, because the Grove keeps itself so secretive. It is strictly off-limits to the public. Aside from the occasional news story about dignitaries arriving in private jets at nearby Sonoma County Airport, press coverage is almost nonexistent. MOTHER ]ONES eventy-five miles north of San Francisco, the small town of Monte Rio straddles the Rus- ~_, sian River. On one side there is the movie house, a gas station, the pub- lic beach; on the other, a few stores, a cafe, the local bar. Barely half a mile back from the river, on a narrow black- top road, a sign reads: Private Property . .. Members & Guests Only. Farther along the road are several checkpoints. Members and guests must sign in when they arrive; workers are scrutinized by security and must wear ID badges at all times. Would-be spies who have tried to get jobs as staffat the Grove have been frustrated: most staffers are hired only offthe rolls of the San Francisco restau- rant workers union. Other avenues of infiltration are closed: hikers who "in- advertently" wander in overland are quickly ejected. But last summer, with some help from an insider whose name I cannot disclose-but whose identity might surprise some Iong-tim.e Bohe- mians-! managed to slip through the Grove's security net and, for four days, became part of the prime retreat for America's ruling class. Inside, the overwhelming feeling is a contradictory one: space and isolation. A woodland paradise; an island in har- mony with Nature. Trespassers will be prosecuted. The Grove covers some 2,700 acres, and within its confines are two outdoor theaters built into the con- tours ofhillsides, an infirmary, a private beach on the river and a "diningcircle" with ornate gas-fed lighting fixtures and redwood tables to seat more than a thousand. And there are the camps, home to the Bohemians and their guests. Isle of Aves. Lost Angels. Whiskey Aat. Toy- land. In all, 122 of them. Each has a main building with a bar, a kitchen and a small dining area where most mem- bers eat lunch. Oose by, each camp has sleeping quarters. Some are little more than flooring among the trees on which to raise tents. But others are level after level of fine cabins rising sharply up a hillside, intersecting planes of redwood and glass suspended in the trees with no visible means ofsupport. Ifsome future episode ofthe Star Wars saga takes us to an arboreal planet, where dwellings hang weightless amid the tangled branches ofthe forest, this is what it will look like. The wondrous surroundings aside, there are reasonswhy men accustomed AUGUST 198 1 3 0 to the height of luxury would come to such an isolated setting. Privacy is one, of course. But social scientists tell us that other factors are at work. Any soci- ety- and these men certainly constitute a society of power-has as a part of its culture the notion of festival, a break from worldly routine, a time ofregener- ation. Group solidarity is strengthened through festival because it reflects and reinforces the group's collectively held values. Ritual and setting, often tinged with religion, further serve to separate the group from "outsiders." Between two of the Grove's road- ways is a small lake. It is the site of the Lakeside Talks, a Grove tradition. Here, Bohemians gather·daily, some- times more often, to hear speeches given by fellow members and selected guests. Henry Kissinger has spoken here, as has astronaut Neil Armstrong . ,,
  • 4. MOTHER JONES - • r .;If'., ,. •• ..,.. . • 'l~ · ' J ··Here <litheGro•·e,•· William Buckley rold tilearsembled marses ofBohemia, ..onesensesalmost illS/all/sancwary from theroiling warers o11rside.·· In r!rissereneseuing. membt•rs all(/inviredguesLrenjCJ)' rhe high poinrofrlrefesrivities- rhe Gro•·e Play. Theamp!rirhearerlogs are fiued wirh C llm'assear backs, llll(lthesrage irfilled witit Bohemians cavoning ar woodnymphs, heroes andfair da_msels. and, in their time, Nelson Rockefeller and Dwight Eisenhower. "How doyou like theowl?" my guide to the inside asks suddenly. Only then do I see it. It stands at the headofthe lake- perhaps30feet tall or more-rough-hewn stone, moss- covered. The figure of a perched owl, symbol of the Bohemians, wise and taciturn. Even in the glaring sunlight it appears dark and brooding. The icon looms behind every lakeside speaker and figures prominently in the Bohe- mians' most arcane ceremony, the Cre- mation of Care. During the rite, an effigy symbolizing responsibility is burned on a pyre while robed acolytes dance in front of the owl shrine. "It's fake,you know," my guide says. "Concrete. There's a door in back." We leave the lake and part company, but I will be coming back later. During the early part of the week, there have been lectures here on the history of magic and on the America's Cup yacht races. In the past two days, though, Bohemians have heard the American Enterprise Institute's George Lenc- zowski talk on the Persian Gulf crisis; Admiral Thomas Hayward of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on U.S. naval strength; and Union Oil's Chairman Fred Hart- ley on the world petroleum situation. Today they will gather to listen to the man who hasbeen called "the unrepen- tent father of the H-bomb"-Dr. Ed- ward Teller. 17"Tlr""":l he Soviets now surround the Persian Gulf," Teller says to this crowd of some 700 Bo- hemians. "And that means that on some unknown timetable, but not on an extended one, they will even- AUGUS T l 98t j l tually take over the Gulf... This is Teller at his "Red menace" best, and the crowd loves it. Through- out the speech, the Bohemians collec- tively murmur approval, nod their heads or break into applause. "If there is a small war, a conventional war, we will lose. If there is an all-out nuclear war, the U.S. will be wiped out, but the Soviet Union will survive and survive easily." Teller hammers away at his point, saying that the Soviets pose such a threat because they stand ready to take over the world's oil supply. But, he says, our defense policies have allowed the Soviets to pass us by. Teller has never shied away from controversial, unpopular opinions (more than once he has claimed that the Three Mile Island accident proves that the system works),but here histal.kgets
  • 5. M O THER JONES ~ r-------------~----~-------.------------------------------~-------------------------- ~ I l ~ GF:T tH!i GUHt The Bolrtmian Club is mlrutytar'sretreat. Givtup? Well, herrau right·lipfJ<'d about tiS cu""" members and u frw clues: John Swearillgm. tht head of their invited [(lltsto. Abo••t are four such the cowury's sixth·largestoil company, sits pairs taktn from official club luiS. Try tO on the board of Willard Butcher's Ooase match tl.- lrmt (ltft) with the man ht im·ittd Mmohatlfm; William Simon is a direl'tor of Justin Dart's DonJndu.sme:r. andbollr were m the select group thlll helped ptclc the Reagan Cabmtt; 1/.S pasttrtii.Srtry Stertrary, George Shultz already travels m nalter Wriston's bankmg crrc/1!$, but Beclutl has the warm reception of pany line. "Un- les.~ we have a new beginning ~oon ," he concludes, " Idon't know what will hap· pen." But Teller need not have wor· ried. His words of 1980 were destined to become the actions of 1981. Reagan's Cabinet and advisors- Bohemians like Justin Dan, William French Smith and Caspar Weinberger among them- are already implementing many ofthe ideas that filled the air last summer. !though the Lakeside Talks punctuate the Bohemians' days among ihe redwoods, most members would insist thai the ~tuff of Bohemia is the cama- raderie- the catching up on old friends, the visiting from camp tO camp. With Teller's talk over and afternoon fading, the members drifted away from lake- side to resume those pleasures. The crowd thinned out the farther it went,as A UGUS T 1 98t 3 l groups of men split off to head for their quarters, sometimes pausing to piss by the roadside. Sounds from the camps broke the afternoon stillness: the sharp clack of dominoes, the riffle or cards and, from up on a hillside, the wail of bagpipes. It is this camaraderie- especially the interconnections between members- tbat, more than an}'lhing else, has earned the Grove its reputation as a
  • 6. strengthenedthm connection bytaking over Dillon, Read & Co., a New York invest· mem banking house; Robert Stuart was in· vited by Secretary of Defense Weinberger, who. obviously, isfeeling his oms. breeding ground for ruling class ethos. University of California sociologist G. William Domhoff has written exten- sively about the circles of power in the United States and about the Grove in pan icular. The men who belong to the club and the guests they invite to the Grove, he says, constitute a cohesive ruling upper class in this country. The ties are formed early-a year rooming together at Choate or a summer friend· M O THER J ON E S ship at Newport. Business connections later on nurture the bonds. Exclusive clubs like the Bohemian are just one more institution through which the ties, and thus the values, are maintained. The Grove, like many exclusive men's clubs, has its sprinkling of "pub- .lic" faces-the Merv Griffins, the Lowell Thomases. The chance to camp out with famous figuresoftheentertain· ment world is one of the many com· modities that, in this country, great wealth can buy. But the members ofthe Grove who really count are the hun· dreds upon hundreds of "faceless" men who stalk the corridors of power. For starters, there's Daniel Ludwig, the richest living American. Ludwig be- kmgs to Pelicans camp, as do Senator Charles Percy and Grayson Kirk, for· mer president of Columbia University. Just down the road is Stowaway, home camp to William Randolph Hearst, Jr.; William Hewitt, chief executive officer of Deere and Company; and Harold Haynes, the just-retired chairman of Standard Oil ofCalifornia. Similar lists apply to almost anycamp within the Grove. Medicine Lodge counts newspaper publisher C. K. McClatchy among its ranks. Midway camp has James Harvey, president of the Transamerica Corporation; and C. J. Medberry, chairman of BankArner- ica Corporation. Owlers can boast of James Bancroft, who heads the board of UNC Resources, the holding com- pany for the United Nuclear Corpora- tion. And Wayside camp can point proudly to nuclear scientist and former Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Glenn Seaborg. But even a once-over reading of the membership list will make it clear that here, in this refuge from the rat race, some camps are " more e.qual than others." There may be no overt rules, but the etiquette is there. While most camps are open to fellow Bohemians, entrance to some is by invitation only. These are the heavyweights: Mandalay, Cave Man's, Hill Billies, Owl's Nest and, to a lesser degree, Stowaway and Midway. Among their rosters are Ronald Reagan and George Bush; A. W. Clausen, who recently left the top spot at Bank of America to become head of the World Bank; Attorney General William French Smith; astro- naut Frank Borman, now president of Eastern Airlines; Stephen Bechtel and his son, Stephen, Jr.; Richard Cooley, AUGUST t98 t 3 3 chairman of Wells Fargo; John Mc- Cone, former head ofthe Atomi.cEner· gy Commission and the CIA; Henry Kearns, president of the American- Asian Bank and former head of the U.S. Export-Import Bank; Jack How- ard, head ofScripps-Howard broadcas- ting; and W. Glenn Campbell, director of the Hoover Institution. Black and brown faces, incidentally, are almost totally absent among Grove members. Author John van der Zee notes in his book The Greatest Men's Party on Earth that in 1972 the only nonwhite member was Carlos Romulo, former president of the Philippines. What makes these men doubly in- fluential is that their power is not re- stricted to either public service or the private sector. They move between the two like offensive and defensive squads shuttling on and off a football field. For years, George Shultz of Mandalay camp has been one of the nation's busiest utility players. Currently he is the president ofthe Bechtel Group, the world's largest engineering and con- struction company and a leader in the nuclear field. He just recently resigned from the boards of J. P. Morgan and Co. and Morgan Guaranty Trust. But in the past he has served also as secre- tary of the treasury and secretary of labor. And the Reagan administration has not overlooked hun. Touted for several Cabinet posts, he was named last spring to be chairman of tbe presi- dent's economic advisory board. Ofcourse, when you sit on the board of someone's company and he sits on yours, chances are the two of you are very much alike-same class, same values, same friends. It's natural that you will start socializing. It's under- standable that Edward Carlson ofUnit- ed Airlines would invite to the Grove one ofhis directors, Charles Luce, who also happens to bechairman ofConsoli- dated Edison. Likewise, it's natural that Justin Dart of Dart Industries would invite one of his directors, former Treasury Secretary William Simon. But the more interesting connections are the ones not so easily explained. We may neverknowwhy Caspar Weinberg- er invited the chairman ofQuaker Oats to be his guest. Or why Geronimo Velasco, minister ofenergy of the Phil- ippines, received an invitation from Fred Hartley of Union Oil. Is Union prospecting the South China Sea? Has the Defense Department engineered
  • 7. some secret plan to hide MX missiles in Quaker's grain silos, so they can be "shot from guns''? h, why must the world be husband-father-son? I am woman . . . what is my role?" The questions could rightly be asked by the wife of any Bo- hemian, denied entrance to the Grove for the two weeks her husband is there, but in this case they are not. They are being sung by a Bohemian himself. Olympus, the 1980 Grove Play, has reached one of its high points and, in this ethereal forest amphitheater with some I,500 men hushed and looking on , Rhea, goddess of Earth , the "female" lead. is agonizing over woman's place in the unive~l order. The play is a long-standing tradition at the Grove, the first having been writ- ten for the 1902 encampment. It is not unusual for the annual Grove Play, commissioned for a one-time-only per- formance. to cost upward of about $25.000 to stage. Last summer's play told of a struggle among gods. Briefly: Cronus, the Harvester. has declared himself God of the Universe. In the past, gods have had their power usurped by succeeding generations. To prevent this. Cronus devours his own offspring. But he is undone by his wife, Rhea, and his mother, Gaea, who·help one son escape. That son, Zeus, returns full-grown to challenge his father. Hav- ing freed an armyofdemigods banished by his father to the Underworld, Zeus leads the attack against Cronus' forces. Along the switchback trails that rise up the tree-covered hillside at the back of the stage, the battle ebbs and flows. Rockets streak off into the night over the heads of the audience; smoke bombs explode and columns of fire shoot skyward; spotlights careen off each other as the armies clash. In the end, Zeus pledges to establish a new, just reign and to create a race of hu- mans, touched by divinity yet humbled by mortality. For the Bohemians, surrounded by their comrades and still wrapped in the glow of good food and drink, Olympus is not just entertaining- it's inspiring. By the time the last wisps ofsmoke drift over the back rows, Bohemian and guest have been reassured by the play's message: the world is dominated by men because that is the way the uni- verse is meant to be. When the time is MOTHER jONES right, a father passes his reinsof author- ity down to his son; that son does like- wise when his time comes. As for woman, she exists to bear children and strengthen and maintain the integrityof the family. Her place is to honor and support her husband, except if he re- fuses to abide by the natural order; only then must she rise up againsthim so that theson may take his rightful place in the cosmic scheme. The play's message must gladden the corporate heart of Bohemia. It speaks ofsimpler times, when the linesofpow- erwere clearlydrawn and therewere no special interest groups to pacify or gov- ernment interference to worry about. A man could build an empire and pass that legacy on to his son, or to a trusted protege in the hierarchy who had become like a son. And all the while his wife would be there for him, building a stable homelife. It's also the kind of message that could have been written by one particu- lar man invited to the 1980 encamp- ment: Senator Paul Laxalt ofNevada. Laxalt, who served as Ronald Rea- gan's national campaign chairman and on the president's transition team, was apparently too busy with campaign matters to be able to attend the mid- summer encampment. But be is cer- tainly on the Bohemians' wavelength. Laxalt is the Senate sponsor of the Family Protection Act, a bill which, among other things, seeks to cut off federal funds to schools or publicly funded institutions that would not allow prayer or which allow the view that homosexuality is acceptable. he's great," one Bohemian said to the other, as the woman headed toward the bar. "A few years ago, she bad ·me in a canoe, and we screwed all the way down the river back to the Grove. She must be a nymphomaniac." The place is a combination res- taurant-motel on the outskirtsof Guer- neviUe, five miles upriver from Monte Rio. The 1980 Grove Play received an extended standing ovation less than 24 hours ago, but the conve~tion here tonight has little to do with strengthen- ing the familyor bearing children. Male bonding may be the stuff of Bohemia, but for some of these men such cama- raderie goes only so far. They've gotten their fill of Woman as Madonna in Olympus; tonight the emphasis is on A UGUST t981 H Woman as something else. Though the number ofmenwhoseek out local pros- titutes is small compared to the total membership-probably less than ten percent- the traffic has long been a fixture of the midsummer frolic, and tales of sexual exploits are much a part of the Grove. The bar is packed. Perhaps because this is the final Saturday night, more Bohemians than usual are out for a last fling. The women on hand are obvious- ly capable ofcatering to every taste and not afraid to flaunt it: dresses slit to the thigh. leotard tops and spike heels. A brunettewalks through wearingflowing harem pants and a delicate chain halter with saucer-sized metal breastplates. Another woman particularly causes heads to tum. She wears a simplewhite dress that stops inches above her knees. Her strawberry blonde hair bangs in curls around a clean, fresh face. She wears plain white stockings and, on her feet, schoolgirl shoes with bows. Her appearance clearly shakes the men, especially some of the older ones. It must be hard to buy the services of a woman dressed up like your grand- daughter. A blonde man hovers nearby. Ap- parently a bar employee, he seems to direct traffic, takingnoteofthecomings and goings, talking to the prostitutes, the waitresses and bartenders. Despite his presence, the wOmen are very much in control of this ritualized seduction dance. They move through the bar jok- ing and flirting, playing just the right roles to bolster the Bohemians' egos. "I'm independent,"saysone, stretching herself to her full height just inches in front of one man. " But I don't think of myself as a feminist. I'm just a hundred and ten percentfemale." This is, after all, business, and all the ploys are designed to get these women out the door and to a waiting motel room, client in tow. On a previous night, the bar was the soene of an im- promptu mini-striptease. A pert blonde, having spent close to an hour teasing and coaxing one man at the bar, finally escalated her attack. With his eyes glued to her. she wriggled out of her slip and first dangled it in front of him playfullyand then pressed it against his face. The man seemed, at once, de- lighted and flustered at the display, un- . sure of how to react. Tonight, others, too, seem paralyzed by similarly direct behavior. The men joke, buy drinks
  • 8. and fl.irt back. Yet many suffer from inertia, slowing them in making that move toward the exit. Perhaps this slice of life is just too real for them, too spontaneous, not like a boardroom agenda. These men have been im- mersed in a nostalgic, woodsy setting, steeped in tradition; now they've run into working women of the 1980s: aggressive, in control and as capable of manipulation as any corporate honcho. Role-reversal can be unsettling. By .evening's end, however, some 20 men have made the move and left with women. ere at the Grove," William Buckley is telling the assembled masses ofBohe- ........,... mia, "one senses almost in- stant sanctuary from the roiling waters outside, where there is so much tumult, so much anxiety." Buckley has been given the honored place on the program, the Lakeside Talk on the encampment's penultimate , day, a time traditionally reserved for Herbert Hoover white he was alive. He clearly relishes the spot. And, he admits to the group, his topic, "As I See It," gives him a free hand to pronounce at length on anything he wishes-within limitations. Telling the group what it ;Uready knows-that "one always does as one is told in Bohemia"-Buckley recounts that the club leaders have warned him not to be political. "I told them that the last time I uttered a complete sentence without political bias was when I proposed to my wife-having previously established her political bias. . . . But one always does as one is told ... so I will not tell you why you should work for Ronald Reagan and George Bush." His groundwork laid, Buckley launches into a wealth of reminiscences about the Grove. At one point,though, he shifts gears and, despite his pledge, tells an extended anecdote, the point of which is a pitch for free-market eco- nomics. Subsidizing unemployed work- ers,hesays, allows them toearn a living for not doing their jobs. Bailing out Chrysler is an extension of the same philosophy and is equally ill-advised. "'There must be a high rate of failure," he says, "for without that there will not be a tolerable rate ofsuccess." Butmostofthe talk, delivered in true Buckley style, pokes fun at himself and some of his favorite targets, including - ' MOTHER ]ONES friend and political opposite John Ken- neth Galbraith. There was the year, Buckley says, that he wanted to sponsor Galbraith as his guest at the Grove. "I met him in London and asked him what he was doing the last week in July. He took out his book, looked at it and said, 'I'm sorry. That week I'm lecturing at the University of Moscow.' 'Oh,' I re- plied. 'What do you have left to teach them?' " Conspiracy buffs write about Bohe- mian Grove and its campers, hoping to stumble across some plot to take over the world. Sociologists analyze its sig- nificance. Club officials try to desensa- tionalize it. But in the end it takes no expert to see what Bohemian Grove is all about: in this country money and power are entwined. Perhaps the best comment about the Grove was madeby the small movie house down the road in Monte Rio. During the Grove's en- campment it showed a very pointed double feature: The Magic Christian- and Dr. Strangelove. o You,Too, Can Go To Each year, by torchlight, robed priests and acolytes bum aneffigyof Dull Care in front ofthe Owl Shrinetoofficiallyopen the Grove's midsummer encamp- ment.Theceremony signifies that Bohemianscan forgetthe.ireveryday respon~i­ bilities. But this year there will be a constant reminder to the contrary. Last summer. activists from SONOMore Atomics held a 15-day vigil attbe Grove gate. This year, as part of the Bohemian Grove Action Network (BGAN), they are ~calating their efforts. SOAN hopes to educme the publi., about how the policiesofthe elite,on defense and theenvironment, threatenour survivaL BGAN is also looking to the state to ru.le against the G rove's strict oo-W<lmen hiring policy ina pending discrimination hearing. The Bohemians value their privacy, but ifyou want to join in the action. bead north on Route lOl from San FranciSt.'O. Near Cotati. take Route 116 west and follow it into Monte Rio (25 miles). Pass the movie house and cross the bridge: take the secondleft and inless thanamile you're at tbegate to the Grove. O n July 10, BGAN hopes to line the Bohemians' route from Sonoma County Airport. On July IS there will be a public forum in Santa Rosa about the Grove. and there will be a vigil for the durationoftheencampmcnL Youc~n write BGAN at883-E Sonuma Avenue. Santa Rosa. California 95404. - R. C. AUGUST t 98 t 3 5