SlideShare a Scribd company logo
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Inequality
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Inequality
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Incomes
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Inequality: Incomes
• Vertical Inequality
– Difference between the rich and the
poor
• Horizontal Inequality
– Where people of similar background,
status, qualifications, etc. have
differences in incomes
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Inequality: Incomes
• Caused by:
• The Labour Market:
– Differences in education, qualifications, skills,
abilities and experience mean that the supply of
labour differs in relation to the demand
• The Tax System:
– Impact of taxes that may be regressive in their effect
– Ability of some to be able to exploit the system to
pay less tax
• Education:
– Level of education and access to education influences
the level of earnings
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Opportunity
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Inequality: Opportunity
• The level of opportunity may influence
the level of inequality
• Access
– How easy is it for individuals to access
education, work, housing, etc?
– How easy is it for countries to access
markets?
• Discrimination – on the basis of race,
ethnicity, gender, etc.
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Physical Environment
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Inequality: Physical Environment
• Physical environment
can include natural
resources, raw
materials and
climate
• Not only availability
of natural resources
but accessibility and
ease with which they
can be exploited
It is not enough to have natural resources available,
there has to be sufficient capital equipment to be able
to exploit them.
Title: California oil is a source of wealth and fear. Copyright: Getty
Images, available from Education Image Gallery.
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Inequality: Physical Environment
• Natural climatic factors
are at the heart of a
large amount of
inequality – it is not
coincidence that
countries with an
equitable climate are the
most economically
developed
• Natural climate and
climate change tend to
affect those countries
least able to help
themselves
Extremes of weather tend to impact most
heavily on countries who have the lowest
ability to cope with such extremes.
Title: Three year drought dries up Pakistan lake.
Copyright: Getty Images, available from Education
Image Gallery
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Assets
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Inequality: Assets
• Not just the quantity but also the
quality of assets can impact on
inequality
• Individuals – ownership of houses,
cars, consumer goods, etc.
• Countries
– Access to raw materials, natural resources,
infrastructure – roads, rail
telecommunications, etc.
– Amount and quality of capital assets
– Amount and quality of human assets
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Gender
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Inequality: Gender
• Evidence suggests
women still paid less
than men for the same
job
• Some countries actively
discriminate against
women
• Men still dominate
positions of power and
responsibility
• ‘Glass ceiling’ – limits the
extent to which women
can make it to the top
An Afghan woman operates a paving machine on a
road that is to be re-surfaced in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Women working was outlawed during the rule of the
Taliban but have now become more common since
the demise of the regime.
Title: An Afghan woman operates heavy machinery. Copyright:
Getty Images, available from Education Image Gallery
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Wealth
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Inequality: Wealth
• Differences in wealth –
different to that of
income
• Income = flow
• Wealth = stock
• Wealth = houses, land,
physical assets such as
cultural items – artwork,
sculptures, etc.
• Inherited wealth still a
source of inequality
The trappings of inherited wealth still serve as a
source to generate inequality.
Title: Cartier Polo. Copyright: Getty Images, available from
Education Image Gallery
http://www.bized.co.uk
Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
Inequality: Wealth
Share of the wealth: 1% of the population owns 23% of the wealth.
Source: Office for National Statistics (http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=2). (Crown copyright material is reproduced
with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.)

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economic inequality in India to consider.ppt

  • 4. http://www.bized.co.uk Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Inequality: Incomes • Vertical Inequality – Difference between the rich and the poor • Horizontal Inequality – Where people of similar background, status, qualifications, etc. have differences in incomes
  • 5. http://www.bized.co.uk Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Inequality: Incomes • Caused by: • The Labour Market: – Differences in education, qualifications, skills, abilities and experience mean that the supply of labour differs in relation to the demand • The Tax System: – Impact of taxes that may be regressive in their effect – Ability of some to be able to exploit the system to pay less tax • Education: – Level of education and access to education influences the level of earnings
  • 7. http://www.bized.co.uk Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Inequality: Opportunity • The level of opportunity may influence the level of inequality • Access – How easy is it for individuals to access education, work, housing, etc? – How easy is it for countries to access markets? • Discrimination – on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender, etc.
  • 8. http://www.bized.co.uk Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Physical Environment
  • 9. http://www.bized.co.uk Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Inequality: Physical Environment • Physical environment can include natural resources, raw materials and climate • Not only availability of natural resources but accessibility and ease with which they can be exploited It is not enough to have natural resources available, there has to be sufficient capital equipment to be able to exploit them. Title: California oil is a source of wealth and fear. Copyright: Getty Images, available from Education Image Gallery.
  • 10. http://www.bized.co.uk Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Inequality: Physical Environment • Natural climatic factors are at the heart of a large amount of inequality – it is not coincidence that countries with an equitable climate are the most economically developed • Natural climate and climate change tend to affect those countries least able to help themselves Extremes of weather tend to impact most heavily on countries who have the lowest ability to cope with such extremes. Title: Three year drought dries up Pakistan lake. Copyright: Getty Images, available from Education Image Gallery
  • 12. http://www.bized.co.uk Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Inequality: Assets • Not just the quantity but also the quality of assets can impact on inequality • Individuals – ownership of houses, cars, consumer goods, etc. • Countries – Access to raw materials, natural resources, infrastructure – roads, rail telecommunications, etc. – Amount and quality of capital assets – Amount and quality of human assets
  • 14. http://www.bized.co.uk Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Inequality: Gender • Evidence suggests women still paid less than men for the same job • Some countries actively discriminate against women • Men still dominate positions of power and responsibility • ‘Glass ceiling’ – limits the extent to which women can make it to the top An Afghan woman operates a paving machine on a road that is to be re-surfaced in Kabul, Afghanistan. Women working was outlawed during the rule of the Taliban but have now become more common since the demise of the regime. Title: An Afghan woman operates heavy machinery. Copyright: Getty Images, available from Education Image Gallery
  • 16. http://www.bized.co.uk Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Inequality: Wealth • Differences in wealth – different to that of income • Income = flow • Wealth = stock • Wealth = houses, land, physical assets such as cultural items – artwork, sculptures, etc. • Inherited wealth still a source of inequality The trappings of inherited wealth still serve as a source to generate inequality. Title: Cartier Polo. Copyright: Getty Images, available from Education Image Gallery
  • 17. http://www.bized.co.uk Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Inequality: Wealth Share of the wealth: 1% of the population owns 23% of the wealth. Source: Office for National Statistics (http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=2). (Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.)