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Presented by : Hasnat Tariq
Gulab Devi institute of Pharmacy (GDIP) Lahore , Pakistan
What are Antibodies?
• An antibody is a protein used by immune system to identify and neutralize foreign
objects like bacteria and viruses. Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its
target.
• The high specificity of antibodies makes them an excellent tool for detecting and
quantifying a broad array of targets, from drugs to serum proteins to microorganisms.
• With in vitro assays, antibodies can be used to precipitate soluble antigens, agglutinate
(clump) cells, opsonize and kill bacteria with the assistance of complement, and
neutralize drugs, toxins, and viruses.
Antibody
An antibody binds to a specific region on an antigen called an Epitope. A
single antigen can have multiple epitopes for different, specific antibodies.
Monoclonal Antibody
• Monoclonal antibodies are identical immunoglobulins, generated from a single B-cell clone.
• These antibodies recognize unique epitopes, or binding sites, on a single antigen.
• Derivation from a single B-cell clones and subsequent targeting of a single epitope is what
differentiates monoclonal antibodies from polyclonal antibodies.
• Polyclonal antibodies are antibodies that are derived from different cell lines. They differ in
amino acid sequences.
Characters of Monoclonal Antibodies
• Monoclonal antibodies (mAB) are single type of antibody that are identical and are
directed against a specific epitope (antigen, antigenic determinant)
• Produced by B-cell clones of a single parent or a single hybridoma cell line.
• A hybridoma cell line is formed by the fusion of one B-cell lymphocyte with a
myeloma cell.
• Some myeloma cell synthesize single mAB antibodies naturally.
Monoclonal Antibody VS Polyclonal Antibody
Parameters Monoclonal antibodies Polyclonal antibodies
Produced by: A single B cell clone Many B cell clone
Binds to: A single epitope of a cell Multiple epitopes of all
Antibody class All of a single Antibodies
class.
A mixture of different Antibodies
classes
Ag-binding sites Antibodies have the same
antigen binding sites
A mixture of Antibodies with
different Ag-binding sites classes
Potential for cross reactivity Low High
Advantages of using Monoclonal Antibodies
• Side effects can be treated and reduced by using mice-human hybrid cells or by using
fractions of antibodies.
• They bind to specific diseased or damaged cells needing treatment.
• They treat a wide range of conditions.
Disadvantages of Monoclonal Antibody
• Very expensive and needs considerable effort to produce them.
• Small peptide and fragment antigens may not be good antigens- monoclonal antibody
may not recognize the original antigen.
• Hybridoma culture may be subject to contamination.
• System is only well developed for limited animal and not for other animals.
• More than 99% of the cells do not survive during the fusion process - reducing the range
of useful antibodies that can be produced against an antigen
• It is possibility of generating immunogenicity.
• Time consuming project - anywhere between 6-9 months.
History of Monoclonal Antibody
• Paul Enrlich at the beginning of 20th century coined the term
"magic bullets" and postulated that, if a compound could be made
that selectively targets a disease-causing organism, then a toxin
for that organism could be delivered along with the agent of
selectivity.
• In the 1970s, the B-cell cancer multiple myeloma was known. It
was understood that these cancerous B-cells all produce a single
type of antibody (a paraprotein).
History of Monoclonal Antibody
• In 1975, Kohler and Milstein provided the most outstanding proof of the clonal selection
theory by fusion of normal and malignant cells (Hybridoma technology) for which they
received Nobel prize in 1984.
• In 1986, first monoclonal antibody was licensed by FDA. Orthoclone OKT3
(muromonab-CD3) which was approved for use in preventing kidney transplant
rejection.
Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody
• Monoclonal Antibody (mAB) is produced by cell lines or clones obtained from the
immunized animals with the substances to be studied. Cell lines are produced by fusing B
cells from the immunized animal with myeloma cells.
• To produce the desired mAB, the cells must be grown in either of two ways:
1. by injection into the peritoneal cavity of a suitably prepared mouse (In vivo method)
2. by In vitro tissue culture.
• The vitro tissue culture is the method used when the cells are placed in culture outside the
mouse the mouse's body in flask.
HYBRIDOMA TECHNOLOGY
1.Immunization of specific animal which generate B cells
Need to create antigen of interest against which want to
create a monoclonal antibody and use an organism such
as mouse or rabbit as vehicle to make monoclonal
antibodies
So immunizing these mouse
generate B cells against these
antigens in spleen
Antigen of interest is made by
DNA recombinant technology
and injected in mouse
intraperitoneally
2. Extraction of B cells
After some days, B cell which are
produce in spleen against
Antigens are extracted
Then the extracted B cells are cultured
Need of Hybridoma technology
But there is a fundamental problem in terms of culturing
the B cells. B cells don’t survive in a culture more than a
week then we can initially get some amount of
monoclonal antibodies from these B cells but the problem
is we can’t get it for long.
SO WHAT’S THE SOLUTION?
In order to solve this problem
we use Hybridoma technology
3. Fusion of B cells with Myeloma cells
In hybridoma technology , two types of cells are used Antigen specific B cells extracted from
the spleen from immunized organism and it would produce antibodies (mortal)
Now , fuse these Antibodies with Myeloma cells (Immortal) actually they are cancer cell line.
By fusion of above these cells they would generate Hybridoma cells (immortal and generate
antibodies as well)
3. Fusion of B cells with Myeloma cells
Antigen specific B cells
Myeloma cells
4. Different cell types in culture
When we trying to add B cells along with myeloma cells
to generate hybridoma cells there are a lot of cell types
which would be present in these culture and they are
following:
4. Different cell types in culture
5. Selection of HAT medium
Let us review that how we can get only hybridoma cells.
Selection procedure is required by suing HAT media which
contains (Hypoxanthine + Aminopterin + Thymidine).
Basic concept of cell division
When any cells divide it needs to replicate its DNA and
DNA replication requires a lot of nucleotides so
nucleotides biosynthesis is crucial for cells to divide and
inside the cells nucleotide are generated using two
pathways De novo pathway and Salvage pathway
Pathways of Nucleotide synthesis
In the absence of De novo pathway , Salvage pathway is only way of
generating these nucleotide. In salvage pathway, Activated ribose +
Base are used to produce nucleotide & It is done by hypoxanthine +
thymidine + HGPRT (Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
) . HGPRT is present in B cells but absent in myeloma cells .
So , HGPRT + ve cells would survive because salvage pathway would
occur but HGPRT –ve cells would die due to absence of salvage
pathway and no way of generating nucleotide and cell unable to get
divide and would die.
Aminopterin present in the HAT media
inhibit Dihydrofolate reductase enzyme
which further terminate synthesis of
nucleotide by De novo pathway
5. Isolation of Hybridoma Cells
The remaining two cells like Antigen
specific B cells and fused B cells would die
because they are immortal and after 2
weeks only Hybridoma cells are left.
Both myeloma cells and fused myeloma cells
are HGPRT –ve and they would die
eventually
6.Screening of Hybridoma cells
The colonies of hybridoma cells are picked
up and each clones would be cultured in a
multiple plate.
6.Screening of Hybridoma cells
From these multiple plate , the culture would be
screened for the specificity of antibodies with the
help of ELISA and some other techniques like
western blot or immunofluorescence
7. Bulk production of Monoclonal Antibodies
When 2 or 3 tubes of specific monoclonal antibodies are
generated than these cells which are residing in these
tubes are cultured in bulk in a big flask, That’s how we
get a lot of hybridoma cells which yield monoclonal
Antibodies
Summary of Hybridoma technology
Monoclonal Antibody production in Industry
Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibody
1. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies
• Physicochemical characterization
• Immunological properties
• Biological activity
• Purity, impurity and contaminants
• Quantity
APPLICATIONS OF MONOCLONAL
ANTIBODIES
1.Biochemical Analysis
• Routinely used in radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
(ELISA) in the laboratory.
• These assays measure the circulating concentrations of hormones (insulin, human
chorionic gonadotropin, growth hormone, progesterone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine,
thyroid stimulating hormone) and several other tissue and cell Products (blood group
antigens, blood clotting factors, interferon's, interleukins, tumor markers).
• E.g. Pregnancy by detecting the urinary levels of human chorionic gonadotropin.
• Hormonal disorders analysis of thyroxine, triiodothyronine.
• Cancers estimation of plasma carcinoembryonic antigen in colorectal cancer, and prostate
specific antigen for prostate cancer
History of History of
2.Diagnostic imaging
• Radiolabeled-MAbs are used in the diagnostic imaging of diseases, and this technique is
referred to as immunoscintigraphy. The radioisotopes commonly used for labeling MAb
are iodine-131 and technetium-99. The MAb tagged with radioisotope are injected
intravenously into the patients.
• These MAbs localize at specific sites (say a tumor) which can be detected by imaging the
radioactivity. In recent years, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
cameras are used to give a more sensitive three dimensional appearance of the spots
localized by radiolabeled-MAbs.
• Myocardial infarction, DVT, atherosclerosis etc.
3.Direct use of Monoclonal Antibody as therapeutic agents
• In destroying disease-causing organisms: MAbs promote efficient
opsonization of pathogenic organisms (by coating with antibody) and
enhance phagocytosis.
• In the immunosuppression of organ transplantation: In the normal
medical practice, immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin and
prednisone are administered to overcome the rejection of organ
transplantation. In recent years, MAbs specific to T-lymphocyte surface
antigens are being used for this purpose
•
3.Direct use of Monoclonal Antibody as therapeutic agents
• In the treatment of cancer:
MAbs, against the antigens on the surface of cancer cells, are useful for the treatment of
cancer. The antibodies bind to the cancer cells and destroy them via different pathways.
• In the treatment of AIDS:
Genetic engineers have been successful to attach Fc portion of mouse monoclonal antibody
to human CD4 molecule. This complex has high affinity to bind to membrane glycoprotein
gp120 of virus infected cells. The Fc fragment induces cell-mediated destruction of HIV
infected cells.
4.Monoclonal Antibody as Targeting agents
• The drugs can be coupled with MAb (directed against a cell surface antigen of the cells,
say a tumor) and specifically targeted to reach the site of action.
E.g. Alkaline phosphatase for the conversion of phosphate pro-drugs.
Carboxy peptidase for converting inactive carboxyl pro-drugs to active drugs.
Lactamase for hydrolyzing ẞ-lactam ring containing antibiotics.
• MAbs in the dissolution of blood clots:
Fibrin is the major constituent of blood clot which gets dissolved by plasmin. Plasmin in
turn is formed by the activation of plasminogen E.g. activator. By Tissue plasminogen
activator (tPA) can be used as a therapeutic agent to remove the blood clots.
5.Drug delivery through liposomes coupled to tissue-specific MAbs
• Liposomes are sacs or vesicles formed spontaneously when certain lipid molecules are
exposed to aqueous environment.
• Drug entrapped in liposomes that are coated with MAbs directed against tissue-specific
antigens are being tried for drug delivery.
• Unfortunately, the progress in this approach has been limited, since such liposomes do
not reach the target cells.
• They are retained mostly in the liver and spleen (reticuloendothelial cells), and degraded.
6.Protein purification
• Monoclonal antibodies can be produced for any protein. And the so produced MAb can
be conveniently used for the purification of the protein against which it was raised.
• MAbs columns can be prepared by coupling them to cyanogen bromide activated
Sepharose (chromatographic matrix). The immobilized MAbs in this manner are very
useful for the purification of proteins by immunoaffinity method.
• There are certain advantages of using MAbs for protein purification. These include the
specificity of the MAb to bind to the desired protein, very efficient elution from the
chromatographic column and high degree of purification.
FDA approved Monoclonal Antibody
Monoclonal Antibody Disease Notes
Adalimumab Rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, Psoriasis TNF-alpha inhibitor
Infliximab Rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, Psoriasis TNF-alpha inhibitor
Rituximab
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Chronic lymphocytic leukemia,
Rheumatoid arthritis
CD20 inhibitor
Trastuzumab Breast cancer, Gastric cancer HER2/neu receptor inhibitor
Pembrolizumab
Melanoma, Non-small cell lung cancer, Head and neck squamous
cell carcinoma
PD-1 inhibitor
Ipilimumab Melanoma CTLA-4 inhibitor
Bevacizumab Colorectal cancer, Lung cancer, Renal cell carcinoma VEGF inhibitor
Cetuximab Colorectal cancer, Head and neck cancer EGFR inhibitor
Omalizumab Asthma, Chronic idiopathic urticaria IgE inhibitor
Eculizumab
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, Atypical hemolytic uremic
syndrome
Complement C5 inhibitor
Nivolumab
Non-small cell lung cancer, Renal cell carcinoma, Hodgkin's
lymphoma
PD-1 inhibitor
Daratumumab Multiple myeloma CD38 inhibitor
Alemtuzumab Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Multiple sclerosis CD52 inhibitor
Dupilumab
Atopic dermatitis, Asthma, Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal
polyposis
IL-4Rα inhibitor
Atezolizumab
Bladder cancer, Non-small cell lung cancer, Triple-negative breast
cancer
PD-L1 inhibitor
References
• Shivanand P. (2010). "Hybridoma technology for production of monoclonal antibodies" International Journal of
Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research vol.1, issue 2 (017)
• U. Marx et al. (1997) "Monoclonal Antibody Production" The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop
ATLA 25, 121.137
• Edward A. Greenfield, (2014) "Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual" Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2 ^ (nd) ed.
Chapter 7
• Justin K.H. Liu, (2014) "The history of monoclonal antibody development Progress, remaining challenges and future
innovations" Annals of Medicine and Surgery (2014) 113-116
• Andrew S., Otavia C ., (2014) "Monoclonal antibodies for the therapy of cancer" Simpson andCaballero BMC
Proceedings 2014, 8 (Suppl 4)
• WHO Guidelines on evaluation of monoclonal antibodies as similar biotherapeutic products,
Monoclonal antibody production by hybridoma technology

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Monoclonal antibody production by hybridoma technology

  • 1. Presented by : Hasnat Tariq Gulab Devi institute of Pharmacy (GDIP) Lahore , Pakistan
  • 2. What are Antibodies? • An antibody is a protein used by immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. • The high specificity of antibodies makes them an excellent tool for detecting and quantifying a broad array of targets, from drugs to serum proteins to microorganisms. • With in vitro assays, antibodies can be used to precipitate soluble antigens, agglutinate (clump) cells, opsonize and kill bacteria with the assistance of complement, and neutralize drugs, toxins, and viruses.
  • 3. Antibody An antibody binds to a specific region on an antigen called an Epitope. A single antigen can have multiple epitopes for different, specific antibodies.
  • 4. Monoclonal Antibody • Monoclonal antibodies are identical immunoglobulins, generated from a single B-cell clone. • These antibodies recognize unique epitopes, or binding sites, on a single antigen. • Derivation from a single B-cell clones and subsequent targeting of a single epitope is what differentiates monoclonal antibodies from polyclonal antibodies. • Polyclonal antibodies are antibodies that are derived from different cell lines. They differ in amino acid sequences.
  • 5. Characters of Monoclonal Antibodies • Monoclonal antibodies (mAB) are single type of antibody that are identical and are directed against a specific epitope (antigen, antigenic determinant) • Produced by B-cell clones of a single parent or a single hybridoma cell line. • A hybridoma cell line is formed by the fusion of one B-cell lymphocyte with a myeloma cell. • Some myeloma cell synthesize single mAB antibodies naturally.
  • 6. Monoclonal Antibody VS Polyclonal Antibody Parameters Monoclonal antibodies Polyclonal antibodies Produced by: A single B cell clone Many B cell clone Binds to: A single epitope of a cell Multiple epitopes of all Antibody class All of a single Antibodies class. A mixture of different Antibodies classes Ag-binding sites Antibodies have the same antigen binding sites A mixture of Antibodies with different Ag-binding sites classes Potential for cross reactivity Low High
  • 7. Advantages of using Monoclonal Antibodies • Side effects can be treated and reduced by using mice-human hybrid cells or by using fractions of antibodies. • They bind to specific diseased or damaged cells needing treatment. • They treat a wide range of conditions.
  • 8. Disadvantages of Monoclonal Antibody • Very expensive and needs considerable effort to produce them. • Small peptide and fragment antigens may not be good antigens- monoclonal antibody may not recognize the original antigen. • Hybridoma culture may be subject to contamination. • System is only well developed for limited animal and not for other animals. • More than 99% of the cells do not survive during the fusion process - reducing the range of useful antibodies that can be produced against an antigen • It is possibility of generating immunogenicity. • Time consuming project - anywhere between 6-9 months.
  • 9. History of Monoclonal Antibody • Paul Enrlich at the beginning of 20th century coined the term "magic bullets" and postulated that, if a compound could be made that selectively targets a disease-causing organism, then a toxin for that organism could be delivered along with the agent of selectivity. • In the 1970s, the B-cell cancer multiple myeloma was known. It was understood that these cancerous B-cells all produce a single type of antibody (a paraprotein).
  • 10. History of Monoclonal Antibody • In 1975, Kohler and Milstein provided the most outstanding proof of the clonal selection theory by fusion of normal and malignant cells (Hybridoma technology) for which they received Nobel prize in 1984. • In 1986, first monoclonal antibody was licensed by FDA. Orthoclone OKT3 (muromonab-CD3) which was approved for use in preventing kidney transplant rejection.
  • 11. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody • Monoclonal Antibody (mAB) is produced by cell lines or clones obtained from the immunized animals with the substances to be studied. Cell lines are produced by fusing B cells from the immunized animal with myeloma cells. • To produce the desired mAB, the cells must be grown in either of two ways: 1. by injection into the peritoneal cavity of a suitably prepared mouse (In vivo method) 2. by In vitro tissue culture. • The vitro tissue culture is the method used when the cells are placed in culture outside the mouse the mouse's body in flask.
  • 13. 1.Immunization of specific animal which generate B cells Need to create antigen of interest against which want to create a monoclonal antibody and use an organism such as mouse or rabbit as vehicle to make monoclonal antibodies So immunizing these mouse generate B cells against these antigens in spleen Antigen of interest is made by DNA recombinant technology and injected in mouse intraperitoneally
  • 14. 2. Extraction of B cells After some days, B cell which are produce in spleen against Antigens are extracted Then the extracted B cells are cultured
  • 15. Need of Hybridoma technology But there is a fundamental problem in terms of culturing the B cells. B cells don’t survive in a culture more than a week then we can initially get some amount of monoclonal antibodies from these B cells but the problem is we can’t get it for long. SO WHAT’S THE SOLUTION? In order to solve this problem we use Hybridoma technology
  • 16. 3. Fusion of B cells with Myeloma cells In hybridoma technology , two types of cells are used Antigen specific B cells extracted from the spleen from immunized organism and it would produce antibodies (mortal) Now , fuse these Antibodies with Myeloma cells (Immortal) actually they are cancer cell line. By fusion of above these cells they would generate Hybridoma cells (immortal and generate antibodies as well)
  • 17. 3. Fusion of B cells with Myeloma cells Antigen specific B cells Myeloma cells
  • 18. 4. Different cell types in culture When we trying to add B cells along with myeloma cells to generate hybridoma cells there are a lot of cell types which would be present in these culture and they are following:
  • 19. 4. Different cell types in culture
  • 20. 5. Selection of HAT medium Let us review that how we can get only hybridoma cells. Selection procedure is required by suing HAT media which contains (Hypoxanthine + Aminopterin + Thymidine).
  • 21. Basic concept of cell division When any cells divide it needs to replicate its DNA and DNA replication requires a lot of nucleotides so nucleotides biosynthesis is crucial for cells to divide and inside the cells nucleotide are generated using two pathways De novo pathway and Salvage pathway
  • 22. Pathways of Nucleotide synthesis In the absence of De novo pathway , Salvage pathway is only way of generating these nucleotide. In salvage pathway, Activated ribose + Base are used to produce nucleotide & It is done by hypoxanthine + thymidine + HGPRT (Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase ) . HGPRT is present in B cells but absent in myeloma cells . So , HGPRT + ve cells would survive because salvage pathway would occur but HGPRT –ve cells would die due to absence of salvage pathway and no way of generating nucleotide and cell unable to get divide and would die. Aminopterin present in the HAT media inhibit Dihydrofolate reductase enzyme which further terminate synthesis of nucleotide by De novo pathway
  • 23. 5. Isolation of Hybridoma Cells The remaining two cells like Antigen specific B cells and fused B cells would die because they are immortal and after 2 weeks only Hybridoma cells are left. Both myeloma cells and fused myeloma cells are HGPRT –ve and they would die eventually
  • 24. 6.Screening of Hybridoma cells The colonies of hybridoma cells are picked up and each clones would be cultured in a multiple plate.
  • 25. 6.Screening of Hybridoma cells From these multiple plate , the culture would be screened for the specificity of antibodies with the help of ELISA and some other techniques like western blot or immunofluorescence
  • 26. 7. Bulk production of Monoclonal Antibodies When 2 or 3 tubes of specific monoclonal antibodies are generated than these cells which are residing in these tubes are cultured in bulk in a big flask, That’s how we get a lot of hybridoma cells which yield monoclonal Antibodies
  • 27. Summary of Hybridoma technology
  • 29. Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibody 1. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies • Physicochemical characterization • Immunological properties • Biological activity • Purity, impurity and contaminants • Quantity
  • 31. 1.Biochemical Analysis • Routinely used in radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in the laboratory. • These assays measure the circulating concentrations of hormones (insulin, human chorionic gonadotropin, growth hormone, progesterone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone) and several other tissue and cell Products (blood group antigens, blood clotting factors, interferon's, interleukins, tumor markers). • E.g. Pregnancy by detecting the urinary levels of human chorionic gonadotropin. • Hormonal disorders analysis of thyroxine, triiodothyronine. • Cancers estimation of plasma carcinoembryonic antigen in colorectal cancer, and prostate specific antigen for prostate cancer History of History of
  • 32. 2.Diagnostic imaging • Radiolabeled-MAbs are used in the diagnostic imaging of diseases, and this technique is referred to as immunoscintigraphy. The radioisotopes commonly used for labeling MAb are iodine-131 and technetium-99. The MAb tagged with radioisotope are injected intravenously into the patients. • These MAbs localize at specific sites (say a tumor) which can be detected by imaging the radioactivity. In recent years, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cameras are used to give a more sensitive three dimensional appearance of the spots localized by radiolabeled-MAbs. • Myocardial infarction, DVT, atherosclerosis etc.
  • 33. 3.Direct use of Monoclonal Antibody as therapeutic agents • In destroying disease-causing organisms: MAbs promote efficient opsonization of pathogenic organisms (by coating with antibody) and enhance phagocytosis. • In the immunosuppression of organ transplantation: In the normal medical practice, immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin and prednisone are administered to overcome the rejection of organ transplantation. In recent years, MAbs specific to T-lymphocyte surface antigens are being used for this purpose •
  • 34. 3.Direct use of Monoclonal Antibody as therapeutic agents • In the treatment of cancer: MAbs, against the antigens on the surface of cancer cells, are useful for the treatment of cancer. The antibodies bind to the cancer cells and destroy them via different pathways. • In the treatment of AIDS: Genetic engineers have been successful to attach Fc portion of mouse monoclonal antibody to human CD4 molecule. This complex has high affinity to bind to membrane glycoprotein gp120 of virus infected cells. The Fc fragment induces cell-mediated destruction of HIV infected cells.
  • 35. 4.Monoclonal Antibody as Targeting agents • The drugs can be coupled with MAb (directed against a cell surface antigen of the cells, say a tumor) and specifically targeted to reach the site of action. E.g. Alkaline phosphatase for the conversion of phosphate pro-drugs. Carboxy peptidase for converting inactive carboxyl pro-drugs to active drugs. Lactamase for hydrolyzing ẞ-lactam ring containing antibiotics. • MAbs in the dissolution of blood clots: Fibrin is the major constituent of blood clot which gets dissolved by plasmin. Plasmin in turn is formed by the activation of plasminogen E.g. activator. By Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can be used as a therapeutic agent to remove the blood clots.
  • 36. 5.Drug delivery through liposomes coupled to tissue-specific MAbs • Liposomes are sacs or vesicles formed spontaneously when certain lipid molecules are exposed to aqueous environment. • Drug entrapped in liposomes that are coated with MAbs directed against tissue-specific antigens are being tried for drug delivery. • Unfortunately, the progress in this approach has been limited, since such liposomes do not reach the target cells. • They are retained mostly in the liver and spleen (reticuloendothelial cells), and degraded.
  • 37. 6.Protein purification • Monoclonal antibodies can be produced for any protein. And the so produced MAb can be conveniently used for the purification of the protein against which it was raised. • MAbs columns can be prepared by coupling them to cyanogen bromide activated Sepharose (chromatographic matrix). The immobilized MAbs in this manner are very useful for the purification of proteins by immunoaffinity method. • There are certain advantages of using MAbs for protein purification. These include the specificity of the MAb to bind to the desired protein, very efficient elution from the chromatographic column and high degree of purification.
  • 38. FDA approved Monoclonal Antibody Monoclonal Antibody Disease Notes Adalimumab Rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, Psoriasis TNF-alpha inhibitor Infliximab Rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, Psoriasis TNF-alpha inhibitor Rituximab Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Rheumatoid arthritis CD20 inhibitor Trastuzumab Breast cancer, Gastric cancer HER2/neu receptor inhibitor Pembrolizumab Melanoma, Non-small cell lung cancer, Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma PD-1 inhibitor Ipilimumab Melanoma CTLA-4 inhibitor Bevacizumab Colorectal cancer, Lung cancer, Renal cell carcinoma VEGF inhibitor Cetuximab Colorectal cancer, Head and neck cancer EGFR inhibitor Omalizumab Asthma, Chronic idiopathic urticaria IgE inhibitor Eculizumab Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome Complement C5 inhibitor Nivolumab Non-small cell lung cancer, Renal cell carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma PD-1 inhibitor Daratumumab Multiple myeloma CD38 inhibitor Alemtuzumab Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Multiple sclerosis CD52 inhibitor Dupilumab Atopic dermatitis, Asthma, Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis IL-4Rα inhibitor Atezolizumab Bladder cancer, Non-small cell lung cancer, Triple-negative breast cancer PD-L1 inhibitor
  • 39. References • Shivanand P. (2010). "Hybridoma technology for production of monoclonal antibodies" International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research vol.1, issue 2 (017) • U. Marx et al. (1997) "Monoclonal Antibody Production" The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop ATLA 25, 121.137 • Edward A. Greenfield, (2014) "Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual" Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2 ^ (nd) ed. Chapter 7 • Justin K.H. Liu, (2014) "The history of monoclonal antibody development Progress, remaining challenges and future innovations" Annals of Medicine and Surgery (2014) 113-116 • Andrew S., Otavia C ., (2014) "Monoclonal antibodies for the therapy of cancer" Simpson andCaballero BMC Proceedings 2014, 8 (Suppl 4) • WHO Guidelines on evaluation of monoclonal antibodies as similar biotherapeutic products,