SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 10
Download to read offline
INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING
Authors: Oleksandra Betliy, Iryna Kosse, Vitaliy Kravchuk, Veronika Movchan
@IER_Kyiv
IER. Kyiv
Monthly Economic Monitoring of
Ukraine
No. 228, January 2024
Summary
• According to the IER, real GDP growth slowed from 3.5% yoy in November to 2.6% yoy in
December. As a result, according to our calculations, real GDP grew by 4.9% in 2023.
• Electricity consumption has increased due to the onset of cold weather, with imports and
emergency assistance covering the deficit.
• The Ukrainian sea corridor works better than the "grain deal" – the ports of Odesa region
handled 15% more cargo in 2023 than in 2022.
• The strike of Polish carriers hinders Ukraine's foreign trade.
• The goods trade deficit was record-high at USD 27.3 bn in 2023 amid declining exports and
growing imports.
• The receipt of international aid in the form of grants supported the revenues of the State Budget
in 2023. Revenues from most taxes were lower than planned.
• The EU and the US have not yet decided on the assistance to Ukraine in 2024.
• At the end of 2023, consumer inflation remained at 5.1% yoy despite some weakening of the
hryvnia.
• The hryvnia weakened in December amid record demand for cash currency since the start of
the war and seasonal growth in imports.
• The NBU cut the key policy rate to 15% p.a. in December, but it may refrain from significantly
reducing the rate in 2024
The IER is preparing the publication of the Macroeconomic Monitoring of Ukraine with the financial
support of the European Union within the framework of the project “Ukraine’s economy during the
war and support for Ukrainians affected by the war”.
INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024
2
GDP and the real sector: According to the IER, real GDP grew by 4.9% in 2023
According to the IER, real GDP growth slowed from 3.5% yoy in November to 2.6% yoy in
December. According to our calculations, real GDP in December 2023 was almost 27% lower than
in December 2021. The slowdown in real GDP growth is primarily due to a decline in real gross value
added (GVA) in agriculture by 37.6% yoy.
The drop in GVA in agriculture resulted from a high harvest in December 2022. Farmers harvested
(primarily) corn much later than usual in 2022, and large harvesting volumes were registered in
December. In 2023, the corn harvest continued in December, but the unharvested areas and
harvesting volumes were significantly smaller and closer to the average of previous years. The
performance of the livestock sectors was estimated to be slightly lower than last year.
The growth rate of GVA in the manufacturing is estimated to accelerate to 18% yoy primarily due
to the low statistical base effect. In partciualr, in December 2022, there were rolling blackouts and
emergency power outages due to russian attacks on the power grid, and businesses have just begun
to adapt to the new realities of work. According to estimates, growth occurred in most sectors,
including the food industry, mechanical engineering, and metallurgy. Public procurements supported
mechanical engineering. The metallurgy benefited from better access to exports logistics,
particularly through the Ukrainian Sea Corridor. The results of a monthly business survey conducted
by the IER also showed positive trends in industrial production.
Economic recovery contributed to an increase in electricity production from a low base last year. At
the same time, warm weather restrained growth of electricity consumption. Therefore, electricity
generation is estimated to have increased by 8% yoy.
Output in extractive industries increased by about 8% yoy due to higher iron ore and natural gas
production. The extraction of building materials decreased. According to estimates, real GVA in
construction, as in November, decreased by 16% yoy, although the decline has deepened compared
to 2021. The drop in construction results from lower funding for infrastructure projects, a high base
in December of 2022, and a slow pace of housing construction.
Real GVA in transport, according to our estimates, increased slightly due to larger transportation by
sea, while road transportation was limited. The resumption of foreign trade and stable payments of
social assistance, pensions, and salaries contributed to the increase in trade indicators.
Figure 1: Contributions to real GDP, p.p.
Source: IER assessment supported by the USAID Competitive Economy Program in Ukraine
The December estimate of GDP growth was worse than the IER expected. According to our
estimates, real GDP grew by 3.9% yoy in the fourth quarter and by 4.9% overall in 2023.
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
Mar-2022
Apr-2022
May-2022
Jun-2022
Jul-2022
Aug-2022
Sep-2022
Oct-2022
Nov-2022
Dec-2022
Jan-2023
Feb-2023
Mar-2023
Apr-2023
May-2023
Jun-2023
Jul-2023
Aug-2023
Sep-2023
Oct-2023
Nov-2023
Dec-2023
Agriculture Industry Construction
Trade Transport Net taxes on products
Other GDP
INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024
3
Energy: Energoatom is ready to switch to Westinghouse fuel completely
Electricity. The shelling of Ukraine continues, which affects the energy infrastructure. On the night
of December 7, the enemy launched powerful strikes on Kyiv and central Ukraine for the first time
since September 2023, launching at least 16 cruise missiles. On December 8, the shelling of thermal
power plants in the front-line zone caused damage, and two units had to be switched off for repairs.
On December 29, due to massive shelling, high-voltage lines and equipment of thermal power plants
in the Donetsk region were damaged. On January 2, almost 260,000 users in several Kyiv districts
were temporarily disconnected. Electricity consumption has increased due to the onset of winter,
and imports and emergency assistance cover the deficit.
In December 2023, Ukraine imported 233 thousand MWh of electricity, which is almost four times
more than in November and is a record figure for the year. Electricity was exported only on
December 31 — 210 MWh was supplied to Moldova. In 2023, electricity imports amounted to
806.4 thousand MWh, and exports were 366 thousand MWh. Most of the electricity (69%) was
imported from Slovakia.
In 2023, nine nuclear power units at three Ukrainian nuclear power plants generated 52.4 m MWh
of electricity. This volume is almost 50% of the total production; thermal power plants are in second
place, and 17% of all electricity is produced from renewable sources (hydroelectric power plants,
solar power plants, wind farms, biomass, and biogas). Only 200 MW of new generating capacity was
commissioned during the year, but more than 2 GW of CHP and HPP capacities damaged by russian
attacks were restored.
Energoatom has completed preparations for converting Ukrainian nuclear power plants to
Westinghouse fuel. For all domestic power units with VVER-1000 and VVER-440 reactors to operate
on American Westinghouse fuel, Energoatom installed the appropriate software, made calculations,
justified the use of Westinghouse fuel, and purchased equipment for unloading nuclear fuel. Now,
Energoatom can manufacture inserts for VVER-440 reactors on its own.
Gas. Ukraine produced more than 18.7 bn cubic meters (bcm) of natural gas in 2023, 0.9% more
than in 2022. Ukrgasvydobuvannya remains the country's largest gas producer, producing more
than 13.9 bcm of natural gas in 2023 (+5% yoy). Ukrnafta is in second place with 1.1 bcm (+6%
yoy). On the other hand, private companies reduced natural gas production in 2023 by almost 14%
to 3.7 bcm.
Figure 2: Natural gas production in Ukraine, bcm
Source: ExPro Consulting
Energy efficiency. At the end of December 2023, the Cabinet of Ministers approved the Strategy
for the Thermal Modernization of Buildings of Ukraine until 2050 and the operational plan for its
implementation in 2024-2026, which set out a long-term plan for the gradual renewal of the building
stock of Ukraine, taking into account energy-saving technologies. Among the next steps are
developing energy plans, collecting information on the energy efficiency of buildings, updating the
minimum requirements for the energy efficiency of buildings, etc.
Transport: Ukrainian Sea Corridor works better than the "Grain Deal"
Maritime transport. Almost 15 m tons of cargo were exported through the Ukrainian (sea) corridor
in 5 months, of which 10 m tons were agricultural products. During the five months of the corridor's
operation, 469 new vessels entered Ukrainian ports for loading. In particular, in December, exports
by sea increased by 30.7% mom to 7.34 m tons, of which 6.1 m tons were agricultural products.
In December, maritime exports of metallurgy products increased: semi-finished products increased
by 40% mom, and flat products increased by 45% mom. Metinvest predicts that by the end of the
first quarter of 2024, iron ore exports by sea will reach their maximum of 2-3 m tons per month.
Ukreximbank and Ukrgasbank issued letters of credit for USD 10 m each at the request of the Export
Credit Agency in favour of a pool of 14 British insurance companies to reduce the cost of insuring
INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024
4
ships moving through the Black Sea corridor. The proposed mechanism for using letters of credit
reduces the cost of risks for British insurers, which allows for the reduction of the prices of policies
for shipowners. Thus, it makes the sea route more accessible to a broader range of exporters.
However, the insurance applies to ships, not goods or port infrastructure.
During the 11 months of 2023, more than 31 m tons of cargo were handled in the ports of the
Danube cluster, which is an absolute record. In 2023, the ports of the Odesa region handled more
than 50 m tons of cargo, which is 15% more than in 2022.
Rail transport. Ukrzaliznytsia transported 25 m passengers on long-distance trains in 2023, equal
to 2021, and a record 2.1 m passengers were transported to European countries.
In December, Ukrzaliznytsia transported 13.7 m tons of cargo, 2.7% less than in November. The
volume of grain transportation in the direction of the western border and ports increased by 13%
mom to 2.74 m tons.
In 2023, 146.4 m tons of cargo were transported by rail, 1.4% less than in 2022. There was an
increase in the transportation of construction materials (by 30% yoy, to 29.6 m tons) and grain
cargo (by 6%, to 30.6 m tons), while transportation of other goods dropped ‒ ore (by 13%, to
27.5 m tons), coal (by 11%, to 26.2 m tons) and ferrous metals (by 11%, to 8.2 m tons). In 2023,
22.3 m tons of all cargo were transported through seaports and 34.4 m tons through land crossings.
Figure 3: Transportation of goods by rail, m tons
Source: Ukrzaliznytsia
Road transport. On January 6, Polish farmers, after an agreement with their government, stopped
the blockade of the Medyka – Shehyni checkpoint. However, as of the morning of January 8, 550
trucks remained in line there. The blockade of this checkpoint resumed on January 15, but this
time, it was by Polish carriers. On January 16, Ukraine and Poland's governments agreed to
temporarily unblock the checkpoints Rawa-Ruska – Hrebenne, Krakovets – Korczowa, Yahodyn –
Dorohusk until March 1. In January, the Ukraine and Romania border blockade began by Romanian
farmers. As of January 15, the Siret – Porubne and Vikova de Sus – Krasnoilsk checkpoints are
blocked. Farmers in Romania are protesting against rising prices for auto insurance and fuel.
As of January 15, more than three thousand trucks were waiting in queues at the border with
Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary. The largest number of trucks (two thousand) was waiting at the
Polish border, and an additional 1000 trucks were at the borders with Slovakia and Hungary.
In 2023, Ukrainian carriers performed 362 thousand trips to Poland, of which 68 thousand were
fuel transportation and about 15 thousand were humanitarian goods. Commercial shipments to
Poland in 2023 amounted to 280 thousand trips compared to 307 thousand in 2022 and
229 thousand in 2021. Accordingly, Polish carriers performed more than 132 thousand trips to
Ukraine in 2023. The share of Polish carriers in the transportation market between Ukraine and
Poland fell from 40% in 2021 to 33% in 2023 due to Russian armed aggression and the blocking of
traditional trade routes.
Foreign trade: In 2023, the goods trade deficit reached a record USD 27.3 bn
In 2023, according to the State Customs Service, exports of goods amounted to USD 36.2 bn, 19%
less than a year ago. At the same time, imports increased to USD 63.5 bn (+15% yoy). That led to
a record-high trade deficit in goods at USD 27.3 bn or about 16% of GDP.
INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024
5
Compared to previous months, exports accelerated to USD 3.2 bn in December. That happened
primarily thanks to the intensification of the Ukrainian Sea Corridor, although exports remained
lower than the monthly average before the eruption of the "Polish crisis" of April 2023. In addition
to severe problems with logistics during the year and continued bans on imports of certain
agricultural products by neighbouring countries, global prices were an essential factor in the decline
in exports. For example, according to the FAO, global grain prices were, on average, 15% lower in
2023 than a year before, while vegetable oil prices fell by a third. Metal prices were also decreasing.
Figure 4: Ukraine's foreign trade in goods, 2022-2023, USD bn United States
Source: UN ComTrade, SCSU
In 2023, the role of food products in Ukrainian exports continued to grow – up to 61% of the total
exports compared to 53% in 2022 and 41% in 2021. The share of three essential commodities —
sunflower seed oil, corn, and wheat — reached 36% (25% in 2021). Accordingly, the role of
industrial exports continued to fall against the background of much worse logistics opportunities
compared to those for agricultural exports. The share of iron ore decreased to 5% in 2023, half of
those two years ago. The share of ferrous metals (HS 72) dropped to 7% compared to 20% before
the full-scale invasion.
Figure 5: The structure of goods exports, top 10 positions, 2021-2023
Source: UN ComTrade, SCSU
There were also changes in the import structure, although not so striking. Machinery and equipment
(HS 84-85) remained the largest category of imports, although their share reduced to 17% in 2022-
2023 compared to 20% in 2021. The role of mineral fuel imports decreased to 16% in 2023
compared to 23% in 2022 and 20% in 2021. At the same time, the structure of mineral fuel imports
changed: imports of petroleum products increased, while imports of gas and, especially, coal
decreased. Motor vehicles (HS 87) remained in the third place in import importance, with the share
at 11% in 2023 (10% in 2021) due to an increase in passenger car imports. In general, imports, as
before, were comprised mainly of intermediate and investment goods, the key to the functioning of
the economy in the country at war.
INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024
6
Figure 6: The structure of commodity imports, top 10 positions, 2021-2023
Source: UN ComTrade, SCSU
State Budget: Critical expenditures were financed in December
According to preliminary information, the revenues of the State Budget reached UAH 302 bn in
December, including UAH 127 bn due to the general fund. Revenues were supported by grants of
UAH 20.5 bn, received primarily from Japan and Norway.
Gross revenues from domestic VAT were at a record high during the full-scale war, amounting to
UAH 33.4 bn. That is most likely due to the growth of final consumption. At the same time, VAT
refunds reached UAH 10.9 bn. VAT on imports amounted to UAH 35.7 bn, more than in November
but less than in October. The lower than October figures are further due to the border strikes,
primarily by the Poles.
Figure 7: Domestic VAT, UAH bn
Source: Ministry of Finance, openbudget.gov.ua
The PIT revenues due to the general fund of the State Budget in December amounted to UAH 20.9
bn, which is higher than the average of the previous indicators. That is due to the traditional
payments of bonuses paid at the end of the year.
Overall, in 2023, the revenues of the general fund of the State Budget amounted to UAH 1.66
trillion, which is higher than the planned UAH 1.25 trillion due to the inflow of international grants
at UAH 425 bn (in the planned revenue indicators, all international assistance was included in the
form of loans). CPT revenues increased and were by almost 30% higher than the plan, primarily
due to higher profit inflows from state-owned banks. At the same time, PIT revenues due to general
fund of the budget increased by 30% yoy, primarily due to higher military revenues and partly due
to some recovery in the labour market.
Gross revenues from domestic VAT increased by 16.2% yoy and were higher than in 2021 due to
higher consumption (nominal). At the same time, although VAT refunds increased by 56.5% yoy in
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
01.2021
02.2021
03.2021
04.2021
05.2021
06.2021
07.2021
08.2021
09.2021
10.2021
11.2021
12.2021
01.2022
02.2022
03.2022
04.2022
05.2022
06.2022
07.2022
08.2022
09.2022
10.2022
11.2022
12.2022
01.2023
02.2023
03.2023
04.2023
05.2023
06.2023
07.2023
08.2023
09.2023
10.2023
11.2023
12.2023
Domestic VAT VAT refund
INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024
7
2023, they remained 17% lower than in 2021. Import VAT revenues also increased by 44.7% yoy
but were still slightly lower than in 2021 as imports did not fully recover. At the same time, the
structure of imports changed, and exemptions were introduced for several goods essential for
defence capability.
Figure 8: Revenues due to the general fund of the State Budget in 2023, UAH bn
Note: * Preliminary data
Source: Ministry of Finance, openbudget.gov.ua
Financing: In 2023, State Budget expenditures exceeded UAH 4.0 trillion, of which UAH 3.0 trillion
– general fund expenditures were executed by 98% of the plan. The expenditures were financed
for a record amount in December. That became possible due to the high amounts of external
borrowings the government received in December – UAH 169.8 bn and the traditional accumulation
of budget expenditures at the end of the year. The funds raised included loans guaranteed by Japan
for almost USD 2 bn and a direct loan, a monthly tranche from the EU loan, and the third tranche
of an IMF loan. Domestic borrowings in December amounted to UAH 44.6 bn.
In 2023, the state budget deficit amounted to UAH 1.33 trillion. Domestic borrowings totaled UAH
566 bn, which was UAH 204 bn more than repayments on domestic government bonds.
Concessional loans of USD 19.5 bn were received from the EU. The USA provided grants of almost
USD 11 bn. Loans from the IMF amounted to USD 4.5 bn. Other major creditors were Japan and
Canada.
Figure 9: Financing of the state budget, UAH bn
Note: * Grants are part of budget revenues, which are accounted for under the code 42000000 "From the
European Union, foreign governments, international organizations, donor institutions".
Source: Ministry of Finance, openbudget.gov.ua
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
PIT CPT VAT domestic VAT on
imports
Excise Grants Other
Plan Actual*
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Jan-22
Feb-22
Mar-22
Apr-22
May-22
Jun-22
Jul-22
Aug-22
Sep-22
Oct-22
Nov-22
Dec-22
Jan-23
Feb-23
Mar-23
Apr-23
May-23
Jun-23
Jul-23
Aug-23
Sep-23
Oct-23
Nov-23
Dec-23
Grants* External borrowings War bonds to NBU Domestic state bonds / War bonds - auctions
INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024
8
International support: The EU and the US have not yet approved the support for Ukraine
By the end of 2023, Ukraine has fulfilled all the structural benchmarks necessary to complete the
third review of the IMF program. This review is expected to take place in the first weeks of March.
In general, in 2024, Ukraine may receive slightly more than USD 5 bn from the IMF if it fulfills all
obligations on time.
The EU has not yet approved the Ukraine Facility support program, which envisages the provision
of EUR 50 bn to Ukraine over four years. Hungary still blocks the decision, but European diplomats
are preparing a plan B in case of further blocking. The decision is expected to be made on
February 1. Under the new program, it is planned to determine Ukraine's commitments to
implement reforms and other policy steps, based on which the EU will provide Ukraine with tranches
of assistance. The review of the fulfillment of obligations is expected to be quarterly. The European
side will determine the commitment based on the Ukraine Plan adopted by the government, which
envisages the action plan of reforms planned by the government, particularly in the field of public
administration, public finance management, and the business environment. The government
intends to continue judicial reform and anti-corruption measures. Separate priority sectors for
development are also highlighted: agriculture, energy, transport, critical materials, digital
transformation. The horizontal priority is the green transition and environmental protection.
The USA has not yet made a decision on supporting Ukraine in 2024. This is related to domestic
political difficulties that have complicated the adoption of any budgetary decisions, a decrease in
support for Ukraine from some U.S. politicians, and tying assistance to Ukraine to a compromise on
resolving the crisis on the Mexico border. It is hoped that a decision will be made within the next
month. It is most likely that this time, the funds from the USA will also be provided in fulfillment of
commitments.
This year, funds from other international partners are also anticipated. This includes assistance from
Japan and Norway. A Development Policy Loan (DPL) from the World Bank is also expected under
the fulfillment of commitments.
Inflation: Consumer price growth remained at 5% yoy
In December, consumer inflation remained at 5.1% yoy, within the NBU's pre-war target. That
reflected lower prices for several goods and fixed prices for state-regulated services other than
electricity. Prices for several food products, including cereals, sugar, and oil, fell in 2023 amid a
good harvest and low world prices. The State Statistics Service also reported decreased prices for
various non-food goods, including clothing and footwear, household appliances, laptops,
smartphones and tablets. For a range of other non-food products, prices increased by only 1-3%
per year (vehicles, fuel, furniture, home textiles). That likely reflected moderate consumer demand,
lower supply costs compared to 2022, and a stable hryvnia exchange rate for most of the year.
However, prices for services not subject to state regulation grew significantly faster than 5% yoy.
That could reflect rising energy and labour costs.
Figure 10: Consumer price inflation
Source: State Statistics Service of Ukraine
Monthly inflation in December was 0.7% mom. Vegetable prices continued to rise after they
collapsed in the fall amid a good harvest. As a result, vegetable prices were higher than in 2022.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
03.2014
06.2014
09.2014
12.2014
03.2015
06.2015
09.2015
12.2015
03.2016
06.2016
09.2016
12.2016
03.2017
06.2017
09.2017
12.2017
03.2018
06.2018
09.2018
12.2018
03.2019
06.2019
09.2019
12.2019
03.2020
06.2020
09.2020
12.2020
03.2021
06.2021
09.2021
12.2021
03.2022
06.2022
09.2022
12.2022
03.2023
06.2023
09.2023
12.2023
% дпр
INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024
9
Seasonal changes in prices for dairy products(↑), eggs(↑), clothing and footwear(↓) also continued. The
State Statistics Service recorded slightly decreased prices for appliances, furniture and other
household goods. That contrasted with a weaker exchange rate and thus increased import costs in
December. As in previous months, prices were likely limited by increased competition for low
consumer demand and possibly lower logistics costs.
Monetary and exchange rate policy: The NBU allowed a moderate weakening of the
hryvnia against the dollar
Exchange rate. In December, the hryvnia weakened from 36 to 38 UAH per USD against growing
demand for foreign currency. Demand for cash foreign currency increased amid the premium season
and the lifting of recent restrictions on the sale of cash foreign currency by the NBU. Banks and
financial institutions sold more than USD 2 bn in cash foreign currency. That was the highest figure
since the beginning of the full-scale war and one of the largest in recent years. Imports also
increased amid easier logistics and seasonal growth in demand.
In response, the NBU increased interventions in the foreign exchange market to the highest level
in 2023 (USD 3.55 bn), but at the same time, allowed the exchange rate to respond to the increase
in demand. Interventions remained high in early January, and demand is likely to be stabilized. As
a result, in the first half of January, the hryvnia exchange rate fluctuated around UAH 38 per dollar.
Monetary policy. In December, the NBU cut its key policy rate from 16% to 15% per annum. That
was in line with the NBU's October forecast and did not come as a surprise, given a slowdown in
inflation. However, according to the published results of the discussion of the NBU Monetary
Committee, the approval of assistance to Ukraine will be a prerequisite for further interest rate cuts
in 2024. Even after that, the majority of the committee expects the reduction in rates not to exceed
1-2 percentage points per year.
Figure 11: Official exchange rate of the hryvnia to the US dollar, UAH per USD
Note: The exchange rate values in the figure start at UAH 36 per USD.
Source: NBU
36,0
36,5
37,0
37,5
38,0
38,5
01.10.2023
08.10.2023
15.10.2023
22.10.2023
29.10.2023
05.11.2023
12.11.2023
19.11.2023
26.11.2023
03.12.2023
10.12.2023
17.12.2023
24.12.2023
31.12.2023
07.01.2024
14.01.2024
INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024
10
Contacts:
Institute for Economic Research
and Policy Consulting
st. Reitarska 8/5-A, 01030 Kyiv
Tel. (+38044) 278-6342
E-mail: institute@ier.kyiv.ua
http://www.ier.com.ua
Disclaimer
This publication was prepared by the Institute for Economic Research and Policy Consulting with the financial
support of the European Union. Its contents are the sole responsibility of the Institute for Economic Research
and Policy Consulting and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Union. The MEMU is for
informational purposes only. The judgments presented in this publication reflect our point of view at the time
of publication and are subject to change without notice. Although we have made the most thorough efforts to
prepare the most accurate publication, we do not take any responsibility for possible errors. The Institute shall
not be liable for any damages or other problems that have arisen, directly or indirectly, due to the use of any
of the indicators of this publication. In the case of a citation, a reference to the Institute for Economic Research
and Policy Consulting is mandatory.

More Related Content

Similar to MEMU_Jan2024_228 En.pdf

ONIC Weekly Report March 4 2019
ONIC Weekly Report March 4 2019ONIC Weekly Report March 4 2019
ONIC Weekly Report March 4 2019OfficeNIC
 
Invest in Ukraine: Gas Upstream Sector
Invest in Ukraine: Gas Upstream SectorInvest in Ukraine: Gas Upstream Sector
Invest in Ukraine: Gas Upstream SectorOfficeNIC
 
The Urban Transport Sector in Ukraine in 2022: A baseline report in the conte...
The Urban Transport Sector in Ukraine in 2022: A baseline report in the conte...The Urban Transport Sector in Ukraine in 2022: A baseline report in the conte...
The Urban Transport Sector in Ukraine in 2022: A baseline report in the conte...Viktor Zagreba
 

Similar to MEMU_Jan2024_228 En.pdf (20)

MEMU Sept 2023 En.pdf
MEMU Sept 2023 En.pdfMEMU Sept 2023 En.pdf
MEMU Sept 2023 En.pdf
 
MEMU May 2023 En.pdf
MEMU May 2023 En.pdfMEMU May 2023 En.pdf
MEMU May 2023 En.pdf
 
MEMU May 2023 En.pdf
MEMU May 2023 En.pdfMEMU May 2023 En.pdf
MEMU May 2023 En.pdf
 
MEMU_July2023_222 en.pdf
MEMU_July2023_222 en.pdfMEMU_July2023_222 en.pdf
MEMU_July2023_222 en.pdf
 
MEMU_July2023_222 en.pdf
MEMU_July2023_222 en.pdfMEMU_July2023_222 en.pdf
MEMU_July2023_222 en.pdf
 
MEMU_July2023_222 en.pdf
MEMU_July2023_222 en.pdfMEMU_July2023_222 en.pdf
MEMU_July2023_222 en.pdf
 
MEMU 221_June 2023 En.pdf
MEMU 221_June 2023 En.pdfMEMU 221_June 2023 En.pdf
MEMU 221_June 2023 En.pdf
 
Monthly Economic Monitoring of Ukraine No.230, March 2024
Monthly Economic Monitoring of Ukraine No.230, March 2024Monthly Economic Monitoring of Ukraine No.230, March 2024
Monthly Economic Monitoring of Ukraine No.230, March 2024
 
MEMU_Aug2023_en.pdf
MEMU_Aug2023_en.pdfMEMU_Aug2023_en.pdf
MEMU_Aug2023_en.pdf
 
MEMU Apr 2023 En.pdf
MEMU Apr 2023 En.pdfMEMU Apr 2023 En.pdf
MEMU Apr 2023 En.pdf
 
MEMU June 2023 En.pdf
MEMU June 2023 En.pdfMEMU June 2023 En.pdf
MEMU June 2023 En.pdf
 
MEMU_Aug2023_en.pdf
MEMU_Aug2023_en.pdfMEMU_Aug2023_en.pdf
MEMU_Aug2023_en.pdf
 
MEMU Apr 2023 En.pdf
MEMU Apr 2023 En.pdfMEMU Apr 2023 En.pdf
MEMU Apr 2023 En.pdf
 
MEMU Mar 2023 En.pdf
MEMU Mar 2023 En.pdfMEMU Mar 2023 En.pdf
MEMU Mar 2023 En.pdf
 
MEMU Mar 2023 En.pdf
MEMU Mar 2023 En.pdfMEMU Mar 2023 En.pdf
MEMU Mar 2023 En.pdf
 
Uare res 2020 ukraine en
Uare res 2020 ukraine enUare res 2020 ukraine en
Uare res 2020 ukraine en
 
Lng eng
Lng engLng eng
Lng eng
 
ONIC Weekly Report March 4 2019
ONIC Weekly Report March 4 2019ONIC Weekly Report March 4 2019
ONIC Weekly Report March 4 2019
 
Invest in Ukraine: Gas Upstream Sector
Invest in Ukraine: Gas Upstream SectorInvest in Ukraine: Gas Upstream Sector
Invest in Ukraine: Gas Upstream Sector
 
The Urban Transport Sector in Ukraine in 2022: A baseline report in the conte...
The Urban Transport Sector in Ukraine in 2022: A baseline report in the conte...The Urban Transport Sector in Ukraine in 2022: A baseline report in the conte...
The Urban Transport Sector in Ukraine in 2022: A baseline report in the conte...
 

More from Інститут економічних досліджень та політичних консультацій

More from Інститут економічних досліджень та політичних консультацій (20)

Звіт №22_ Український бізнес під час війни_(лютий 2024)-compressed.pdf
Звіт №22_ Український бізнес під час війни_(лютий 2024)-compressed.pdfЗвіт №22_ Український бізнес під час війни_(лютий 2024)-compressed.pdf
Звіт №22_ Український бізнес під час війни_(лютий 2024)-compressed.pdf
 
New Monthly Enterprises Survey. Issue 21. (01.2024) Ukrainian Business in War...
New Monthly Enterprises Survey. Issue 21. (01.2024) Ukrainian Business in War...New Monthly Enterprises Survey. Issue 21. (01.2024) Ukrainian Business in War...
New Monthly Enterprises Survey. Issue 21. (01.2024) Ukrainian Business in War...
 
Місячний Економічний Моніторинг України №230, березень 2024 року
Місячний Економічний Моніторинг України №230, березень 2024 рокуМісячний Економічний Моніторинг України №230, березень 2024 року
Місячний Економічний Моніторинг України №230, березень 2024 року
 
Бізнес під час війни: Черкаська область (грудень 2023) за результатами Нового...
Бізнес під час війни: Черкаська область (грудень 2023) за результатами Нового...Бізнес під час війни: Черкаська область (грудень 2023) за результатами Нового...
Бізнес під час війни: Черкаська область (грудень 2023) за результатами Нового...
 
Бізнес Київської області під час війни (грудень 2023) Щомісячне опитування п...
Бізнес Київської області під час війни (грудень 2023)  Щомісячне опитування п...Бізнес Київської області під час війни (грудень 2023)  Щомісячне опитування п...
Бізнес Київської області під час війни (грудень 2023) Щомісячне опитування п...
 
21ше Щомісячне опитування підприємств «Український бізнес під час війни» (січ...
21ше Щомісячне опитування підприємств «Український бізнес під час війни» (січ...21ше Щомісячне опитування підприємств «Український бізнес під час війни» (січ...
21ше Щомісячне опитування підприємств «Український бізнес під час війни» (січ...
 
Щомісячний моніторинг сприяння торгівлі в Україні №85
Щомісячний моніторинг сприяння торгівлі в Україні №85Щомісячний моніторинг сприяння торгівлі в Україні №85
Щомісячний моніторинг сприяння торгівлі в Україні №85
 
Моніторинг відбудови №6 (повоєнна відбудова України)
Моніторинг відбудови №6 (повоєнна відбудова України)Моніторинг відбудови №6 (повоєнна відбудова України)
Моніторинг відбудови №6 (повоєнна відбудова України)
 
Economic trends from a business point of view (January 2023)
Economic trends from a business point of view (January 2023)Economic trends from a business point of view (January 2023)
Economic trends from a business point of view (January 2023)
 
MEMU_Feb2024_229.pdf
MEMU_Feb2024_229.pdfMEMU_Feb2024_229.pdf
MEMU_Feb2024_229.pdf
 
NRES_November_2023_FINAL_EN (1).pdf
NRES_November_2023_FINAL_EN (1).pdfNRES_November_2023_FINAL_EN (1).pdf
NRES_November_2023_FINAL_EN (1).pdf
 
NRES_November_2023_FINAL_EN.pdf
NRES_November_2023_FINAL_EN.pdfNRES_November_2023_FINAL_EN.pdf
NRES_November_2023_FINAL_EN.pdf
 
NRES_January_2024_ua_FINAL (1).pdf
NRES_January_2024_ua_FINAL (1).pdfNRES_January_2024_ua_FINAL (1).pdf
NRES_January_2024_ua_FINAL (1).pdf
 
Україна_після_перемоги_Економічна_політика.pdf
Україна_після_перемоги_Економічна_політика.pdfУкраїна_після_перемоги_Економічна_політика.pdf
Україна_після_перемоги_Економічна_політика.pdf
 
Monitoring_84.pdf
Monitoring_84.pdfMonitoring_84.pdf
Monitoring_84.pdf
 
MEMU_Jan2024_228 (1).pdf
MEMU_Jan2024_228 (1).pdfMEMU_Jan2024_228 (1).pdf
MEMU_Jan2024_228 (1).pdf
 
_NRES_November_2023_FINAL_UA.pdf
_NRES_November_2023_FINAL_UA.pdf_NRES_November_2023_FINAL_UA.pdf
_NRES_November_2023_FINAL_UA.pdf
 
2023_NRES_October_FINAL_ENG_.pdf
2023_NRES_October_FINAL_ENG_.pdf2023_NRES_October_FINAL_ENG_.pdf
2023_NRES_October_FINAL_ENG_.pdf
 
MEMU_Jan2024_228.pdf
MEMU_Jan2024_228.pdfMEMU_Jan2024_228.pdf
MEMU_Jan2024_228.pdf
 
NRES_December_2023_eng_FINAL_.pdf
NRES_December_2023_eng_FINAL_.pdfNRES_December_2023_eng_FINAL_.pdf
NRES_December_2023_eng_FINAL_.pdf
 

Recently uploaded

OAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptx
OAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptxOAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptx
OAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptxhiddenlevers
 
2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx
2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx
2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptxHenry Tapper
 
10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf
10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf
10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdfglobusfinanza
 
Aon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshare
Aon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshareAon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshare
Aon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshareHenry Tapper
 
Demographic transition and the rise of wealth inequality
Demographic transition and the rise of wealth inequalityDemographic transition and the rise of wealth inequality
Demographic transition and the rise of wealth inequalityGRAPE
 
Banking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptx
Banking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptxBanking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptx
Banking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptxANTHONYAKINYOSOYE1
 
Zimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdf
Zimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdfZimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdf
Zimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdfFREELANCER
 
ΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτος
ΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτοςΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτος
ΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτοςNewsroom8
 
Building pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the future
Building pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the futureBuilding pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the future
Building pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the futureResolutionFoundation
 
TACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptx
TACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptxTACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptx
TACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptxKathlynVillar
 
ekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdf
ekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdfekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdf
ekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdfSteliosTheodorou4
 
Hello this ppt is about seminar final project
Hello this ppt is about seminar final projectHello this ppt is about seminar final project
Hello this ppt is about seminar final projectninnasirsi
 
2B Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation
2B  Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation2B  Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation
2B Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nationko9240888
 
Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024
Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024
Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024Money Forward
 
Introduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptx
Introduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptxIntroduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptx
Introduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptxDrRkurinjiMalarkurin
 
Global Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride Consulting
Global Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride ConsultingGlobal Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride Consulting
Global Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride Consultingswastiknandyofficial
 
What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024
What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024
What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024prajwalgopocket
 
Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...
Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...
Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...Amil baba
 
Thoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension Fund
Thoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension FundThoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension Fund
Thoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension FundAshwinJey
 

Recently uploaded (19)

OAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptx
OAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptxOAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptx
OAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptx
 
2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx
2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx
2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx
 
10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf
10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf
10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf
 
Aon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshare
Aon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshareAon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshare
Aon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshare
 
Demographic transition and the rise of wealth inequality
Demographic transition and the rise of wealth inequalityDemographic transition and the rise of wealth inequality
Demographic transition and the rise of wealth inequality
 
Banking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptx
Banking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptxBanking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptx
Banking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptx
 
Zimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdf
Zimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdfZimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdf
Zimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdf
 
ΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτος
ΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτοςΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτος
ΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτος
 
Building pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the future
Building pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the futureBuilding pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the future
Building pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the future
 
TACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptx
TACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptxTACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptx
TACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptx
 
ekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdf
ekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdfekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdf
ekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdf
 
Hello this ppt is about seminar final project
Hello this ppt is about seminar final projectHello this ppt is about seminar final project
Hello this ppt is about seminar final project
 
2B Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation
2B  Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation2B  Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation
2B Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation
 
Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024
Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024
Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024
 
Introduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptx
Introduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptxIntroduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptx
Introduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptx
 
Global Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride Consulting
Global Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride ConsultingGlobal Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride Consulting
Global Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride Consulting
 
What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024
What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024
What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024
 
Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...
Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...
Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...
 
Thoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension Fund
Thoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension FundThoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension Fund
Thoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension Fund
 

MEMU_Jan2024_228 En.pdf

  • 1. INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Authors: Oleksandra Betliy, Iryna Kosse, Vitaliy Kravchuk, Veronika Movchan @IER_Kyiv IER. Kyiv Monthly Economic Monitoring of Ukraine No. 228, January 2024 Summary • According to the IER, real GDP growth slowed from 3.5% yoy in November to 2.6% yoy in December. As a result, according to our calculations, real GDP grew by 4.9% in 2023. • Electricity consumption has increased due to the onset of cold weather, with imports and emergency assistance covering the deficit. • The Ukrainian sea corridor works better than the "grain deal" – the ports of Odesa region handled 15% more cargo in 2023 than in 2022. • The strike of Polish carriers hinders Ukraine's foreign trade. • The goods trade deficit was record-high at USD 27.3 bn in 2023 amid declining exports and growing imports. • The receipt of international aid in the form of grants supported the revenues of the State Budget in 2023. Revenues from most taxes were lower than planned. • The EU and the US have not yet decided on the assistance to Ukraine in 2024. • At the end of 2023, consumer inflation remained at 5.1% yoy despite some weakening of the hryvnia. • The hryvnia weakened in December amid record demand for cash currency since the start of the war and seasonal growth in imports. • The NBU cut the key policy rate to 15% p.a. in December, but it may refrain from significantly reducing the rate in 2024 The IER is preparing the publication of the Macroeconomic Monitoring of Ukraine with the financial support of the European Union within the framework of the project “Ukraine’s economy during the war and support for Ukrainians affected by the war”.
  • 2. INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024 2 GDP and the real sector: According to the IER, real GDP grew by 4.9% in 2023 According to the IER, real GDP growth slowed from 3.5% yoy in November to 2.6% yoy in December. According to our calculations, real GDP in December 2023 was almost 27% lower than in December 2021. The slowdown in real GDP growth is primarily due to a decline in real gross value added (GVA) in agriculture by 37.6% yoy. The drop in GVA in agriculture resulted from a high harvest in December 2022. Farmers harvested (primarily) corn much later than usual in 2022, and large harvesting volumes were registered in December. In 2023, the corn harvest continued in December, but the unharvested areas and harvesting volumes were significantly smaller and closer to the average of previous years. The performance of the livestock sectors was estimated to be slightly lower than last year. The growth rate of GVA in the manufacturing is estimated to accelerate to 18% yoy primarily due to the low statistical base effect. In partciualr, in December 2022, there were rolling blackouts and emergency power outages due to russian attacks on the power grid, and businesses have just begun to adapt to the new realities of work. According to estimates, growth occurred in most sectors, including the food industry, mechanical engineering, and metallurgy. Public procurements supported mechanical engineering. The metallurgy benefited from better access to exports logistics, particularly through the Ukrainian Sea Corridor. The results of a monthly business survey conducted by the IER also showed positive trends in industrial production. Economic recovery contributed to an increase in electricity production from a low base last year. At the same time, warm weather restrained growth of electricity consumption. Therefore, electricity generation is estimated to have increased by 8% yoy. Output in extractive industries increased by about 8% yoy due to higher iron ore and natural gas production. The extraction of building materials decreased. According to estimates, real GVA in construction, as in November, decreased by 16% yoy, although the decline has deepened compared to 2021. The drop in construction results from lower funding for infrastructure projects, a high base in December of 2022, and a slow pace of housing construction. Real GVA in transport, according to our estimates, increased slightly due to larger transportation by sea, while road transportation was limited. The resumption of foreign trade and stable payments of social assistance, pensions, and salaries contributed to the increase in trade indicators. Figure 1: Contributions to real GDP, p.p. Source: IER assessment supported by the USAID Competitive Economy Program in Ukraine The December estimate of GDP growth was worse than the IER expected. According to our estimates, real GDP grew by 3.9% yoy in the fourth quarter and by 4.9% overall in 2023. -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Mar-2022 Apr-2022 May-2022 Jun-2022 Jul-2022 Aug-2022 Sep-2022 Oct-2022 Nov-2022 Dec-2022 Jan-2023 Feb-2023 Mar-2023 Apr-2023 May-2023 Jun-2023 Jul-2023 Aug-2023 Sep-2023 Oct-2023 Nov-2023 Dec-2023 Agriculture Industry Construction Trade Transport Net taxes on products Other GDP
  • 3. INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024 3 Energy: Energoatom is ready to switch to Westinghouse fuel completely Electricity. The shelling of Ukraine continues, which affects the energy infrastructure. On the night of December 7, the enemy launched powerful strikes on Kyiv and central Ukraine for the first time since September 2023, launching at least 16 cruise missiles. On December 8, the shelling of thermal power plants in the front-line zone caused damage, and two units had to be switched off for repairs. On December 29, due to massive shelling, high-voltage lines and equipment of thermal power plants in the Donetsk region were damaged. On January 2, almost 260,000 users in several Kyiv districts were temporarily disconnected. Electricity consumption has increased due to the onset of winter, and imports and emergency assistance cover the deficit. In December 2023, Ukraine imported 233 thousand MWh of electricity, which is almost four times more than in November and is a record figure for the year. Electricity was exported only on December 31 — 210 MWh was supplied to Moldova. In 2023, electricity imports amounted to 806.4 thousand MWh, and exports were 366 thousand MWh. Most of the electricity (69%) was imported from Slovakia. In 2023, nine nuclear power units at three Ukrainian nuclear power plants generated 52.4 m MWh of electricity. This volume is almost 50% of the total production; thermal power plants are in second place, and 17% of all electricity is produced from renewable sources (hydroelectric power plants, solar power plants, wind farms, biomass, and biogas). Only 200 MW of new generating capacity was commissioned during the year, but more than 2 GW of CHP and HPP capacities damaged by russian attacks were restored. Energoatom has completed preparations for converting Ukrainian nuclear power plants to Westinghouse fuel. For all domestic power units with VVER-1000 and VVER-440 reactors to operate on American Westinghouse fuel, Energoatom installed the appropriate software, made calculations, justified the use of Westinghouse fuel, and purchased equipment for unloading nuclear fuel. Now, Energoatom can manufacture inserts for VVER-440 reactors on its own. Gas. Ukraine produced more than 18.7 bn cubic meters (bcm) of natural gas in 2023, 0.9% more than in 2022. Ukrgasvydobuvannya remains the country's largest gas producer, producing more than 13.9 bcm of natural gas in 2023 (+5% yoy). Ukrnafta is in second place with 1.1 bcm (+6% yoy). On the other hand, private companies reduced natural gas production in 2023 by almost 14% to 3.7 bcm. Figure 2: Natural gas production in Ukraine, bcm Source: ExPro Consulting Energy efficiency. At the end of December 2023, the Cabinet of Ministers approved the Strategy for the Thermal Modernization of Buildings of Ukraine until 2050 and the operational plan for its implementation in 2024-2026, which set out a long-term plan for the gradual renewal of the building stock of Ukraine, taking into account energy-saving technologies. Among the next steps are developing energy plans, collecting information on the energy efficiency of buildings, updating the minimum requirements for the energy efficiency of buildings, etc. Transport: Ukrainian Sea Corridor works better than the "Grain Deal" Maritime transport. Almost 15 m tons of cargo were exported through the Ukrainian (sea) corridor in 5 months, of which 10 m tons were agricultural products. During the five months of the corridor's operation, 469 new vessels entered Ukrainian ports for loading. In particular, in December, exports by sea increased by 30.7% mom to 7.34 m tons, of which 6.1 m tons were agricultural products. In December, maritime exports of metallurgy products increased: semi-finished products increased by 40% mom, and flat products increased by 45% mom. Metinvest predicts that by the end of the first quarter of 2024, iron ore exports by sea will reach their maximum of 2-3 m tons per month. Ukreximbank and Ukrgasbank issued letters of credit for USD 10 m each at the request of the Export Credit Agency in favour of a pool of 14 British insurance companies to reduce the cost of insuring
  • 4. INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024 4 ships moving through the Black Sea corridor. The proposed mechanism for using letters of credit reduces the cost of risks for British insurers, which allows for the reduction of the prices of policies for shipowners. Thus, it makes the sea route more accessible to a broader range of exporters. However, the insurance applies to ships, not goods or port infrastructure. During the 11 months of 2023, more than 31 m tons of cargo were handled in the ports of the Danube cluster, which is an absolute record. In 2023, the ports of the Odesa region handled more than 50 m tons of cargo, which is 15% more than in 2022. Rail transport. Ukrzaliznytsia transported 25 m passengers on long-distance trains in 2023, equal to 2021, and a record 2.1 m passengers were transported to European countries. In December, Ukrzaliznytsia transported 13.7 m tons of cargo, 2.7% less than in November. The volume of grain transportation in the direction of the western border and ports increased by 13% mom to 2.74 m tons. In 2023, 146.4 m tons of cargo were transported by rail, 1.4% less than in 2022. There was an increase in the transportation of construction materials (by 30% yoy, to 29.6 m tons) and grain cargo (by 6%, to 30.6 m tons), while transportation of other goods dropped ‒ ore (by 13%, to 27.5 m tons), coal (by 11%, to 26.2 m tons) and ferrous metals (by 11%, to 8.2 m tons). In 2023, 22.3 m tons of all cargo were transported through seaports and 34.4 m tons through land crossings. Figure 3: Transportation of goods by rail, m tons Source: Ukrzaliznytsia Road transport. On January 6, Polish farmers, after an agreement with their government, stopped the blockade of the Medyka – Shehyni checkpoint. However, as of the morning of January 8, 550 trucks remained in line there. The blockade of this checkpoint resumed on January 15, but this time, it was by Polish carriers. On January 16, Ukraine and Poland's governments agreed to temporarily unblock the checkpoints Rawa-Ruska – Hrebenne, Krakovets – Korczowa, Yahodyn – Dorohusk until March 1. In January, the Ukraine and Romania border blockade began by Romanian farmers. As of January 15, the Siret – Porubne and Vikova de Sus – Krasnoilsk checkpoints are blocked. Farmers in Romania are protesting against rising prices for auto insurance and fuel. As of January 15, more than three thousand trucks were waiting in queues at the border with Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary. The largest number of trucks (two thousand) was waiting at the Polish border, and an additional 1000 trucks were at the borders with Slovakia and Hungary. In 2023, Ukrainian carriers performed 362 thousand trips to Poland, of which 68 thousand were fuel transportation and about 15 thousand were humanitarian goods. Commercial shipments to Poland in 2023 amounted to 280 thousand trips compared to 307 thousand in 2022 and 229 thousand in 2021. Accordingly, Polish carriers performed more than 132 thousand trips to Ukraine in 2023. The share of Polish carriers in the transportation market between Ukraine and Poland fell from 40% in 2021 to 33% in 2023 due to Russian armed aggression and the blocking of traditional trade routes. Foreign trade: In 2023, the goods trade deficit reached a record USD 27.3 bn In 2023, according to the State Customs Service, exports of goods amounted to USD 36.2 bn, 19% less than a year ago. At the same time, imports increased to USD 63.5 bn (+15% yoy). That led to a record-high trade deficit in goods at USD 27.3 bn or about 16% of GDP.
  • 5. INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024 5 Compared to previous months, exports accelerated to USD 3.2 bn in December. That happened primarily thanks to the intensification of the Ukrainian Sea Corridor, although exports remained lower than the monthly average before the eruption of the "Polish crisis" of April 2023. In addition to severe problems with logistics during the year and continued bans on imports of certain agricultural products by neighbouring countries, global prices were an essential factor in the decline in exports. For example, according to the FAO, global grain prices were, on average, 15% lower in 2023 than a year before, while vegetable oil prices fell by a third. Metal prices were also decreasing. Figure 4: Ukraine's foreign trade in goods, 2022-2023, USD bn United States Source: UN ComTrade, SCSU In 2023, the role of food products in Ukrainian exports continued to grow – up to 61% of the total exports compared to 53% in 2022 and 41% in 2021. The share of three essential commodities — sunflower seed oil, corn, and wheat — reached 36% (25% in 2021). Accordingly, the role of industrial exports continued to fall against the background of much worse logistics opportunities compared to those for agricultural exports. The share of iron ore decreased to 5% in 2023, half of those two years ago. The share of ferrous metals (HS 72) dropped to 7% compared to 20% before the full-scale invasion. Figure 5: The structure of goods exports, top 10 positions, 2021-2023 Source: UN ComTrade, SCSU There were also changes in the import structure, although not so striking. Machinery and equipment (HS 84-85) remained the largest category of imports, although their share reduced to 17% in 2022- 2023 compared to 20% in 2021. The role of mineral fuel imports decreased to 16% in 2023 compared to 23% in 2022 and 20% in 2021. At the same time, the structure of mineral fuel imports changed: imports of petroleum products increased, while imports of gas and, especially, coal decreased. Motor vehicles (HS 87) remained in the third place in import importance, with the share at 11% in 2023 (10% in 2021) due to an increase in passenger car imports. In general, imports, as before, were comprised mainly of intermediate and investment goods, the key to the functioning of the economy in the country at war.
  • 6. INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024 6 Figure 6: The structure of commodity imports, top 10 positions, 2021-2023 Source: UN ComTrade, SCSU State Budget: Critical expenditures were financed in December According to preliminary information, the revenues of the State Budget reached UAH 302 bn in December, including UAH 127 bn due to the general fund. Revenues were supported by grants of UAH 20.5 bn, received primarily from Japan and Norway. Gross revenues from domestic VAT were at a record high during the full-scale war, amounting to UAH 33.4 bn. That is most likely due to the growth of final consumption. At the same time, VAT refunds reached UAH 10.9 bn. VAT on imports amounted to UAH 35.7 bn, more than in November but less than in October. The lower than October figures are further due to the border strikes, primarily by the Poles. Figure 7: Domestic VAT, UAH bn Source: Ministry of Finance, openbudget.gov.ua The PIT revenues due to the general fund of the State Budget in December amounted to UAH 20.9 bn, which is higher than the average of the previous indicators. That is due to the traditional payments of bonuses paid at the end of the year. Overall, in 2023, the revenues of the general fund of the State Budget amounted to UAH 1.66 trillion, which is higher than the planned UAH 1.25 trillion due to the inflow of international grants at UAH 425 bn (in the planned revenue indicators, all international assistance was included in the form of loans). CPT revenues increased and were by almost 30% higher than the plan, primarily due to higher profit inflows from state-owned banks. At the same time, PIT revenues due to general fund of the budget increased by 30% yoy, primarily due to higher military revenues and partly due to some recovery in the labour market. Gross revenues from domestic VAT increased by 16.2% yoy and were higher than in 2021 due to higher consumption (nominal). At the same time, although VAT refunds increased by 56.5% yoy in -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 01.2021 02.2021 03.2021 04.2021 05.2021 06.2021 07.2021 08.2021 09.2021 10.2021 11.2021 12.2021 01.2022 02.2022 03.2022 04.2022 05.2022 06.2022 07.2022 08.2022 09.2022 10.2022 11.2022 12.2022 01.2023 02.2023 03.2023 04.2023 05.2023 06.2023 07.2023 08.2023 09.2023 10.2023 11.2023 12.2023 Domestic VAT VAT refund
  • 7. INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024 7 2023, they remained 17% lower than in 2021. Import VAT revenues also increased by 44.7% yoy but were still slightly lower than in 2021 as imports did not fully recover. At the same time, the structure of imports changed, and exemptions were introduced for several goods essential for defence capability. Figure 8: Revenues due to the general fund of the State Budget in 2023, UAH bn Note: * Preliminary data Source: Ministry of Finance, openbudget.gov.ua Financing: In 2023, State Budget expenditures exceeded UAH 4.0 trillion, of which UAH 3.0 trillion – general fund expenditures were executed by 98% of the plan. The expenditures were financed for a record amount in December. That became possible due to the high amounts of external borrowings the government received in December – UAH 169.8 bn and the traditional accumulation of budget expenditures at the end of the year. The funds raised included loans guaranteed by Japan for almost USD 2 bn and a direct loan, a monthly tranche from the EU loan, and the third tranche of an IMF loan. Domestic borrowings in December amounted to UAH 44.6 bn. In 2023, the state budget deficit amounted to UAH 1.33 trillion. Domestic borrowings totaled UAH 566 bn, which was UAH 204 bn more than repayments on domestic government bonds. Concessional loans of USD 19.5 bn were received from the EU. The USA provided grants of almost USD 11 bn. Loans from the IMF amounted to USD 4.5 bn. Other major creditors were Japan and Canada. Figure 9: Financing of the state budget, UAH bn Note: * Grants are part of budget revenues, which are accounted for under the code 42000000 "From the European Union, foreign governments, international organizations, donor institutions". Source: Ministry of Finance, openbudget.gov.ua 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 PIT CPT VAT domestic VAT on imports Excise Grants Other Plan Actual* 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Jan-22 Feb-22 Mar-22 Apr-22 May-22 Jun-22 Jul-22 Aug-22 Sep-22 Oct-22 Nov-22 Dec-22 Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Grants* External borrowings War bonds to NBU Domestic state bonds / War bonds - auctions
  • 8. INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024 8 International support: The EU and the US have not yet approved the support for Ukraine By the end of 2023, Ukraine has fulfilled all the structural benchmarks necessary to complete the third review of the IMF program. This review is expected to take place in the first weeks of March. In general, in 2024, Ukraine may receive slightly more than USD 5 bn from the IMF if it fulfills all obligations on time. The EU has not yet approved the Ukraine Facility support program, which envisages the provision of EUR 50 bn to Ukraine over four years. Hungary still blocks the decision, but European diplomats are preparing a plan B in case of further blocking. The decision is expected to be made on February 1. Under the new program, it is planned to determine Ukraine's commitments to implement reforms and other policy steps, based on which the EU will provide Ukraine with tranches of assistance. The review of the fulfillment of obligations is expected to be quarterly. The European side will determine the commitment based on the Ukraine Plan adopted by the government, which envisages the action plan of reforms planned by the government, particularly in the field of public administration, public finance management, and the business environment. The government intends to continue judicial reform and anti-corruption measures. Separate priority sectors for development are also highlighted: agriculture, energy, transport, critical materials, digital transformation. The horizontal priority is the green transition and environmental protection. The USA has not yet made a decision on supporting Ukraine in 2024. This is related to domestic political difficulties that have complicated the adoption of any budgetary decisions, a decrease in support for Ukraine from some U.S. politicians, and tying assistance to Ukraine to a compromise on resolving the crisis on the Mexico border. It is hoped that a decision will be made within the next month. It is most likely that this time, the funds from the USA will also be provided in fulfillment of commitments. This year, funds from other international partners are also anticipated. This includes assistance from Japan and Norway. A Development Policy Loan (DPL) from the World Bank is also expected under the fulfillment of commitments. Inflation: Consumer price growth remained at 5% yoy In December, consumer inflation remained at 5.1% yoy, within the NBU's pre-war target. That reflected lower prices for several goods and fixed prices for state-regulated services other than electricity. Prices for several food products, including cereals, sugar, and oil, fell in 2023 amid a good harvest and low world prices. The State Statistics Service also reported decreased prices for various non-food goods, including clothing and footwear, household appliances, laptops, smartphones and tablets. For a range of other non-food products, prices increased by only 1-3% per year (vehicles, fuel, furniture, home textiles). That likely reflected moderate consumer demand, lower supply costs compared to 2022, and a stable hryvnia exchange rate for most of the year. However, prices for services not subject to state regulation grew significantly faster than 5% yoy. That could reflect rising energy and labour costs. Figure 10: Consumer price inflation Source: State Statistics Service of Ukraine Monthly inflation in December was 0.7% mom. Vegetable prices continued to rise after they collapsed in the fall amid a good harvest. As a result, vegetable prices were higher than in 2022. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 03.2014 06.2014 09.2014 12.2014 03.2015 06.2015 09.2015 12.2015 03.2016 06.2016 09.2016 12.2016 03.2017 06.2017 09.2017 12.2017 03.2018 06.2018 09.2018 12.2018 03.2019 06.2019 09.2019 12.2019 03.2020 06.2020 09.2020 12.2020 03.2021 06.2021 09.2021 12.2021 03.2022 06.2022 09.2022 12.2022 03.2023 06.2023 09.2023 12.2023 % дпр
  • 9. INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024 9 Seasonal changes in prices for dairy products(↑), eggs(↑), clothing and footwear(↓) also continued. The State Statistics Service recorded slightly decreased prices for appliances, furniture and other household goods. That contrasted with a weaker exchange rate and thus increased import costs in December. As in previous months, prices were likely limited by increased competition for low consumer demand and possibly lower logistics costs. Monetary and exchange rate policy: The NBU allowed a moderate weakening of the hryvnia against the dollar Exchange rate. In December, the hryvnia weakened from 36 to 38 UAH per USD against growing demand for foreign currency. Demand for cash foreign currency increased amid the premium season and the lifting of recent restrictions on the sale of cash foreign currency by the NBU. Banks and financial institutions sold more than USD 2 bn in cash foreign currency. That was the highest figure since the beginning of the full-scale war and one of the largest in recent years. Imports also increased amid easier logistics and seasonal growth in demand. In response, the NBU increased interventions in the foreign exchange market to the highest level in 2023 (USD 3.55 bn), but at the same time, allowed the exchange rate to respond to the increase in demand. Interventions remained high in early January, and demand is likely to be stabilized. As a result, in the first half of January, the hryvnia exchange rate fluctuated around UAH 38 per dollar. Monetary policy. In December, the NBU cut its key policy rate from 16% to 15% per annum. That was in line with the NBU's October forecast and did not come as a surprise, given a slowdown in inflation. However, according to the published results of the discussion of the NBU Monetary Committee, the approval of assistance to Ukraine will be a prerequisite for further interest rate cuts in 2024. Even after that, the majority of the committee expects the reduction in rates not to exceed 1-2 percentage points per year. Figure 11: Official exchange rate of the hryvnia to the US dollar, UAH per USD Note: The exchange rate values in the figure start at UAH 36 per USD. Source: NBU 36,0 36,5 37,0 37,5 38,0 38,5 01.10.2023 08.10.2023 15.10.2023 22.10.2023 29.10.2023 05.11.2023 12.11.2023 19.11.2023 26.11.2023 03.12.2023 10.12.2023 17.12.2023 24.12.2023 31.12.2023 07.01.2024 14.01.2024
  • 10. INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND POLICY CONSULTING Monthly Monitoring No228-2024 10 Contacts: Institute for Economic Research and Policy Consulting st. Reitarska 8/5-A, 01030 Kyiv Tel. (+38044) 278-6342 E-mail: institute@ier.kyiv.ua http://www.ier.com.ua Disclaimer This publication was prepared by the Institute for Economic Research and Policy Consulting with the financial support of the European Union. Its contents are the sole responsibility of the Institute for Economic Research and Policy Consulting and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Union. The MEMU is for informational purposes only. The judgments presented in this publication reflect our point of view at the time of publication and are subject to change without notice. Although we have made the most thorough efforts to prepare the most accurate publication, we do not take any responsibility for possible errors. The Institute shall not be liable for any damages or other problems that have arisen, directly or indirectly, due to the use of any of the indicators of this publication. In the case of a citation, a reference to the Institute for Economic Research and Policy Consulting is mandatory.