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LECTURE 01
FUNDAMENTAL OF AUTOMATION
Automation (Industrial Automation) is the
use of control systems and information technologies to control
industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human
involvement in the production of goods and services.
In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond
mechanization.
Term Mechanization refers as a replacement of human
labour (or animal) by machines power of some form.
Automation is the integration of machines into a self-
governing system.
Mechanization provided human operators with machinery to
assist them with the muscular requirements of work,
o Automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and
mental requirements as well processes and systems can also
be automated.
o computers have helped move manufacturing into a more
productive, streamlined process through automation.
- Production system is the collection of people equipment and
procedures organized to accomplish the manufacturing
process of a company.
Production Systems
Manufacturing support systems
Facilities :
Factory Equipment
Production systems can be devided in two categories
In modern manufacturing operations, portions of the production system are
automated and/or computerized.
I- Production System Facilities
Facilities in the production system are:
• The factory
• Production machines and tooling
• Material handling equipment
• Computer systems that control the manufacturing operations
Facilities also include the plant layout, which is the way the equipment is
physically arranged in the factory.
The equipment is usually organized into logical groupings, and we refer to these
equipment arrangements and the workers who operate them as the
manufacturing systems in the factory
Various Types of Plant Layouts
1- Fixed – position layout
Workers and processing equipment are brought to the product, rather than moving
the product to the equipment. Example ships, Airplane, construction project
Various Types of Plant Layouts
2- Process layout
In which the equipment is arranged according to function or type.The lathes are
in one department, milling machines are in another department and so on.
Example clothing factories, Restaurants
Various Types of Plant Layouts
3- Cellular layout
Each cell is designed to produce a limited variety of part configurations; that is the
cell specializes in the production of a given set of similar parts or products,
according to the principles of GroupTechnology.
Various Types of Plant Layouts
4- Product layout
Multiple workstations arranged in sequence, and the parts or assemblies are moved
through the sequence to complete the product. Certain industries like sugar, paper,
and cement are the best examples
The collection of stations is designed specifically for the product to maximize
efficiency.
Production quantity and product variety
Production quantity: refers to the number of units of a given part or product
produced annually by the plant.
Production quantity can be classified into three ranges
1- Low Production (Job Shop)
Quantities in the range of 1 to 100 units per year
2- Medium Production (Batch Production)
Quantities in the range of 100 to 10000 units per year
3- High Production (Mass Production)
Quantities are 10000 to millions of units per year
ProductVariety: refers to the different product designs or types that are produced
in a plant. (Different products have different shapes and sizes and styles)
Relationship between product variety and production quantity in discrete product
manufacturing
When product variety is high, production quantity tends to be low; and vice versa.
Types of facilities and layouts used for different levels of production
quantities and product variety
II- Manufacturing Support Systems
To operate the production facilities efficiently, a company must organize itself to
• Design the processes and equipment
• Plan and control the production orders; and
• Satisfy product quality requirements
This accomplished by manufacturing support systems (people and procedures)
Most of manufacturing support systems do not directly contact the
product, but they plan and control its progress through the factory.
II- Manufacturing Support Systems
Manufacturing support involves a cycle of information-processing activities
II- Manufacturing Support Systems
1- Business Functions
Included in business functions are
• Sales and marketing
• Sales forecasting
• Order entry
• Cost accounting
• Customer billing
II- Manufacturing Support Systems
2- Product Design
Included are
• Research and development
• Design engineering
• Drafting and modeling
II- Manufacturing Support Systems
3- Manufacturing Planning
The information-processing activities included in
manufacturing planning are:
• Process planning
• Scheduling
• Material requirement planning
II- Manufacturing Support Systems
4- Manufacturing Control
Information included in manufacturing control function are
• Shop control
• Inventory control
• Quality control
Automation in Production Systems
Automation can be defined as a technology concerned with the application of
mechanical, electronic and computer-based systems to operate and control
production
The automated elements of the production system can be separated into two categories:
• Automation of the manufacturing systems in the factory
• Computerization of the manufacturing support systems
Automated Manufacturing Systems
Examples of automated manufacturing system included:
• Automated machine tools that process parts
• Transfer lines that perform a series of machining operations
• Automated assembly systems
• Industrial robots to perform processing or assembly
• Automatic material handling and storage systems
• Automatic inspection systems for quality control
Automated manufacturing systems can be classified into three basic types:
• Fixed automation
• Programmable automation
• Flexible automation
Automated Manufacturing Systems
1- Fixed Automation
Fixed automation is a system in which the sequence of processing (or
assembly) operations is fixed by the equipment configuration. Each of
the operations in the sequence is usually simple.
Examples:
• machining transfer lines
• automated assembly machines
Automated Manufacturing Systems
2- Programmable Automation
In programmable automation, the production equipment is designed with
the capability to change the sequence of operations to accommodate
different product configurations. The operation sequence is controlled
by a program
Examples:
• Numerically controlled machines (NC)
• Industrial robots
Automated Manufacturing Systems
3- Flexible Automation
Flexible automation is an extension of programmable automation.
A flexible automated system is capable of producing a variety of
parts with virtually no time lost for changeovers from one part
style to the next.
Example
• Flexible manufacturing systems
Programmable
Automation
Flexible
Automation
Fixed
Automation
Variety
Quantity
Types of Automation
Computerized manufacturing support systems
Automation of the manufacturing support systems is aimed at reducing the
amount of manual effort in;
• product design
• manufacturing planning
• manufacturing control; and
• business functions
All modern manufacturing support systems are implemented using
computer systems
Computer technology is used to implement automation of the
manufacturing systems in the factory as well
Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is the use of computer systems to
design the products, plan the production, control the operations, and perform
the various business-related functions needed in a manufacturing firm
True CIM involves integrating all of these functions in one system that operates
throughout the enterprise
Computerized manufacturing support systems
1. To Increase labor productivity.
2. To reduce labor cost.
3. To mitigate the effects of labor shortages.
4. To reduce or eliminate routine manual and clerical tasks.
5. To improve worker safety.
6. To improve product quality
7. To reduce manufacturing lead time.
8. To accomplish processes that cannot be done manually.
Reasons for automation
AUTOMATION IMPORTANCE
• Engineers strive to combine automated devices with
mathematical and organizational tools to create complex
systems for a rapidly expanding range of applications and
human activities.
AUTOMATION IMPACTS
• Automation has had a notable impact in a wide range of
industries beyond manufacturing .
• Most of the ubiquitous telephone operators have been
replaced by automated telephone switchboards and
answering machines.
• Medical processes such as primary screening in
electrocardiography and laboratory analysis of human
genes, cells, and tissues are carried out at much greater
speed and accuracy by automated systems.
• Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) have reduced the
need for bank visits to obtain cash and carry out
transactions.
AUTOMATED SYSTEM
APPLICATIONS
• Automated machine tools
• Transfer lines
• Automated assembly systems
• Industrial robots
• Automated material handling
and storage systems
• Automatic inspection systems
for quality control
Transformation
Process
Automated
System
Periodic
Worker
AUTOMATION APPLICATIONS
AUTOMATION APPLICATIONS:
TEST AUTOMATION
• Automation can also be used in the testing of software
applications through a process called test automation.
• In this process, computers are programmed with special
scripts, usually computer programs, to run the same
tests on software that a human would have to do
manually.
• Test automation provides many of the same advantages
as industrial automation including labor reduction,
repeatability, and waste reduction.
1. Power to operate the process.
2. Instructions Program.
3. Control System to actuate the instructions.
Program of
Instructions
Control
System
Power
Process
4.1.1 power to accomplish the
automated process
The principal source of automation power is electricity, that is due to:
▪ Availability.
▪ Moderate cost.
▪ Ease of conversion to other forms of energy ,such as mechanical,thermal,
and hydraulic.
▪ Ability of data storage and transmission.
▪ Ability of storage in batteries to be used anywhere.
4.1.2 PROGRAM OF INSTRUCTIONS
It defines the actions performed by an automated process.
Work Cycle Programs:
• the simplest example is the control of a furnace
temperature(process parameter) at a specified value(one step).
• More complicated example:
i. Load the part into the production machine.
ii. Perform the process(such as cutting ,stamping,….)
iii. Unload the part.
The control system executes the program of instructions to
accomplish the defined function.
Automated System Controls:
1- Closed-loop AKA.(feedback control system)
2- Open-loop control system.
4.1.3 CONTROL SYSTEM
Controller Actuator
Feedback
sensor
process
Input
parameter
AKA
(set point)
Output
variable
Example of input: desired thermostat setting in a home temperature
control system.
Feedback control system
Assignment
By using Block diagrams give any Ten(10) examples showing the
Feedback control system in the scope of automation
Do you control the input or the output?
The controller reduces the difference between the input and the output
(by adjusting the output using the actuator )
Open loop Control System :
Disadvantage: Not the right “adjustment ”maybe done .
Advantage : Cheaper.
Controller Actuator process
input
Output
variabl
e
Feedback control system
❖ Automation is not always the right answer for a given
production situation. A certain caution and respect must be
observed in applying automation technologies.
❖ Three approaches for dealing with automation projects
1. USA Principle
2. Ten Strategies for Automation and Production Systems
3. Automation Migration Strategy
Automation Principles and Strategies
1. Understand the existing process
2. Simplify the process
3. Automate the process
USA Principle
USA approach is applicable to nearly any automation project
➢ Understand the existing process
The first step in the USA approach is to comprehend the current
process in all of its details.
* What are the inputs? What are the outputs ?
* What exactly happens to the work unit between input and
output?
* What is the function of process?
* How does it add value to the product?
* What are the upstream and downstream operations in the product
sequence, and can they be combined with the process under
consideration?.
➢ Simplify the process
*Once the existing process is understood, then the search can began for
ways to simplify. This often involves a checklist of questions about the
existing process.
Unnecessary steps can be eliminated without detracting from the
function.
➢ Automate the process
*Once the process has been reduced to its simplest form then
automation considered. The possible form of automation
include those listed in the ten strategies.
❖ Automation seems a feasible solution to improving productivity,
quality, or other measure of performance then the following ten
strategies for these improvements discussed.
1. Specialization of operations: The first strategy involves the use of
special-purpose equipment designed to perform one operation with
the greatest possible efficiency. This is analogous to the concept of
labor specialization. Which is employed to improve labor
productivity.
2. Combined operations: Production occurs as a sequence of
operations. Complex parts may require dozens, or even hundreds,
of processing steps. The strategy of combined operations involves
reducing the number of distinct production machines or work
stations.
Ten Strategies for Automation and Production
Systems
3. Simultaneous operations: A logical extension of the
combined operations strategy is to simultaneously perform
the operations that are combined at one work-stations. In
effect two or more processing (assembly) operations are
being performed simultaneously on the same work part.
4. Integration of operations: another strategy is to link
several work stations together into a single mechanism, using
automated work handling devices to transfer parts between
stations.
5. Increased flexibility: this strategy attempts to achieve
maximum utilization of equipment for job shop and medium
value situations by using the same equipment for a variety of
parts or products.
6. Improved material handling and storage: A great
opportunity for reducing non-productive time exists in the
use of automated material handling and storage systems.
7. On-line inspection: inspection for quality of work is
traditionally performed after the process is completed.
This means that any poor-quality product has already
been produced by the time it is inspected.
8. Process control and optimization: manual control to
automated control by optimization we can give the
best parameters. Then the individual process can be
reduced.
9. Plant operation control: those which are not related
fabrication process, each division specify automate.
Business functions, product design.
10. Computer- integrated manufacturing: input from
market delivery to the final customer every operation
is integrated to the computer. Business functions,
product design etc…..
REALITIES OF MODERN
MANUFACTURING
• Globalization: As underdeveloped countries (e.g., China,
India) are becoming major players in manufacturing
• International outsourcing: Parts and products once made
locally are now being made offshore to every where.
• Local outsourcing: Use of suppliers locally to provide parts
and services.
• Contract manufacturing: Companies that specialize in
manufacturing entire products, not just parts, under
contract to other companies
• Quality expectations: Customers, both consumer and
corporate, demand products of the highest quality
• Need for operational efficiency: manufacturers must be
efficient in in their operations to overcome the labor cost
advantage of international competitors

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LECTURE 1.pdf

  • 2. Automation (Industrial Automation) is the use of control systems and information technologies to control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human involvement in the production of goods and services. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization.
  • 3. Term Mechanization refers as a replacement of human labour (or animal) by machines power of some form. Automation is the integration of machines into a self- governing system. Mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with the muscular requirements of work, o Automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well processes and systems can also be automated. o computers have helped move manufacturing into a more productive, streamlined process through automation.
  • 4. - Production system is the collection of people equipment and procedures organized to accomplish the manufacturing process of a company. Production Systems
  • 5. Manufacturing support systems Facilities : Factory Equipment Production systems can be devided in two categories In modern manufacturing operations, portions of the production system are automated and/or computerized.
  • 6. I- Production System Facilities Facilities in the production system are: • The factory • Production machines and tooling • Material handling equipment • Computer systems that control the manufacturing operations Facilities also include the plant layout, which is the way the equipment is physically arranged in the factory. The equipment is usually organized into logical groupings, and we refer to these equipment arrangements and the workers who operate them as the manufacturing systems in the factory
  • 7. Various Types of Plant Layouts 1- Fixed – position layout Workers and processing equipment are brought to the product, rather than moving the product to the equipment. Example ships, Airplane, construction project
  • 8. Various Types of Plant Layouts 2- Process layout In which the equipment is arranged according to function or type.The lathes are in one department, milling machines are in another department and so on. Example clothing factories, Restaurants
  • 9. Various Types of Plant Layouts 3- Cellular layout Each cell is designed to produce a limited variety of part configurations; that is the cell specializes in the production of a given set of similar parts or products, according to the principles of GroupTechnology.
  • 10. Various Types of Plant Layouts 4- Product layout Multiple workstations arranged in sequence, and the parts or assemblies are moved through the sequence to complete the product. Certain industries like sugar, paper, and cement are the best examples The collection of stations is designed specifically for the product to maximize efficiency.
  • 11. Production quantity and product variety Production quantity: refers to the number of units of a given part or product produced annually by the plant. Production quantity can be classified into three ranges 1- Low Production (Job Shop) Quantities in the range of 1 to 100 units per year 2- Medium Production (Batch Production) Quantities in the range of 100 to 10000 units per year 3- High Production (Mass Production) Quantities are 10000 to millions of units per year ProductVariety: refers to the different product designs or types that are produced in a plant. (Different products have different shapes and sizes and styles)
  • 12. Relationship between product variety and production quantity in discrete product manufacturing When product variety is high, production quantity tends to be low; and vice versa.
  • 13. Types of facilities and layouts used for different levels of production quantities and product variety
  • 14. II- Manufacturing Support Systems To operate the production facilities efficiently, a company must organize itself to • Design the processes and equipment • Plan and control the production orders; and • Satisfy product quality requirements This accomplished by manufacturing support systems (people and procedures) Most of manufacturing support systems do not directly contact the product, but they plan and control its progress through the factory.
  • 15. II- Manufacturing Support Systems Manufacturing support involves a cycle of information-processing activities
  • 16. II- Manufacturing Support Systems 1- Business Functions Included in business functions are • Sales and marketing • Sales forecasting • Order entry • Cost accounting • Customer billing
  • 17. II- Manufacturing Support Systems 2- Product Design Included are • Research and development • Design engineering • Drafting and modeling
  • 18. II- Manufacturing Support Systems 3- Manufacturing Planning The information-processing activities included in manufacturing planning are: • Process planning • Scheduling • Material requirement planning
  • 19. II- Manufacturing Support Systems 4- Manufacturing Control Information included in manufacturing control function are • Shop control • Inventory control • Quality control
  • 20. Automation in Production Systems Automation can be defined as a technology concerned with the application of mechanical, electronic and computer-based systems to operate and control production The automated elements of the production system can be separated into two categories: • Automation of the manufacturing systems in the factory • Computerization of the manufacturing support systems
  • 21. Automated Manufacturing Systems Examples of automated manufacturing system included: • Automated machine tools that process parts • Transfer lines that perform a series of machining operations • Automated assembly systems • Industrial robots to perform processing or assembly • Automatic material handling and storage systems • Automatic inspection systems for quality control Automated manufacturing systems can be classified into three basic types: • Fixed automation • Programmable automation • Flexible automation
  • 22. Automated Manufacturing Systems 1- Fixed Automation Fixed automation is a system in which the sequence of processing (or assembly) operations is fixed by the equipment configuration. Each of the operations in the sequence is usually simple. Examples: • machining transfer lines • automated assembly machines
  • 23. Automated Manufacturing Systems 2- Programmable Automation In programmable automation, the production equipment is designed with the capability to change the sequence of operations to accommodate different product configurations. The operation sequence is controlled by a program Examples: • Numerically controlled machines (NC) • Industrial robots
  • 24. Automated Manufacturing Systems 3- Flexible Automation Flexible automation is an extension of programmable automation. A flexible automated system is capable of producing a variety of parts with virtually no time lost for changeovers from one part style to the next. Example • Flexible manufacturing systems
  • 26. Computerized manufacturing support systems Automation of the manufacturing support systems is aimed at reducing the amount of manual effort in; • product design • manufacturing planning • manufacturing control; and • business functions All modern manufacturing support systems are implemented using computer systems Computer technology is used to implement automation of the manufacturing systems in the factory as well
  • 27. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is the use of computer systems to design the products, plan the production, control the operations, and perform the various business-related functions needed in a manufacturing firm True CIM involves integrating all of these functions in one system that operates throughout the enterprise Computerized manufacturing support systems
  • 28. 1. To Increase labor productivity. 2. To reduce labor cost. 3. To mitigate the effects of labor shortages. 4. To reduce or eliminate routine manual and clerical tasks. 5. To improve worker safety. 6. To improve product quality 7. To reduce manufacturing lead time. 8. To accomplish processes that cannot be done manually. Reasons for automation
  • 29. AUTOMATION IMPORTANCE • Engineers strive to combine automated devices with mathematical and organizational tools to create complex systems for a rapidly expanding range of applications and human activities.
  • 30. AUTOMATION IMPACTS • Automation has had a notable impact in a wide range of industries beyond manufacturing . • Most of the ubiquitous telephone operators have been replaced by automated telephone switchboards and answering machines. • Medical processes such as primary screening in electrocardiography and laboratory analysis of human genes, cells, and tissues are carried out at much greater speed and accuracy by automated systems. • Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) have reduced the need for bank visits to obtain cash and carry out transactions.
  • 31. AUTOMATED SYSTEM APPLICATIONS • Automated machine tools • Transfer lines • Automated assembly systems • Industrial robots • Automated material handling and storage systems • Automatic inspection systems for quality control Transformation Process Automated System Periodic Worker
  • 33. AUTOMATION APPLICATIONS: TEST AUTOMATION • Automation can also be used in the testing of software applications through a process called test automation. • In this process, computers are programmed with special scripts, usually computer programs, to run the same tests on software that a human would have to do manually. • Test automation provides many of the same advantages as industrial automation including labor reduction, repeatability, and waste reduction.
  • 34. 1. Power to operate the process. 2. Instructions Program. 3. Control System to actuate the instructions. Program of Instructions Control System Power Process
  • 35. 4.1.1 power to accomplish the automated process The principal source of automation power is electricity, that is due to: ▪ Availability. ▪ Moderate cost. ▪ Ease of conversion to other forms of energy ,such as mechanical,thermal, and hydraulic. ▪ Ability of data storage and transmission. ▪ Ability of storage in batteries to be used anywhere.
  • 36. 4.1.2 PROGRAM OF INSTRUCTIONS It defines the actions performed by an automated process. Work Cycle Programs: • the simplest example is the control of a furnace temperature(process parameter) at a specified value(one step). • More complicated example: i. Load the part into the production machine. ii. Perform the process(such as cutting ,stamping,….) iii. Unload the part.
  • 37. The control system executes the program of instructions to accomplish the defined function. Automated System Controls: 1- Closed-loop AKA.(feedback control system) 2- Open-loop control system. 4.1.3 CONTROL SYSTEM
  • 38. Controller Actuator Feedback sensor process Input parameter AKA (set point) Output variable Example of input: desired thermostat setting in a home temperature control system. Feedback control system Assignment By using Block diagrams give any Ten(10) examples showing the Feedback control system in the scope of automation
  • 39. Do you control the input or the output? The controller reduces the difference between the input and the output (by adjusting the output using the actuator ) Open loop Control System : Disadvantage: Not the right “adjustment ”maybe done . Advantage : Cheaper. Controller Actuator process input Output variabl e Feedback control system
  • 40. ❖ Automation is not always the right answer for a given production situation. A certain caution and respect must be observed in applying automation technologies. ❖ Three approaches for dealing with automation projects 1. USA Principle 2. Ten Strategies for Automation and Production Systems 3. Automation Migration Strategy Automation Principles and Strategies
  • 41. 1. Understand the existing process 2. Simplify the process 3. Automate the process USA Principle USA approach is applicable to nearly any automation project
  • 42. ➢ Understand the existing process The first step in the USA approach is to comprehend the current process in all of its details. * What are the inputs? What are the outputs ? * What exactly happens to the work unit between input and output? * What is the function of process? * How does it add value to the product? * What are the upstream and downstream operations in the product sequence, and can they be combined with the process under consideration?.
  • 43. ➢ Simplify the process *Once the existing process is understood, then the search can began for ways to simplify. This often involves a checklist of questions about the existing process. Unnecessary steps can be eliminated without detracting from the function.
  • 44. ➢ Automate the process *Once the process has been reduced to its simplest form then automation considered. The possible form of automation include those listed in the ten strategies.
  • 45. ❖ Automation seems a feasible solution to improving productivity, quality, or other measure of performance then the following ten strategies for these improvements discussed. 1. Specialization of operations: The first strategy involves the use of special-purpose equipment designed to perform one operation with the greatest possible efficiency. This is analogous to the concept of labor specialization. Which is employed to improve labor productivity. 2. Combined operations: Production occurs as a sequence of operations. Complex parts may require dozens, or even hundreds, of processing steps. The strategy of combined operations involves reducing the number of distinct production machines or work stations. Ten Strategies for Automation and Production Systems
  • 46. 3. Simultaneous operations: A logical extension of the combined operations strategy is to simultaneously perform the operations that are combined at one work-stations. In effect two or more processing (assembly) operations are being performed simultaneously on the same work part. 4. Integration of operations: another strategy is to link several work stations together into a single mechanism, using automated work handling devices to transfer parts between stations. 5. Increased flexibility: this strategy attempts to achieve maximum utilization of equipment for job shop and medium value situations by using the same equipment for a variety of parts or products. 6. Improved material handling and storage: A great opportunity for reducing non-productive time exists in the use of automated material handling and storage systems.
  • 47. 7. On-line inspection: inspection for quality of work is traditionally performed after the process is completed. This means that any poor-quality product has already been produced by the time it is inspected. 8. Process control and optimization: manual control to automated control by optimization we can give the best parameters. Then the individual process can be reduced. 9. Plant operation control: those which are not related fabrication process, each division specify automate. Business functions, product design. 10. Computer- integrated manufacturing: input from market delivery to the final customer every operation is integrated to the computer. Business functions, product design etc…..
  • 48. REALITIES OF MODERN MANUFACTURING • Globalization: As underdeveloped countries (e.g., China, India) are becoming major players in manufacturing • International outsourcing: Parts and products once made locally are now being made offshore to every where. • Local outsourcing: Use of suppliers locally to provide parts and services. • Contract manufacturing: Companies that specialize in manufacturing entire products, not just parts, under contract to other companies • Quality expectations: Customers, both consumer and corporate, demand products of the highest quality • Need for operational efficiency: manufacturers must be efficient in in their operations to overcome the labor cost advantage of international competitors