SlideShare a Scribd company logo
February, 2016
Patexia Webinar
Getting Past Alice
Manny Schecter
Chief Patent Counsel, IBM
schecter@us.ibm.com
Patexia Webinar
Agenda
§  Introduction
§  Alice
§  Subsequent case law and patent examination
§  Status
§  Going forward
2
Patexia Webinar
Agenda
§  Introduction
§  Alice
§  Subsequent case law and patent examination
§  Status
§  Going forward
3
Patexia Webinar
Quotes From Law360, June 17, 2015
“Where Do We Stand One Year After Alice”
“No U.S. Supreme Court patent case has ever had so large an effect in so short a time…”
Ken Adamo, Kirkland & Ellis
“[P]ublic companies…will have to consider writing down the value of their portfolios…”
Richard Baker, New England IP
“[R]adically changed patent litigation…” Maya Eckstein, Hunton & Williams
“[W]e remain in a confusing state where validity under §101 is unclear…”
Barry Goldsmith, Miles & Stockbridge
“[S]parked a fire that continues to rage…” John Jarosz, Analysis Group
“The destructive wake of Alice…” Dr. Scott Kamholz, Foley Hoag
“[A] game changer…” Patricia Martone, Law Office of Patricia Martone
“[A]nimated a defense to patent assertions…” Paul Roeder, HP
“[A] very blunt instrument…” Gary Rosen, Law Offices of Gary Rosen
“[T]remendous value was destroyed…” Jaime Siegel, Acacia Research
4
Patexia Webinar5
Full Disclosure: IBM Amicus Brief
5
In the
Supreme Court of the United States
________________
ALICE CORPORATION PTY.LTD., Petitioner,
v.
CLS BANK INTERNATIONAL AND CLS SERVICES LTD., Respondents.
________________
On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals
for the Federal Circuit
________________
BRIEF OF AMICUS CURIAE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
MACHINES CORPORATION IN SUPPORT OF NEITHER
PARTY
Patexia Webinar6
IBM Amicus Brief
§  Uncertainty regarding patent-eligibility of computer-
implemented inventions endangers critical part of
our economy
§  Abstract idea doctrine unworkable in the computer-
implemented invention context
§  Concerns generally better addressed under other
sections of statute
6
Patexia Webinar
Agenda
§  Introduction
§  Alice
§  Subsequent case law and patent examination
§  Status
§  Going forward
7
Patexia Webinar
Test for Patent Subject Matter Eligibility
(USPTO Flowchart)
8
Patexia Webinar9
Supreme Court’s Decision in Alice (2014)
§  Unanimous decision: all claims ineligible abstract
ideas
§  “[W]e need not labor to delimit the precise contours
of the abstract ideas category…”
§  “[W]e tread carefully in construing this exclusionary
principle lest it swallow all of patent law.”
9
Patexia Webinar
The Crux of the Problem
If all inventions rely on an abstract idea,
how do we determine whether an invention
is significantly more than an abstract idea
we do not know how to delimit?
10
Patexia Webinar
General Acknowledgement of Legitimacy of
Computer Implemented Inventions
§  Did not find software and/or business methods to
be generally ineligible
§  “There is no dispute that a computer is a tangible
system…, or that many computer-implemented
claims are formally addressed to patent-eligible
subject matter.”
11
Patexia Webinar
Need to Recite More Than Mere Computer
§  “Stating an abstract idea while adding the words
‘apply it’ is not enough for patent eligibility. Nor
is limiting the use of an abstract idea to a
particular technological environment.”
§  “[T]he mere recitation of a generic computer
cannot transform a patent-ineligible abstract idea
into a patent-eligible invention.”
§  “The introduction of a computer into the claims
does not alter the analysis at Mayo step two.”
12
Patexia Webinar13
Examples of Abstract Ideas from Alice
§  Fundamental economic practice long prevalent in
our system of commerce
§  Certain methods of organizing human activities
§  An idea of itself
§  Mathematical relationships/formulas
13
Patexia Webinar14
Significantly More Than Abstract Idea Itself
§  Improvements to another technology or technical field
§  Improvements to function of computer itself
§  Application with or via particular machine
§  Transformation to different state or thing
§  Limitation not well-understood, routine, conventional
14
Patexia Webinar
Agenda
§  Introduction
§  Alice
§  Subsequent case law and patent examination
§  Status
§  Going forward
15
Patexia Webinar
Subsequent Case Law
16
Patexia Webinar
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 *2015
District court 101 invalidity findings by termination date
(*through 8/13/15)
Source: Lex Machina, district court cases with at least one finding of invalidity under 101, filed on or after January
1, 2000.
Bilski
Mayo
Alice
Increasing §101 Invalidations
17
Patexia Webinar
Lower Court Results
§  Lower courts since Alice: ~65-75% invalidity rate
on §101 grounds
§  Federal Circuit since Alice: ~90-95% invalidity rate
on §101 grounds
§  DDR is the only computer implemented invention
case since Alice in which the Federal Circuit
upheld subject matter eligibility
§  More dispositions on motion
Source: Robert Sachs, Fenwick & West, Bilskiblog/Alicestorm
18
Patexia Webinar
Are the Lower Court Results Deceptive?
§  Computer implemented invention optimists argue
technical patents are upheld in 2/3 of district court
§101 decisions
§  Higher rate of invalidity for business methods
§  But what about the other 1/3 – why are those
patents invalid?
Source: D. Bartley Eppenauer, Shook, Hardy & Bacon in Law360,
June 17, 2015
19
Patexia Webinar
Which Is Patent Eligible Subject Matter?
20
Patexia Webinar
None!
21
Rovi v Netflix
Media Synch
Across Devices
Synopsis v Mentor Graphics
Circuit Logic Synthesis
for EDA
Thales Visionix v USA
Helmet Mounted Inertial
Tracking
Patexia Webinar
Thales Visionix v. USA and Elbit Systems
(Ct. Fed. Clm. 2015)
“[Regarding Alice Step 2] the system claim fails to transform the
method claim into a patent-eligible invention. The plain language of
Claim 1 describes generic, fungible inertial sensors that admittedly
have already gained “widespread acceptance” in the field of motion
tracking. Like the computer elements in Alice, these inertial trackers,
when considered as an ordered combination in the claimed system,
add nothing transformative to the patent. Although the concept of
tracking the motion of a moving object relative to a moving reference
frame may have been novel and nonobvious, the claimed system does
nothing to ground this abstract idea in a specific way. The claims allow
for the application of the navigation equation in almost endless
environments, and are not limited to a fighter jet and a pilot’s helmet.”
22
Patexia Webinar
Lingering Case Law Issues
§  Conflation of 35 USC §101 v. §102/103/112
§  Preemption v. parsing v. as a whole
§  Hindsight
§  Consistency
23
Patexia Webinar
Subsequent USPTO Activity
24
Patexia Webinar
Patent Trial & Appeal Board (PTAB)
§  Glass half full or half empty?
§  Same aggressive results used by
both optimists and pessimists
§  Demonstration of prevalence of
bad patents v. hostile patent
environment
§  Not necessarily the product of
Alice
25
Patexia Webinar
Rate of §101 Rejections in
Patent Examination Over Time
Source: Robert Sachs, Fenwick & West, Bilskiblog/Alicestorm
26
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
Jan-12 Oct-12 Aug-13 May-14 Jul-14 Feb-15 Mar-15 Apr-15 May-15
2100-Comp. Arch 3600-Trans, E-Comm
Patexia Webinar
USPTO Patent Subject Matter Eligibility Guidelines
§  Focus on each individual claim as a whole
§  Prima facie case must be clearly articulated
§  Ineligibility conclusion may be supported by
general knowledge (examiner notice) – rejection
must include reasons but not necessarily evidence
27
Patexia Webinar
USPTO Patent Subject Matter Eligibility Guidelines
§  Aspirationally appropriate
§  Collaborative and iterative
§  Continuing examiner education
§  Collecting and posting examples
28
Patexia Webinar
How Many Examples Are Needed?
29
Patexia Webinar
Lingering Issues in Patent Examination
§  Examiners just as confused as everyone else
§  Examples focus on what is not eligible
§  Form paragraph rejections lack specificity
(and lack evidence and consistency)
§  Just how is ineligibility properly demonstrated?
§  After Alice
– IBM survey indicates modest examination improvement
– OPQA indicates no increase in examiner errors
§  Lack of clarity in Alice will likely impact efficiency
30
Patexia Webinar
Agenda
§  Introduction
§  Alice
§  Subsequent case law and patent examination
§  Status
§  Going forward
31
Patexia Webinar
Summary of Case Law for Patent Eligibility of
Computer Implemented Inventions
32
Cases Before Alice Cases After Alice
Patexia Webinar
Lack of Alignment
33
Courts
PTAB
Examiners
Patexia Webinar
Where Are We Now?
§  Warning: USPTO interpretation does not have force
of law!
§  Greater uncertainty
§  §101 defense to assertions nearly automatic in
impacted technologies
§  More difficult to obtain and enforce patents
– Reduced filing in most impacted technologies
– Higher quality and lower volume of assertions and litigation
34
Patexia Webinar
Computer ease of use working against patent eligibility?
Inflection point on relative strength of geo patent systems?
35
Patexia Webinar
Agenda
§  Introduction
§  Alice
§  Subsequent case law and patent examination
§  Status
§  Going forward
36
Patexia Webinar
Claiming Tips
§  Focus claim language on technology, not business
§  Avoid mere economic claim language
§  Include more technical content and hardware in apps
§  Emphasize improvement to computer
§  Technical preambles? Bare bones preambles?
§  Include dependent claims covering valuable specific
embodiments
§  M+F claims to incorporate disclosure into claims?
37
Patexia Webinar
Prosecution Tips
§  Interview early
§  Delay prosecution
§  Distinguish abstract idea from claims
§  Ask for proof in response to examiner notice
§  Leverage prior similar and desired results
§  Consider reissue/reexamine to improve claims
§  Keep pending continuations (hard to amend during PTAB
challenge)
38
Patexia Webinar
Litigation Tips
§  Defendants
– Alice adds significantly more to your defense!
– Early PTAB challenges stay litigation
§  Plaintiffs
– Vet patents before assertion
– Consider success of §101 defense in potential jurisdictions
§  What if you are a defendant with a significant patent
portfolio?
39
Patexia Webinar
Remediation?
§  Never-ending search for clarity goes on
§  Other forms of IP are inadequate
§  Alice cannot simply be ignored
§  Another (clarifying) Supreme Court case?
§  Legislation to clarify 35 USC §101?
40
Patexia Webinar
Legislation?
§  Better to do nothing?
§  Codification of worst fears?
§  Elimination of judicial exception never fully assured
§  Need for community consensus
§  Intersection with pending patent reform legislation and
current Congressional climate
41
Patexia Webinar
Principles For Potential Legislation
§  Technology neutral
§  Claim considered as a
whole
§  Independent of 35 USC
§102, 103, and 112
42
Patexia Webinar
Software Industry
43
Source: BSA
Patexia Webinar44
Thank You. Questions?

More Related Content

Similar to Getting past alice schecter patexia (2016-02-25)

Bill Hulsey Patent Lawyer - Intellectual Property - Reasons for Protection
Bill Hulsey Patent Lawyer - Intellectual Property - Reasons for ProtectionBill Hulsey Patent Lawyer - Intellectual Property - Reasons for Protection
Bill Hulsey Patent Lawyer - Intellectual Property - Reasons for Protection
Bill Hulsey Lawyer
 
August 2014 Patent Prosecution Lunch Presentation
August 2014 Patent Prosecution Lunch PresentationAugust 2014 Patent Prosecution Lunch Presentation
August 2014 Patent Prosecution Lunch Presentation
Woodard, Emhardt, Henry, Reeves & Wagner, LLP
 
Review of Recent IP Supreme Court Cases
Review of Recent IP Supreme Court CasesReview of Recent IP Supreme Court Cases
Review of Recent IP Supreme Court Cases
Woodard, Emhardt, Henry, Reeves & Wagner, LLP
 
Patent Eligibility's Common Stock Theory
Patent Eligibility's Common Stock TheoryPatent Eligibility's Common Stock Theory
Patent Eligibility's Common Stock Theory
Robert DeWitty
 
Pitfalls and Strategies to Avoid Charges of Inequitable Conduct
Pitfalls and Strategies to Avoid Charges of Inequitable ConductPitfalls and Strategies to Avoid Charges of Inequitable Conduct
Pitfalls and Strategies to Avoid Charges of Inequitable Conduct
Woodard, Emhardt, Henry, Reeves & Wagner, LLP
 
Alice in-patentland-prologue
Alice in-patentland-prologueAlice in-patentland-prologue
Alice in-patentland-prologue
Citiusminds
 
NPE Patent Litigation Latest Developments
NPE Patent Litigation Latest DevelopmentsNPE Patent Litigation Latest Developments
NPE Patent Litigation Latest Developments
Parsons Behle & Latimer
 
ACC_SF_PA
ACC_SF_PAACC_SF_PA
ACC_SF_PA
Mackenzie Martin
 
Underwater Devices Dries Up - Life After In re Seagate
Underwater Devices Dries Up - Life After In re SeagateUnderwater Devices Dries Up - Life After In re Seagate
Underwater Devices Dries Up - Life After In re Seagate
Daniel Kent
 
Become Patent-smart Entrepreneur
Become Patent-smart EntrepreneurBecome Patent-smart Entrepreneur
Become Patent-smart Entrepreneur
hemantchaskar
 
PGRT Basics (Series: IP 301 Post-Grant Review Trials 2020)
PGRT Basics (Series: IP 301 Post-Grant Review Trials 2020)PGRT Basics (Series: IP 301 Post-Grant Review Trials 2020)
PGRT Basics (Series: IP 301 Post-Grant Review Trials 2020)
Financial Poise
 
Patent_Rights_in_the_U.S.-Is_the_Pendulum_Finally_Swinging_Back_to_Center
Patent_Rights_in_the_U.S.-Is_the_Pendulum_Finally_Swinging_Back_to_CenterPatent_Rights_in_the_U.S.-Is_the_Pendulum_Finally_Swinging_Back_to_Center
Patent_Rights_in_the_U.S.-Is_the_Pendulum_Finally_Swinging_Back_to_Center
Krishan Thakker
 
In-House Counsel's Role in Avoiding Willful Patent Infringement
In-House Counsel's Role in Avoiding Willful Patent InfringementIn-House Counsel's Role in Avoiding Willful Patent Infringement
In-House Counsel's Role in Avoiding Willful Patent Infringement
Tim Hsieh
 
2009 Nciia Presentation
2009 Nciia Presentation2009 Nciia Presentation
2009 Nciia Presentation
the nciia
 
Post-Alice Guideline 2016
Post-Alice Guideline 2016Post-Alice Guideline 2016
Post-Alice Guideline 2016
Lewis Lee
 
Pros and Cons: PTAB vs. District Courts
Pros and Cons: PTAB vs. District CourtsPros and Cons: PTAB vs. District Courts
Pros and Cons: PTAB vs. District Courts
Patexia Inc.
 
FINAL SBOT 2015 Advanced IP INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW WORKSHOP
FINAL SBOT 2015 Advanced IP INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW WORKSHOPFINAL SBOT 2015 Advanced IP INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW WORKSHOP
FINAL SBOT 2015 Advanced IP INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW WORKSHOP
Wei Wei Jeang
 
Software Patents: Trolls and Other Bullies (LCA 2105)
Software Patents: Trolls and Other Bullies (LCA 2105)Software Patents: Trolls and Other Bullies (LCA 2105)
Software Patents: Trolls and Other Bullies (LCA 2105)
freedeb
 
Beijing MoST standards + IPR conference Clark-OASIS-2011
Beijing MoST standards + IPR conference Clark-OASIS-2011Beijing MoST standards + IPR conference Clark-OASIS-2011
Beijing MoST standards + IPR conference Clark-OASIS-2011
Jamie Clark
 
Software Patent Issues
Software Patent IssuesSoftware Patent Issues
Software Patent Issues
Troy Adkins
 

Similar to Getting past alice schecter patexia (2016-02-25) (20)

Bill Hulsey Patent Lawyer - Intellectual Property - Reasons for Protection
Bill Hulsey Patent Lawyer - Intellectual Property - Reasons for ProtectionBill Hulsey Patent Lawyer - Intellectual Property - Reasons for Protection
Bill Hulsey Patent Lawyer - Intellectual Property - Reasons for Protection
 
August 2014 Patent Prosecution Lunch Presentation
August 2014 Patent Prosecution Lunch PresentationAugust 2014 Patent Prosecution Lunch Presentation
August 2014 Patent Prosecution Lunch Presentation
 
Review of Recent IP Supreme Court Cases
Review of Recent IP Supreme Court CasesReview of Recent IP Supreme Court Cases
Review of Recent IP Supreme Court Cases
 
Patent Eligibility's Common Stock Theory
Patent Eligibility's Common Stock TheoryPatent Eligibility's Common Stock Theory
Patent Eligibility's Common Stock Theory
 
Pitfalls and Strategies to Avoid Charges of Inequitable Conduct
Pitfalls and Strategies to Avoid Charges of Inequitable ConductPitfalls and Strategies to Avoid Charges of Inequitable Conduct
Pitfalls and Strategies to Avoid Charges of Inequitable Conduct
 
Alice in-patentland-prologue
Alice in-patentland-prologueAlice in-patentland-prologue
Alice in-patentland-prologue
 
NPE Patent Litigation Latest Developments
NPE Patent Litigation Latest DevelopmentsNPE Patent Litigation Latest Developments
NPE Patent Litigation Latest Developments
 
ACC_SF_PA
ACC_SF_PAACC_SF_PA
ACC_SF_PA
 
Underwater Devices Dries Up - Life After In re Seagate
Underwater Devices Dries Up - Life After In re SeagateUnderwater Devices Dries Up - Life After In re Seagate
Underwater Devices Dries Up - Life After In re Seagate
 
Become Patent-smart Entrepreneur
Become Patent-smart EntrepreneurBecome Patent-smart Entrepreneur
Become Patent-smart Entrepreneur
 
PGRT Basics (Series: IP 301 Post-Grant Review Trials 2020)
PGRT Basics (Series: IP 301 Post-Grant Review Trials 2020)PGRT Basics (Series: IP 301 Post-Grant Review Trials 2020)
PGRT Basics (Series: IP 301 Post-Grant Review Trials 2020)
 
Patent_Rights_in_the_U.S.-Is_the_Pendulum_Finally_Swinging_Back_to_Center
Patent_Rights_in_the_U.S.-Is_the_Pendulum_Finally_Swinging_Back_to_CenterPatent_Rights_in_the_U.S.-Is_the_Pendulum_Finally_Swinging_Back_to_Center
Patent_Rights_in_the_U.S.-Is_the_Pendulum_Finally_Swinging_Back_to_Center
 
In-House Counsel's Role in Avoiding Willful Patent Infringement
In-House Counsel's Role in Avoiding Willful Patent InfringementIn-House Counsel's Role in Avoiding Willful Patent Infringement
In-House Counsel's Role in Avoiding Willful Patent Infringement
 
2009 Nciia Presentation
2009 Nciia Presentation2009 Nciia Presentation
2009 Nciia Presentation
 
Post-Alice Guideline 2016
Post-Alice Guideline 2016Post-Alice Guideline 2016
Post-Alice Guideline 2016
 
Pros and Cons: PTAB vs. District Courts
Pros and Cons: PTAB vs. District CourtsPros and Cons: PTAB vs. District Courts
Pros and Cons: PTAB vs. District Courts
 
FINAL SBOT 2015 Advanced IP INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW WORKSHOP
FINAL SBOT 2015 Advanced IP INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW WORKSHOPFINAL SBOT 2015 Advanced IP INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW WORKSHOP
FINAL SBOT 2015 Advanced IP INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW WORKSHOP
 
Software Patents: Trolls and Other Bullies (LCA 2105)
Software Patents: Trolls and Other Bullies (LCA 2105)Software Patents: Trolls and Other Bullies (LCA 2105)
Software Patents: Trolls and Other Bullies (LCA 2105)
 
Beijing MoST standards + IPR conference Clark-OASIS-2011
Beijing MoST standards + IPR conference Clark-OASIS-2011Beijing MoST standards + IPR conference Clark-OASIS-2011
Beijing MoST standards + IPR conference Clark-OASIS-2011
 
Software Patent Issues
Software Patent IssuesSoftware Patent Issues
Software Patent Issues
 

More from Patexia Inc.

Patent Prosecution Intelligence Webinar (2019)
Patent Prosecution Intelligence Webinar (2019)Patent Prosecution Intelligence Webinar (2019)
Patent Prosecution Intelligence Webinar (2019)
Patexia Inc.
 
IPR Intelligence Webinar adam notes for 2018
IPR Intelligence Webinar   adam notes for 2018IPR Intelligence Webinar   adam notes for 2018
IPR Intelligence Webinar adam notes for 2018
Patexia Inc.
 
Posturing ip rs for settlement (2016-03-24)
Posturing ip rs for  settlement (2016-03-24)Posturing ip rs for  settlement (2016-03-24)
Posturing ip rs for settlement (2016-03-24)
Patexia Inc.
 
Lessons From Practicing at the PTAB
Lessons From Practicing at the PTABLessons From Practicing at the PTAB
Lessons From Practicing at the PTAB
Patexia Inc.
 
PTAB: Success by the Numbers
PTAB: Success by the NumbersPTAB: Success by the Numbers
PTAB: Success by the Numbers
Patexia Inc.
 
Negotiating and Closing Patent Purchase Transactions in the post-Alice/PTAB R...
Negotiating and Closing Patent Purchase Transactions in the post-Alice/PTAB R...Negotiating and Closing Patent Purchase Transactions in the post-Alice/PTAB R...
Negotiating and Closing Patent Purchase Transactions in the post-Alice/PTAB R...
Patexia Inc.
 
Overview of IP Landscape & Opportunities in Hong Kong
Overview of IP Landscape & Opportunities in Hong KongOverview of IP Landscape & Opportunities in Hong Kong
Overview of IP Landscape & Opportunities in Hong Kong
Patexia Inc.
 
The ins + outs of crowdsourcing presentation
The ins + outs of crowdsourcing presentationThe ins + outs of crowdsourcing presentation
The ins + outs of crowdsourcing presentation
Patexia Inc.
 
Defensive publication advanced strategies
Defensive publication advanced strategiesDefensive publication advanced strategies
Defensive publication advanced strategies
Patexia Inc.
 
Patent Strategies for Startups by Lang McHardy
Patent Strategies for Startups by Lang McHardyPatent Strategies for Startups by Lang McHardy
Patent Strategies for Startups by Lang McHardy
Patexia Inc.
 
Patent Monetization Strategies - Patexia IP Matters Webinar
Patent Monetization Strategies - Patexia IP Matters WebinarPatent Monetization Strategies - Patexia IP Matters Webinar
Patent Monetization Strategies - Patexia IP Matters Webinar
Patexia Inc.
 
Defensive Publication - Patexia IP Matters Webinar
Defensive Publication - Patexia IP Matters WebinarDefensive Publication - Patexia IP Matters Webinar
Defensive Publication - Patexia IP Matters Webinar
Patexia Inc.
 
Patent and Prior Art 101 - Patexia Web Series
Patent and Prior Art 101 - Patexia Web SeriesPatent and Prior Art 101 - Patexia Web Series
Patent and Prior Art 101 - Patexia Web Series
Patexia Inc.
 

More from Patexia Inc. (13)

Patent Prosecution Intelligence Webinar (2019)
Patent Prosecution Intelligence Webinar (2019)Patent Prosecution Intelligence Webinar (2019)
Patent Prosecution Intelligence Webinar (2019)
 
IPR Intelligence Webinar adam notes for 2018
IPR Intelligence Webinar   adam notes for 2018IPR Intelligence Webinar   adam notes for 2018
IPR Intelligence Webinar adam notes for 2018
 
Posturing ip rs for settlement (2016-03-24)
Posturing ip rs for  settlement (2016-03-24)Posturing ip rs for  settlement (2016-03-24)
Posturing ip rs for settlement (2016-03-24)
 
Lessons From Practicing at the PTAB
Lessons From Practicing at the PTABLessons From Practicing at the PTAB
Lessons From Practicing at the PTAB
 
PTAB: Success by the Numbers
PTAB: Success by the NumbersPTAB: Success by the Numbers
PTAB: Success by the Numbers
 
Negotiating and Closing Patent Purchase Transactions in the post-Alice/PTAB R...
Negotiating and Closing Patent Purchase Transactions in the post-Alice/PTAB R...Negotiating and Closing Patent Purchase Transactions in the post-Alice/PTAB R...
Negotiating and Closing Patent Purchase Transactions in the post-Alice/PTAB R...
 
Overview of IP Landscape & Opportunities in Hong Kong
Overview of IP Landscape & Opportunities in Hong KongOverview of IP Landscape & Opportunities in Hong Kong
Overview of IP Landscape & Opportunities in Hong Kong
 
The ins + outs of crowdsourcing presentation
The ins + outs of crowdsourcing presentationThe ins + outs of crowdsourcing presentation
The ins + outs of crowdsourcing presentation
 
Defensive publication advanced strategies
Defensive publication advanced strategiesDefensive publication advanced strategies
Defensive publication advanced strategies
 
Patent Strategies for Startups by Lang McHardy
Patent Strategies for Startups by Lang McHardyPatent Strategies for Startups by Lang McHardy
Patent Strategies for Startups by Lang McHardy
 
Patent Monetization Strategies - Patexia IP Matters Webinar
Patent Monetization Strategies - Patexia IP Matters WebinarPatent Monetization Strategies - Patexia IP Matters Webinar
Patent Monetization Strategies - Patexia IP Matters Webinar
 
Defensive Publication - Patexia IP Matters Webinar
Defensive Publication - Patexia IP Matters WebinarDefensive Publication - Patexia IP Matters Webinar
Defensive Publication - Patexia IP Matters Webinar
 
Patent and Prior Art 101 - Patexia Web Series
Patent and Prior Art 101 - Patexia Web SeriesPatent and Prior Art 101 - Patexia Web Series
Patent and Prior Art 101 - Patexia Web Series
 

Recently uploaded

suture removal ppt.pptx medical surgical
suture removal ppt.pptx medical surgicalsuture removal ppt.pptx medical surgical
suture removal ppt.pptx medical surgical
AlanSudhan
 
17-03 2022 -full agreement full version .pdf
17-03 2022 -full agreement full version .pdf17-03 2022 -full agreement full version .pdf
17-03 2022 -full agreement full version .pdf
ssuser0dfed9
 
一比一原版朴次茅斯大学毕业证(uop毕业证)如何办理
一比一原版朴次茅斯大学毕业证(uop毕业证)如何办理一比一原版朴次茅斯大学毕业证(uop毕业证)如何办理
一比一原版朴次茅斯大学毕业证(uop毕业证)如何办理
onduyv
 
在线办理(UNE毕业证书)新英格兰大学毕业证成绩单一模一样
在线办理(UNE毕业证书)新英格兰大学毕业证成绩单一模一样在线办理(UNE毕业证书)新英格兰大学毕业证成绩单一模一样
在线办理(UNE毕业证书)新英格兰大学毕业证成绩单一模一样
15e6o6u
 
一比一原版(ual毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(ual毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(ual毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(ual毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证如何办理
ayvace
 
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证如何办理
gjsma0ep
 
Corporate Governance : Scope and Legal Framework
Corporate Governance : Scope and Legal FrameworkCorporate Governance : Scope and Legal Framework
Corporate Governance : Scope and Legal Framework
devaki57
 
V.-SENTHIL-BALAJI-SLP-C-8939-8940-2023-SC-Judgment-07-August-2023.pdf
V.-SENTHIL-BALAJI-SLP-C-8939-8940-2023-SC-Judgment-07-August-2023.pdfV.-SENTHIL-BALAJI-SLP-C-8939-8940-2023-SC-Judgment-07-August-2023.pdf
V.-SENTHIL-BALAJI-SLP-C-8939-8940-2023-SC-Judgment-07-August-2023.pdf
bhavenpr
 
一比一原版(glasgow毕业证书)格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(glasgow毕业证书)格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(glasgow毕业证书)格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(glasgow毕业证书)格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理
ooqzo
 
一比一原版多伦多都会大学毕业证(TMU毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版多伦多都会大学毕业证(TMU毕业证书)学历如何办理一比一原版多伦多都会大学毕业证(TMU毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版多伦多都会大学毕业证(TMU毕业证书)学历如何办理
woywevt
 
一比一原版(liverpool毕业证书)利物浦大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(liverpool毕业证书)利物浦大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(liverpool毕业证书)利物浦大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(liverpool毕业证书)利物浦大学毕业证如何办理
aypxuyw
 
一比一原版伯恩茅斯大学毕业证(bu毕业证)如何办理
一比一原版伯恩茅斯大学毕业证(bu毕业证)如何办理一比一原版伯恩茅斯大学毕业证(bu毕业证)如何办理
一比一原版伯恩茅斯大学毕业证(bu毕业证)如何办理
ymefneb
 
一比一原版(uwgb毕业证书)美国威斯康星大学绿湾分校毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uwgb毕业证书)美国威斯康星大学绿湾分校毕业证如何办理一比一原版(uwgb毕业证书)美国威斯康星大学绿湾分校毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uwgb毕业证书)美国威斯康星大学绿湾分校毕业证如何办理
pdeehy
 
Capital Punishment by Saif Javed (LLM)ppt.pptx
Capital Punishment by Saif Javed (LLM)ppt.pptxCapital Punishment by Saif Javed (LLM)ppt.pptx
Capital Punishment by Saif Javed (LLM)ppt.pptx
OmGod1
 
一比一原版英国伦敦商学院毕业证(lbs毕业证书)如何办理
一比一原版英国伦敦商学院毕业证(lbs毕业证书)如何办理一比一原版英国伦敦商学院毕业证(lbs毕业证书)如何办理
一比一原版英国伦敦商学院毕业证(lbs毕业证书)如何办理
gedsuu
 
一比一原版新加坡南洋理工大学毕业证(本硕)ntu学位证书如何办理
一比一原版新加坡南洋理工大学毕业证(本硕)ntu学位证书如何办理一比一原版新加坡南洋理工大学毕业证(本硕)ntu学位证书如何办理
一比一原版新加坡南洋理工大学毕业证(本硕)ntu学位证书如何办理
hedonxu
 
一比一原版加拿大达尔豪斯大学毕业证(dalhousie毕业证书)如何办理
一比一原版加拿大达尔豪斯大学毕业证(dalhousie毕业证书)如何办理一比一原版加拿大达尔豪斯大学毕业证(dalhousie毕业证书)如何办理
一比一原版加拿大达尔豪斯大学毕业证(dalhousie毕业证书)如何办理
cadyzeo
 
PPT-Money Laundering - lecture 5.pptx ll
PPT-Money Laundering - lecture 5.pptx llPPT-Money Laundering - lecture 5.pptx ll
PPT-Money Laundering - lecture 5.pptx ll
MohammadZubair874462
 
一比一原版(trent毕业证书)加拿大特伦特大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(trent毕业证书)加拿大特伦特大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(trent毕业证书)加拿大特伦特大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(trent毕业证书)加拿大特伦特大学毕业证如何办理
mecyyn
 
Genocide in International Criminal Law.pptx
Genocide in International Criminal Law.pptxGenocide in International Criminal Law.pptx
Genocide in International Criminal Law.pptx
MasoudZamani13
 

Recently uploaded (20)

suture removal ppt.pptx medical surgical
suture removal ppt.pptx medical surgicalsuture removal ppt.pptx medical surgical
suture removal ppt.pptx medical surgical
 
17-03 2022 -full agreement full version .pdf
17-03 2022 -full agreement full version .pdf17-03 2022 -full agreement full version .pdf
17-03 2022 -full agreement full version .pdf
 
一比一原版朴次茅斯大学毕业证(uop毕业证)如何办理
一比一原版朴次茅斯大学毕业证(uop毕业证)如何办理一比一原版朴次茅斯大学毕业证(uop毕业证)如何办理
一比一原版朴次茅斯大学毕业证(uop毕业证)如何办理
 
在线办理(UNE毕业证书)新英格兰大学毕业证成绩单一模一样
在线办理(UNE毕业证书)新英格兰大学毕业证成绩单一模一样在线办理(UNE毕业证书)新英格兰大学毕业证成绩单一模一样
在线办理(UNE毕业证书)新英格兰大学毕业证成绩单一模一样
 
一比一原版(ual毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(ual毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(ual毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(ual毕业证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证如何办理
 
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证如何办理
 
Corporate Governance : Scope and Legal Framework
Corporate Governance : Scope and Legal FrameworkCorporate Governance : Scope and Legal Framework
Corporate Governance : Scope and Legal Framework
 
V.-SENTHIL-BALAJI-SLP-C-8939-8940-2023-SC-Judgment-07-August-2023.pdf
V.-SENTHIL-BALAJI-SLP-C-8939-8940-2023-SC-Judgment-07-August-2023.pdfV.-SENTHIL-BALAJI-SLP-C-8939-8940-2023-SC-Judgment-07-August-2023.pdf
V.-SENTHIL-BALAJI-SLP-C-8939-8940-2023-SC-Judgment-07-August-2023.pdf
 
一比一原版(glasgow毕业证书)格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(glasgow毕业证书)格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(glasgow毕业证书)格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(glasgow毕业证书)格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理
 
一比一原版多伦多都会大学毕业证(TMU毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版多伦多都会大学毕业证(TMU毕业证书)学历如何办理一比一原版多伦多都会大学毕业证(TMU毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版多伦多都会大学毕业证(TMU毕业证书)学历如何办理
 
一比一原版(liverpool毕业证书)利物浦大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(liverpool毕业证书)利物浦大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(liverpool毕业证书)利物浦大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(liverpool毕业证书)利物浦大学毕业证如何办理
 
一比一原版伯恩茅斯大学毕业证(bu毕业证)如何办理
一比一原版伯恩茅斯大学毕业证(bu毕业证)如何办理一比一原版伯恩茅斯大学毕业证(bu毕业证)如何办理
一比一原版伯恩茅斯大学毕业证(bu毕业证)如何办理
 
一比一原版(uwgb毕业证书)美国威斯康星大学绿湾分校毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uwgb毕业证书)美国威斯康星大学绿湾分校毕业证如何办理一比一原版(uwgb毕业证书)美国威斯康星大学绿湾分校毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uwgb毕业证书)美国威斯康星大学绿湾分校毕业证如何办理
 
Capital Punishment by Saif Javed (LLM)ppt.pptx
Capital Punishment by Saif Javed (LLM)ppt.pptxCapital Punishment by Saif Javed (LLM)ppt.pptx
Capital Punishment by Saif Javed (LLM)ppt.pptx
 
一比一原版英国伦敦商学院毕业证(lbs毕业证书)如何办理
一比一原版英国伦敦商学院毕业证(lbs毕业证书)如何办理一比一原版英国伦敦商学院毕业证(lbs毕业证书)如何办理
一比一原版英国伦敦商学院毕业证(lbs毕业证书)如何办理
 
一比一原版新加坡南洋理工大学毕业证(本硕)ntu学位证书如何办理
一比一原版新加坡南洋理工大学毕业证(本硕)ntu学位证书如何办理一比一原版新加坡南洋理工大学毕业证(本硕)ntu学位证书如何办理
一比一原版新加坡南洋理工大学毕业证(本硕)ntu学位证书如何办理
 
一比一原版加拿大达尔豪斯大学毕业证(dalhousie毕业证书)如何办理
一比一原版加拿大达尔豪斯大学毕业证(dalhousie毕业证书)如何办理一比一原版加拿大达尔豪斯大学毕业证(dalhousie毕业证书)如何办理
一比一原版加拿大达尔豪斯大学毕业证(dalhousie毕业证书)如何办理
 
PPT-Money Laundering - lecture 5.pptx ll
PPT-Money Laundering - lecture 5.pptx llPPT-Money Laundering - lecture 5.pptx ll
PPT-Money Laundering - lecture 5.pptx ll
 
一比一原版(trent毕业证书)加拿大特伦特大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(trent毕业证书)加拿大特伦特大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(trent毕业证书)加拿大特伦特大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(trent毕业证书)加拿大特伦特大学毕业证如何办理
 
Genocide in International Criminal Law.pptx
Genocide in International Criminal Law.pptxGenocide in International Criminal Law.pptx
Genocide in International Criminal Law.pptx
 

Getting past alice schecter patexia (2016-02-25)

  • 1. February, 2016 Patexia Webinar Getting Past Alice Manny Schecter Chief Patent Counsel, IBM schecter@us.ibm.com
  • 2. Patexia Webinar Agenda §  Introduction §  Alice §  Subsequent case law and patent examination §  Status §  Going forward 2
  • 3. Patexia Webinar Agenda §  Introduction §  Alice §  Subsequent case law and patent examination §  Status §  Going forward 3
  • 4. Patexia Webinar Quotes From Law360, June 17, 2015 “Where Do We Stand One Year After Alice” “No U.S. Supreme Court patent case has ever had so large an effect in so short a time…” Ken Adamo, Kirkland & Ellis “[P]ublic companies…will have to consider writing down the value of their portfolios…” Richard Baker, New England IP “[R]adically changed patent litigation…” Maya Eckstein, Hunton & Williams “[W]e remain in a confusing state where validity under §101 is unclear…” Barry Goldsmith, Miles & Stockbridge “[S]parked a fire that continues to rage…” John Jarosz, Analysis Group “The destructive wake of Alice…” Dr. Scott Kamholz, Foley Hoag “[A] game changer…” Patricia Martone, Law Office of Patricia Martone “[A]nimated a defense to patent assertions…” Paul Roeder, HP “[A] very blunt instrument…” Gary Rosen, Law Offices of Gary Rosen “[T]remendous value was destroyed…” Jaime Siegel, Acacia Research 4
  • 5. Patexia Webinar5 Full Disclosure: IBM Amicus Brief 5 In the Supreme Court of the United States ________________ ALICE CORPORATION PTY.LTD., Petitioner, v. CLS BANK INTERNATIONAL AND CLS SERVICES LTD., Respondents. ________________ On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit ________________ BRIEF OF AMICUS CURIAE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION IN SUPPORT OF NEITHER PARTY
  • 6. Patexia Webinar6 IBM Amicus Brief §  Uncertainty regarding patent-eligibility of computer- implemented inventions endangers critical part of our economy §  Abstract idea doctrine unworkable in the computer- implemented invention context §  Concerns generally better addressed under other sections of statute 6
  • 7. Patexia Webinar Agenda §  Introduction §  Alice §  Subsequent case law and patent examination §  Status §  Going forward 7
  • 8. Patexia Webinar Test for Patent Subject Matter Eligibility (USPTO Flowchart) 8
  • 9. Patexia Webinar9 Supreme Court’s Decision in Alice (2014) §  Unanimous decision: all claims ineligible abstract ideas §  “[W]e need not labor to delimit the precise contours of the abstract ideas category…” §  “[W]e tread carefully in construing this exclusionary principle lest it swallow all of patent law.” 9
  • 10. Patexia Webinar The Crux of the Problem If all inventions rely on an abstract idea, how do we determine whether an invention is significantly more than an abstract idea we do not know how to delimit? 10
  • 11. Patexia Webinar General Acknowledgement of Legitimacy of Computer Implemented Inventions §  Did not find software and/or business methods to be generally ineligible §  “There is no dispute that a computer is a tangible system…, or that many computer-implemented claims are formally addressed to patent-eligible subject matter.” 11
  • 12. Patexia Webinar Need to Recite More Than Mere Computer §  “Stating an abstract idea while adding the words ‘apply it’ is not enough for patent eligibility. Nor is limiting the use of an abstract idea to a particular technological environment.” §  “[T]he mere recitation of a generic computer cannot transform a patent-ineligible abstract idea into a patent-eligible invention.” §  “The introduction of a computer into the claims does not alter the analysis at Mayo step two.” 12
  • 13. Patexia Webinar13 Examples of Abstract Ideas from Alice §  Fundamental economic practice long prevalent in our system of commerce §  Certain methods of organizing human activities §  An idea of itself §  Mathematical relationships/formulas 13
  • 14. Patexia Webinar14 Significantly More Than Abstract Idea Itself §  Improvements to another technology or technical field §  Improvements to function of computer itself §  Application with or via particular machine §  Transformation to different state or thing §  Limitation not well-understood, routine, conventional 14
  • 15. Patexia Webinar Agenda §  Introduction §  Alice §  Subsequent case law and patent examination §  Status §  Going forward 15
  • 17. Patexia Webinar 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 *2015 District court 101 invalidity findings by termination date (*through 8/13/15) Source: Lex Machina, district court cases with at least one finding of invalidity under 101, filed on or after January 1, 2000. Bilski Mayo Alice Increasing §101 Invalidations 17
  • 18. Patexia Webinar Lower Court Results §  Lower courts since Alice: ~65-75% invalidity rate on §101 grounds §  Federal Circuit since Alice: ~90-95% invalidity rate on §101 grounds §  DDR is the only computer implemented invention case since Alice in which the Federal Circuit upheld subject matter eligibility §  More dispositions on motion Source: Robert Sachs, Fenwick & West, Bilskiblog/Alicestorm 18
  • 19. Patexia Webinar Are the Lower Court Results Deceptive? §  Computer implemented invention optimists argue technical patents are upheld in 2/3 of district court §101 decisions §  Higher rate of invalidity for business methods §  But what about the other 1/3 – why are those patents invalid? Source: D. Bartley Eppenauer, Shook, Hardy & Bacon in Law360, June 17, 2015 19
  • 20. Patexia Webinar Which Is Patent Eligible Subject Matter? 20
  • 21. Patexia Webinar None! 21 Rovi v Netflix Media Synch Across Devices Synopsis v Mentor Graphics Circuit Logic Synthesis for EDA Thales Visionix v USA Helmet Mounted Inertial Tracking
  • 22. Patexia Webinar Thales Visionix v. USA and Elbit Systems (Ct. Fed. Clm. 2015) “[Regarding Alice Step 2] the system claim fails to transform the method claim into a patent-eligible invention. The plain language of Claim 1 describes generic, fungible inertial sensors that admittedly have already gained “widespread acceptance” in the field of motion tracking. Like the computer elements in Alice, these inertial trackers, when considered as an ordered combination in the claimed system, add nothing transformative to the patent. Although the concept of tracking the motion of a moving object relative to a moving reference frame may have been novel and nonobvious, the claimed system does nothing to ground this abstract idea in a specific way. The claims allow for the application of the navigation equation in almost endless environments, and are not limited to a fighter jet and a pilot’s helmet.” 22
  • 23. Patexia Webinar Lingering Case Law Issues §  Conflation of 35 USC §101 v. §102/103/112 §  Preemption v. parsing v. as a whole §  Hindsight §  Consistency 23
  • 25. Patexia Webinar Patent Trial & Appeal Board (PTAB) §  Glass half full or half empty? §  Same aggressive results used by both optimists and pessimists §  Demonstration of prevalence of bad patents v. hostile patent environment §  Not necessarily the product of Alice 25
  • 26. Patexia Webinar Rate of §101 Rejections in Patent Examination Over Time Source: Robert Sachs, Fenwick & West, Bilskiblog/Alicestorm 26 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Jan-12 Oct-12 Aug-13 May-14 Jul-14 Feb-15 Mar-15 Apr-15 May-15 2100-Comp. Arch 3600-Trans, E-Comm
  • 27. Patexia Webinar USPTO Patent Subject Matter Eligibility Guidelines §  Focus on each individual claim as a whole §  Prima facie case must be clearly articulated §  Ineligibility conclusion may be supported by general knowledge (examiner notice) – rejection must include reasons but not necessarily evidence 27
  • 28. Patexia Webinar USPTO Patent Subject Matter Eligibility Guidelines §  Aspirationally appropriate §  Collaborative and iterative §  Continuing examiner education §  Collecting and posting examples 28
  • 29. Patexia Webinar How Many Examples Are Needed? 29
  • 30. Patexia Webinar Lingering Issues in Patent Examination §  Examiners just as confused as everyone else §  Examples focus on what is not eligible §  Form paragraph rejections lack specificity (and lack evidence and consistency) §  Just how is ineligibility properly demonstrated? §  After Alice – IBM survey indicates modest examination improvement – OPQA indicates no increase in examiner errors §  Lack of clarity in Alice will likely impact efficiency 30
  • 31. Patexia Webinar Agenda §  Introduction §  Alice §  Subsequent case law and patent examination §  Status §  Going forward 31
  • 32. Patexia Webinar Summary of Case Law for Patent Eligibility of Computer Implemented Inventions 32 Cases Before Alice Cases After Alice
  • 33. Patexia Webinar Lack of Alignment 33 Courts PTAB Examiners
  • 34. Patexia Webinar Where Are We Now? §  Warning: USPTO interpretation does not have force of law! §  Greater uncertainty §  §101 defense to assertions nearly automatic in impacted technologies §  More difficult to obtain and enforce patents – Reduced filing in most impacted technologies – Higher quality and lower volume of assertions and litigation 34
  • 35. Patexia Webinar Computer ease of use working against patent eligibility? Inflection point on relative strength of geo patent systems? 35
  • 36. Patexia Webinar Agenda §  Introduction §  Alice §  Subsequent case law and patent examination §  Status §  Going forward 36
  • 37. Patexia Webinar Claiming Tips §  Focus claim language on technology, not business §  Avoid mere economic claim language §  Include more technical content and hardware in apps §  Emphasize improvement to computer §  Technical preambles? Bare bones preambles? §  Include dependent claims covering valuable specific embodiments §  M+F claims to incorporate disclosure into claims? 37
  • 38. Patexia Webinar Prosecution Tips §  Interview early §  Delay prosecution §  Distinguish abstract idea from claims §  Ask for proof in response to examiner notice §  Leverage prior similar and desired results §  Consider reissue/reexamine to improve claims §  Keep pending continuations (hard to amend during PTAB challenge) 38
  • 39. Patexia Webinar Litigation Tips §  Defendants – Alice adds significantly more to your defense! – Early PTAB challenges stay litigation §  Plaintiffs – Vet patents before assertion – Consider success of §101 defense in potential jurisdictions §  What if you are a defendant with a significant patent portfolio? 39
  • 40. Patexia Webinar Remediation? §  Never-ending search for clarity goes on §  Other forms of IP are inadequate §  Alice cannot simply be ignored §  Another (clarifying) Supreme Court case? §  Legislation to clarify 35 USC §101? 40
  • 41. Patexia Webinar Legislation? §  Better to do nothing? §  Codification of worst fears? §  Elimination of judicial exception never fully assured §  Need for community consensus §  Intersection with pending patent reform legislation and current Congressional climate 41
  • 42. Patexia Webinar Principles For Potential Legislation §  Technology neutral §  Claim considered as a whole §  Independent of 35 USC §102, 103, and 112 42